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Mary (Mamie) Dickens

Mary (Mamie) Dickens

Mary (Mamie) Dickens, Charles Dickensi ja Catherine Hogarth Dickensi tütar, sündis 6. märtsil 1838. Nende esimene laps, Charles Culliford Dickens, sündis 1837. aastal. Ta sai nime surnud tädi Mary Hogarthi järgi. Catherine ei saanud oma tütart rinnaga toita ja pidi tööle võtma märja õe.

Tema ristiisaks sai Dickensi parim sõber John Forster. Varsti pärast seda ütles ta Forsterile, et hakkab Catherine'i armastusest välja langema ja paar ei sobi kokku. Vaatamata sellele kommentaarile kirjutas ta 5. märtsil 1839 Devonis puhkusel viibides Catherine'ile: "Öelda, kui väga ma sind igatsen, oleks naeruväärne. Ma igatsen ka lapsi hommikul ja nende kalleid väikeseid hääli, mille jaoks mul kõlab sina ja mina, et me ei unustaks kunagi. "

1839. aasta detsembris kolis perekond Dickens 48 Doughty Streetilt aadressile 1 Devonshire Terrace, York Gate, Regent's Parki lähedale. Dickens maksis üheteistkümneaastase rendilepingu eest 800 naela, lisaks iga-aastasele üürile 160 naela. Majas oli üle tosina toa, sealhulgas raamatukogu, söögituba ja elutuba, mitu magamistuba ja kaks lasteaeda Mamiele ja tema nooremale õele Kate Dickensile. Neljas laps Walter Landor sündis 8. veebruaril 1841.

Hiljem meenutas Mamie: "Mäletan, et olime õega hõivanud väikese garderoobi Devonshire Terrace'is, maja ülaosas. Ta oli võtnud kõige suurema vaeva ja hoolitsenud selle eest, et tuba oleks oma kahe väikese tütre jaoks ilus ja mugav. Teda tiriti sageli järsust trepist üles sellesse ruumi, et näha mõnda uut trükist või uut kaunistust, mille meie, lapsed, üles panime, ning ta andis meile alati kiidusõnu ja heakskiitu. Ta julgustas meid igal võimalikul viisil kuidas end kasulikuks muuta ning oma kätega oma ruume kaunistada ja kaunistada ning alati korras ja korras olla. Mäletan, et selle aiakujundus oli otsustavalt primitiivne, raamimata trükised kinnitati seinale tavalise musta või valged nööpnõelad, olenemata sellest, mis me saaksime. Kuid pole hullu, kui need oleksid korralikult ja korralikult üles pandud, oleksid nad alati suurepäranevõi üsna lahmakas nagu ta tavatses öelda. Isegi neil esimestel aegadel oli tal plaan külastada maja iga tuba üks kord igal hommikul ja kui tool oli paigast ära või pime ei olnud päris sirge või põrandale jäi puru, häda kurjategijale . "

Charles Dickens oli Ameerikas äärmiselt populaarne. The New York Herald Tribune selgitas, miks talle meeldis: "Tema meel on ameerikalik - hing on vabariiklik - süda on demokraatlik." Tema väljaandjad Chapman ja Hall pakkusid abi reisi rahastamiseks. Lepiti kokku, et nad maksavad talle 150 naela kuus ja kui ta tagasi tuleb, avaldavad nad visiidil raamatu, Ameerika märkmed. Algul keeldus Catherine koos abikaasaga Ameerikasse minemast. Dickens ütles oma kirjastajale William Hallile: "Ma ei saa veenda proua Dickensit minema ja lapsed koju jätma; või laske mul üksi minna." Autori Lillian Nayderi sõnul Teised Dickensid: Catherine Hogarthi elu (2011), veenis nende sõber, näitleja William Macready, "et ta võlgneb oma esimese kohustuse oma mehe ees ja et ta võib ja peab lapsed maha jätma". Dickens ja Catherine lahkusid The Britannial Liverpoolist 4. jaanuaril 1842. Mamie oli siis vaid 3 -aastane.

Mamie ja Kate õpetasid mõlemad lugema oma tädi Georginia Hogarth, kes elas nüüd perega. Hiljem oli neil guvernant, samas kui Charles Culliford Dickens saadeti Etoni kolledžisse. Mamie meenutas, et tema isa kontrollis igal hommikul maja kõiki ruume, kontrollides nende korrastatust ja puhtust.

Tema raamatus, Charles Dickens oma vanima tütre poolt (1984) andis Mamie põneva ülevaate oma isa tööharjumustest: "Nagu ma olen öelnud, oli ta tavaliselt tööl olles üksi, kuigi muidugi oli aeg -ajalt erandeid ja mina ise tegin sellise erandi ... . Mul oli pikk ja raske haigus, peaaegu terve taastumisperiood. Viimase ajal soovitas isa, et mind tuleks iga päev tema kabinetti viia, et tema juurde jääda, ja kuigi ma kartsin teda häirida, kinnitas ta mulle meeldis, et ta soovis mind enda juurde. Ühel neist hommikutest lamasin ma diivanil, püüdes olla täiesti vait, samal ajal kui isa kirjutas kiirelt ja kiiresti oma laua taha, kui ta järsku toolilt hüppas ja tormas peegel, mis rippus läheduses ja milles ma nägin peegeldust mõnede erakordsete näonahade osas, mida ta tegi. Ta naasis kiiresti oma laua taha, kirjutas mõne hetke raevukalt ja läks siis uuesti peegli juurde. Näopantomiim jätkus ja pöörates siis poole, aga ilmselt ei näinud mind, ta hakkas kiiresti tasasel häälel rääkima. Kuid lõpetades selle peagi, naasis ta veel kord oma laua juurde, kus ta jäi vaikides kirjutama kuni lõunasöögi ajani. See oli minu jaoks kõige uudishimulikum kogemus ja üks neist, mida ma alles hilisematel aastatel tajusin, ei mõistnud seda täielikult. Siis ma teadsin, et oma loomuliku intensiivsusega oli ta end täielikult loonud tegelaskuju sisse, ja et ta ei olnud esialgu mitte ainult oma ümbrust silmist kaotanud, vaid oli tegelikult ka olendis teoks saanud. tema sulest. "

1855. aastal viis Charles Dickens oma kaks tütart Pariisi. Ta ütles oma sõbrale Angela Burdett Couttsile, et tema kavatsus on anda Mamiele praegu seitsmeteistkümneaastaseks ja Kate'ile, kes on vaid kuusteist, "natuke Pariisi laki". Prantsusmaal viibides olid neil tantsutunnid, kunstitunnid ja keeleõpe. Samuti oli neil itaalia keele tunde pagendatud patrioodilt Daniele Maninilt.

1856. aastal kirjutas tema isa sõber Wilkie Collins Külmutatud sügav. Näidendi inspiratsioon pärineb 1845. aasta kontradmiral John Franklini juhitud ekspeditsioonilt Loodevärava leidmiseks. Charles Dickens aitas Collinsit näidendi kirjutamisel ja pakkus, et korraldab selle esimese lavastuse oma kodus Tavistocki majas. Dickens tahtis mängida ka kangelase Richard Wardour'i rolli, kes pärast armukadeduse ja mõrvarlike impulsside vastu võitlemist ohverdab oma elu, et päästa oma armunud rivaal.

Selle rolli eest habeme kasvatanud Dickens andis osad ka kolmele oma lapsele, Mamiele, Kate Dickensile, Charles Culliford Dickensile ja tema õele Georgina Hogarthile. Hiljem meenutas Dickens, et etenduses osalemine oli "nagu seltskonnas raamatu kirjutamine ... kõige ainulaadsema rahulolu, millel polnud minu elus täpset paralleeli". Dickens kutsus teatrikriitiku kohale Ajad osaleda esimeses lavastuses 6. jaanuaril 1857 ümberehitatud koolitoas. Ta oli väga muljet avaldanud ja kiitis Kate'i "põneva lihtsuse", Mamie "dramaatilise instinkti" ja Georgina "rafineeritud elujõu" eest.

Näidendi staar oli Charles Dickens, kes näitas, et tal oleks võinud olla professionaalse näitleja karjäär. Üks kriitik John Oxenford ütles, et "tema pöördumine publiku kujutlusvõime poole, mis andis edasi Wardour'i keeruka ja võimsa siseelu tunde, viitab mõne tugeva irratsionaalse jõu toetamisele". William Makepeace Thackeray, kes nägi ka lavastust, märkis: "Kui see mees (Dickens) lavale astuks, teeniks ta 20 000 naela aastas."

Ajutine teater mahutas maksimaalselt publikut kakskümmend viis, anti neli etendust. 4. juulil anti ka kuninganna Victoriale ja tema perele sama juhtkonnaga erakorraline etendus ning Londonis tehti kolm avaliku kasu etendust, et koguda raha Dickensi sõbra lesele Douglas Jerroldile.

1858. aasta mais sai Catherine Dickens kogemata Ellen Ternanile mõeldud käevõru. Tema tütar Kate Dickens ütleb, et tema ema oli juhtumist häiritud. Charles Dickens vastas kohtumisel oma advokaatidega. Kuu lõpuks pidas ta läbirääkimisi kokkuleppe üle, kus Catherine'il peaks olema 400 naela aastas ja vanker ning lapsed elavad Dickensi juures. Hiljem nõudsid lapsed, et nad olid sunnitud elama oma isa juures.

Charles Culliford Dickens keeldus ja otsustas, et elab koos emaga. Ta ütles oma isale kirjas: "Ära arva, et minu valikut tehes mõjutas mind igasugune tunne, et ma eelistan sulle oma ema. Jumal teab, et ma armastan sind väga, ja see on minu jaoks raske päev Ma pean sinust ja tüdrukutest lahku minema. Kuid tehes nii, nagu olen teinud, loodan, et täidan oma kohust ja et te mõistate seda. "

Asula allakirjutamisel leidis Catherine Hogarth Dickens koos pojaga ajutise majutuse Brightonis. Samal aastal kolis ta Regent's Parki lähedal asuvasse majja Gloucester Crescentis. Dickens sai automaatselt õiguse oma naiselt ära võtta 9 last (vanem poeg, kes oli üle 21 -aastane, võis vabalt ema juurde jääda). 1857. aasta abieluasjade seaduse kohaselt võis Catherine Dickens hoida lapsi, keda ta pidi süüdistama abielurikkumises, samuti kahevahelisuses, verepilastuses, sodomias või julmuses.

Charles Dickens kolis nüüd tagasi Tavistocki majja koos Mamie, Georgina Hogarthi, Kate Dickensi, Walter Landor Dickensi, Henry Fielding Dickensi, Francis Jeffrey Dickensi, Alfred D'Orsay Tennysoni, Sydney Smith Haldimandi ja Edward Bulwer Lytton Dickensiga. Mamie ja Georgina pandi teenistujate ja majapidamise juhtkonna kätte.

Juunis 1858 otsustas Dickens avaldada ajakirjandusele avalduse kuulujuttude kohta, mis puudutasid teda ja kahte nimetut naist (Nellie Ternan ja Georgina Hogarth): "Mõnel juhul, mis tuleneb kurjusest, rumalusest või mõeldamatust. metsik juhus või kõigist kolmest on see häda põhjustanud eksitusi, enamasti väga valesid, koletuid ja julmemaid - hõlmates mitte ainult mind, vaid ka minu südamele kalleid süütuid isikuid ... ma kuulutan pühalikult, siis - ja seda ma teen nii enda kui ka oma naise nimel -, et kõik viimasel ajal sosistatud kuulujutud, mis puudutavad seda häda, millele olen pilgu heitnud, on jäledalt valed. Ja igaüks, kes kordab ühte neist pärast seda eitamist, valetab tahtlikult ja nii rumalalt, kui on võimalik valetunnistajatel valetada taeva ja maa ees. "

Avaldus avaldati aastal Ajad ja Majapidamissõnad. Kuid, Punch Magazine, mille toimetas tema suur sõber Mark Lemon, keeldus, lõpetades nende pika sõpruse. William Makepeace Thackeray asus samuti Catherine Dickensi poolele ja samuti keelati ta majast. Dickens oli nii ärritunud, et nõudis, et tema tütred Mamie Dickens ja Kate Dickens lõpetasid nende sõpruse Lemoni ja Thackeray lastega.

Lucinda Hawksley, raamatu autor Katey: Dickensi kunstnikutütre elu ja armastus (2006) on väitnud: "Katey ja Mamie jaoks pidi teadmine, et nende isa on seksuaalselt ahvatlenud omaealise tüdruku vastu, olema täiesti vastik. Lapsed ei mõtle kunagi hea meelega oma vanemate seksuaalelule ja 19. sajandil , seks oli teema, mida põlvkondade vahel harva arutati .... Veidi rohkem kui viieteistkümne aasta jooksul oli Catherine sünnitanud kümme last ja saanud vähemalt kaks nurisünnitust. Pole ime, et tal polnud energiat lastevaba noorem õde; ega ka see, et ta kaotas saleda figuuri, mis tal oli, kui Charles temaga abiellus. Abielu lõpupoole oli ta teinud tihti julmi nalju tema suuruse ja rumaluse üle, kiites samal ajal Georginat tema abimehe ja päästjana. ja Mamie - kahtlemata naissoost - oleks kahtlemata kripeldanud selle üle, kuidas nende isa emast rääkis ja kuidas ta ei teinud saladust, et eelistab oma õe, Elleni ja selles osas peaaegu kõigi teiste seltskonda ahvatlev naine. "

Dickens lootis, et Mamie abiellub ja saab lapsi. Aastal 1867 kirjutas ta oma sõbrale, et ta pole "veel alustanud abielu teel liikumist". Kuid ta julges uskuda, et naine võib seda siiski teha, "kuna ta on väga meeldiv ja intelligentne". Ta tegi ettepaneku, et Percy Fitzgeraldist saaks hea abikaasa, kuid Dickens kurtis lõpuks: "Ma olen tõsiselt pettunud, et Maarja ei saa mingil juhul sundida teda nii kõrgelt mõtlema kui mina".

Charles Dickens suri 8. juunil 1870. Traditsioonilise versiooni tema surmast andis tema ametlik biograaf John Forster. Ta väitis, et Dickens õhtustas koos Georgina Hogarthiga Gad's Hill Place'is, kui ta põrandale kukkus: "Ta püüdis siis teda diivanile tõsta, kuid pärast kerget võitlust vajus ta tugevalt vasakule küljele ... See oli nüüd veidi üle kümne minuti pärast kella kuut. Sel õhtul tulid tema kaks tütart koos härra Frank Beardiga, kelle eest oli samuti telegraafitud ja kellega nad jaamas kohtusid. Tema vanim poeg saabus järgmisel varahommikul ja temaga ühines õhtul (liiga hilja) tema noorim poeg Cambridge'ist. Kõik võimalik meditsiiniline abi oli kutsutud. Naabruskonna kirurg (Stephen Steele) oli kohal esimesest peale ja kohal oli ka arst Londonist (Russell Reynolds) samuti härra habemega. Aga inimeste abi oli kasutu. Ajus oli efusioon. "

John Everett Millais kutsuti Dickensi surnud näo joonistama. 16. juunil kirjutas Kate Dickens Millaisele: "Charlie - tõi just teie joonistuse alla. On üsna võimatu kirjeldada selle mõju meile avaldunud. Ma arvan, et keegi peale teie ise poleks võinud ilust nii hästi aru saada tema kalli näo paatos, kui see lebas söögitoas sellel väikesel voodil, ja keegi teine ​​peale geeniuselt heleda mehe ei oleks suutnud seda nägu nii reprodutseerida, et tekitaks meil praegu seda vaadates tunde, et ta on endiselt meiega majas. Aitäh, kallis härra Millais, et selle mulle andsite. Maailmas pole midagi, mis mul oleks või võiks kunagi olla, mida ma poole vähem väärtustaksin. Ma arvan, et teate seda kuigi ma leian nii vähe sõnu, et öelda teile, kui tänulik ma olen. "

Dickensi viimane testament, 12. mai 1869, avaldati 22. juulil. Nagu Michael Slater on kommenteerinud: "Nagu Dickensi romaanidel, on ka tema viimasel testamendil tähelepanu äratav ava, kuna see viitas tema armukesele Ellen Ternanile:" Ma annan preili Ellen Lawless Ternanile 1000 naela pärandkohustuseta. Houghton Place, Ampthill Square, Middlesexi maakonnas. "Dickens jätkas:" Ma annan oma tütrele Mary Dickensile päranditollimaksuta 1000 naela. Samuti annan oma tütrele annuiteedi 300 naela aastas tema elu jooksul, kui ta nii kaua vallalisena jätkab; sellist annuiteeti loetakse kogunevaks iga päev, kuid seda tuleb maksta poole aasta jooksul, esimene neist poolaasta maksetest tuleb teha pärast minu surma kuus kuud. "

Pärast Charles Dickensi surma rajasid Mamie ja Georgina Hogarth koos maja. Mamie kirjutas: "Minu armastust oma isa vastu pole kunagi puudutanud ega käsitlenud ükski teine ​​armastus. Ma hoian teda oma südames kui mees, kes on kõigist teistest meestest lahus, nagu üks kõigist teistest olenditest." Sydney Smith Dickensi traagilisel surmal 1872. aastal taastas Mamie oma emaga kontakti.

Catherine Hogarth Dickens põdes vähki ja surivoodil kinkis ta oma abikaasalt saadetud kirjad tütrele Kate Dickens Peruginile: "Andke need Briti muuseumile, et maailm teaks, et ta mind kunagi armastas". Ta suri 22. novembril 1879 ja on maetud Londonis Highgate'i kalmistule. Oma testamendis pärandas ta Georgina "minu ussirõnga". Autor Lucinda Hawksley Katey: Dickensi kunstnikutütre elu ja armastus (2006): "Võib -olla oli see ese, mida ta teadis, et Georgina imetles; teisest küljest on alust arvata, et madu embleem oli Catherine'i terav kommentaar selle kohta, kuidas ta oma nooremat õde vaatas."

Pärast Catherine'i surma asus Georgina Hogarth koos Mamie abiga tööle Dickensi kirjade valitud väljaande kallal. Aastal 1879 hävitas ta palju perekirju, mida ta otsustas mitte lisada. Esimesed kaks köidet ilmusid 1880. aastal, järgnes kolmas 1882. aastal. Georgina kirjutas, et kaasamiseks valitud kirjad olid "kahetsusväärselt lõigatud ja tihendatud" ning era- ja isiklikke asju puudutavad kirjad jäeti välja ja hävitati sageli.

Georgina pidas Mamiega koos elamist keeruliseks, kurtes, et ta joob liiga palju. 1880ndate lõpus veenis ta Mamiet kolima Manchesterisse, kus ta elas koos vaimuliku ja tema abikaasaga. Georgina kirjutas Edward Bulwer Dickensi naisele: "Härra Hargreaves on igas mõttes vääritu inimene - ja minu jaoks oli alati hämmastav, et ta suudab seda tugevat tunnet ja lugupidamist ning kiindumust tema vastu elu lõpuni hoida Proua Hargreaves on oma pika haiguse ajal Mamiele truuks jäänud ja pühendunud. "

Charles Culliford Dickens suri 20. juulil 1896. aastal 59 -aastasena leukeemiasse. Mamie Dickens suri kolm päeva hiljem Buckinghamshire'is Farnham Royalis ja on maetud Sevenoaksis oma õe Kate Dickens Perugini kõrvale.

Kui mu isa oli tööl peaaegu alati üksi, nii et harvaesinevate eranditega, välja arvatud juhul, kui nägime tema tegelaste seikluste mõju tema igapäevasele meeleolule, teadsime me tema töölaadist vähe. Nendes tingimustes oli absoluutne vaikus hädavajalik, vähimgi heli tegi saatuslikuks tema töö edule, ehkki kummalisel kombel tundus tema vabal ajal suure linna sagimine ja müra talle vajalik. Ta kirjutab pärast kaheaastast sunnitud jõudeolekut vaikses kohas; "Raskused, mida ma nimetan kiireks tempoks, on imelised; tõepoolest, see on peaaegu võimatu. Ma arvan, et see on osaliselt kahe aasta kerguse ja osaliselt tänavate puudumise ja arvude tagajärg. Ma ei saa väljendage, kui palju ma neid tahan. Tundub, et nad andsid mu ajule midagi, mida hõivatud ajal ei kannata kaotada. Nädal või kaks nädalat võin kirjutada hämmastavalt pensionil olevas kohas, päeva Londonis ja alustada mind aga vaeva ja vaeva kirjutada päevast päeva ilma selle võlulaternata on tohutu! "

Nagu ma olen öelnud, oli ta tavaliselt tööl olles üksi, kuigi muidugi oli aeg -ajalt erandeid ja mina ise tegin sellise erandi. Meie elu jooksul Tavistocki majas oli mul pikk ja raske haigus, peaaegu sama pika paranemisega. Siis ma teadsin, et oma loomuliku intensiivsusega oli ta end täielikult loonud tegelaskuju sisse, ja et ta ei olnud esialgu mitte ainult oma ümbrust silmist kaotanud, vaid oli tegelikult ka olendis teoks saanud. tema sulest.

Tema hoolivus ja läbimõeldus koduasjade suhtes, mida ei peetud liiga väikeseks või tühiseks, et tema tähelepanu ja kaalutlust nõuda, oli tõesti imeline, kui meenutame tema aktiivset, innukat, rahutut ja töötavat aju. Ükski mees ei kaldunud nii loomulikult oma õnne siseasjadest ammutama. Ta oli täis sellist huvi maja vastu, mis tavaliselt piirdub naistega, ning tema hoolitsus meie ja meie kui väikeste laste eest kindlasti „möödus naiste armastusest!“ Tema oli hell ja kõige südamlikum.

Paljudel järjestikustel suvedel viidi meid Broadstairsi. See väike koht sai mu isaga suureks lemmikuks. Ta oli seal alati väga õnnelik ja rõõmustas oma maja aias ringi rännates, tavaliselt ühe või teise lapse saatel. Hilisematel aastatel oli tal Boulogne'is sageli kõrval noorim poiss "The Noble Plorn". Need kaks olid neil päevil pidevad kaaslased ja pärast neid jalutuskäike oli mu isal alati mõni naljakas anekdoot meile rääkida. Ja kui aastaid hiljem saabus aeg, mil tema südame poiss pidi maailma minema, kirjutas mu isa pärast teda mahalaskmist: "Vaene Plorn on Austraaliasse läinud. Lõpuks oli raske lahkuminek. Ta tundus olevat minust saab päeva saabudes taas minu noorim ja lemmiklaps ning ma ei uskunud, et oleksin võinud nii raputada. Need on rasked ja rasked asjad, kuid neid tuleb võib -olla teha ilma vahendite ja mõjuta ning siis ole palju raskem. Jumal õnnistagu teda! "

Mäletan, et olime õega hõivanud väikese garderoobi Devonshire Terrace'is, maja ülaosas. Kuid ärge unustage, et kui need oleksid kenasti ja korrektselt üles pandud, oleksid nad alati "suurepärased" või "üsna lahmivad", nagu ta varem ütles. Isegi neil esimestel aegadel oli tal plaan külastada maja iga tuba üks kord igal hommikul ja kui tool oli paigast ära või pime ei olnud päris sirge või põrandale jäi puru, häda kurjategijale .

Kirjanikukarjääri alguses kannatas ta mu ema õe Mary Hogarthi surma pärast - väga äkksurmas. Ta oli väga võluv ja armastusväärne, samuti isiklikult väga ilus. Varsti pärast minu vanemate abiellumist oli tädi Mary pidevalt nendega. Tema olemuse arenedes sai temast minu isa ideaal, milline noor tüdruk peaks olema. Ja tema enda sõnad näitavad, kuidas see suur kiindumus ja tüdruku armastatud mälu mõju oli temaga elu lõpuni.

Jõulud olid alati aeg, mida meie kodus oodati innukalt ja rõõmuga, ja minu isa jaoks oli see aeg kallim kui mis tahes muu aastaosa. Ta armastas jõule nii selle sügava tähtsuse kui ka rõõmude pärast ning seda näitab ta oma kirjutistes kõikidele vihjetele suurele festivalile - päevale, mis tema arvates peaks olema lõhnav armastusest, mida me peaksime üksteisele kandma. oma Päästja ja Õpetaja armastus ja austus. Isegi tema kõige lõbusamates jõulupiltides on alati peeneid ja õrnaid puudutusi, mis toovad pisarad silma ja panevad isegi mõtlematud selle erilise austuse selle õnnistatud aastapäeva puhul.

Lapsepõlves viis mu isa meid igal detsembri kahekümne neljandal päeval Holborni mänguasjapoodi, kus meil lubati valida oma jõulukingid ja ka kõik, mida soovisime oma väikestele kaaslastele kinkida. Kuigi ma usun, et olime poes sageli tund või rohkem, enne kui meie mitmed maitsed olid rahuldatud, ei näidanud ta kunagi vähimatki kannatamatust, oli alati huvitatud ja sama sooviv kui meie, et me peaksime valima täpselt selle, mis meile kõige rohkem meeldib. Vanemaks saades piirdus kinkimine meie mitme sünnipäevaga ja see iga -aastane külastus Holborni mänguasjapoodi lõppes.

Kõndimine oli ehk tema suurim rõõm ning nii maanteed kui ka linnatänavad leidsid ta oma ilu ja huvide lähedase vaatleja. Ta oli kiire kõndija, tema tavaline tempo oli neli miili tunnis, ja temaga sammu pidamiseks oli vaja energiat ja aktiivsust, mis sarnanes tema omaga. Paljudes oma kirjades räägib ta sellest ajaviitest kõige ilmsemalt.

Isa isa avalikud ettelugemised olid palju aastaid tema elu oluline osa ning nende esinemises ja ettevalmistuses viskas ta oma südame ja hinge parimat energiat, harjutades ja proovides igal ajal ja kõikjal. Meie kodu lähedal asuv heinamaa oli lemmikkoht ja inimesed, kes läbisid sõidurada, teadmata, kes ta on või mida teeb, pidasid teda oma etlemisest ja liigutamisest hulluks. Nende lugemiste suur edu tõi kaasa palju ahvatlevaid pakkumisi Ameerika Ühendriikidest, mis aja möödudes mõistsime, kui palju väsitas lugemine koos teiste töödega tema jõudu, ja me olime tema kaalutlusele tõsiselt vastu.

Umbes 1865. aastal hakkas mu kalli isa tervis järele andma, omapärane jala kiindumus, mis põhjustas talle sageli suurimaid piinu ja kannatusi. Selle tegelikku põhjust - ületöötamist - ei kahtlustanud ei tema arstid ega ka tema ise, tema elujõud tundus midagi, mis ei saanud kuluda; kuigi ta oli nii aktiivne ja täis energiat, ei olnud ta kunagi tõeliselt tugev ja leidis peagi, et peab tõelise puhkuse nimel rohkem tegutsema. Ta kirjutas mulle sellest ajast Prantsusmaalt: "Enne kui ma ära läksin, olin ma ennast kindlasti kahjustanud. Aga sel hetkel, kui ma minema sain, hakkasin ma tänama Jumalat, et saada terveks. Loodan sellest kogemusest kasu saada ja tehke oma laualt tulevased kriipsud enne, kui neid vajan. "

Tahaksin parandada enda viga. Minust on räägitud kui isa "lemmiktütrest". Kui tal oleks lemmik tütar - ja ma loodan ja usun, et üks oli talle sama kallis kui teine ​​-, peab mu kallis õde seda au nõudma. Ma ütlen seda ebameeldivalt, sest nende kahe viimase aasta jooksul näis mu isa ja mina olevat tihedamalt ühendatud ning ma tean, kui sügav oli tema surmahetkel kiinduv lähedus.

Terve öö vaatasime teda - mu õde ühel pool diivanit, tädi teisel pool ja mina hoian jalgadel tuliseid telliseid, mida miski soojendada ei saa, lootes ja palvetades, et ta võiks silmad avada ja meid vaadata, ja tunneb meid veel kord. Kuid ta ei liikunud kunagi, ei avanud silmi ega näidanud kunagi kogu pika öö jooksul teadvuse märki. Üheksanda päeva pärastlõunal kutsusid kuulsad Londoni arstid dr Russell Reynoldsi kaks kohalviibivat arstimeest konsultatsioonile, kuid ta sai vaid kinnitada nende lootusetut otsust. Hiljem, selle päeva õhtul, kell kümme minutit üle kuue, nägime, kuidas meie kallis isa üle värises, ta ohkas sügavalt, suur pisara veeres ta näost alla ja sel hetkel lahkus tema vaim meie seast. Kui me nägime tumedat varju tema näolt möödumas, jättes selle nii rahumeelseks ja ilusaks surma rahus ja suursugususes, siis arvan, et keegi meist poleks soovinud, kas meil oleks võimu olnud, et meenutada tema vaimu maa.

Katey ja Mamie jaoks pidi teadmine, et nende isa on seksuaalselt ahvatlenud omaealise tüdruku vastu, pidanud olema täiesti vastik. Lapsed ei mõtle kunagi hea meelega oma vanemate seksuaalelule ja üheksateistkümnendal sajandil räägiti seksist põlvkondade vahel harva. Ka nende ema alandamist oleks Katey jaoks olnud üha raskem taluda. Nii Katey kui ka Mamie oleksid naissoost olemise tõttu kahtlemata kurvastanud, kuidas isa nende emast rääkis ja kuidas ta ei varjanud, et eelistab oma õe, Elleni ja selles osas peaaegu kõigi teiste seltskonda atraktiivne noor naine.

Oma kalli tädi Georgina Hogarthi kohta tahan öelda järgmist: ta oli üks teie kallimaid sõpru, kes mul kunagi olnud on, ja kuni tema surmani oli alati võimalikult lähedane suhe minu naise ja lastega. Algselt sai temast Gadsi mäe majapidamise liige, vahetult pärast seda, kui mu isa naasis esimeselt visiidilt Ameerikasse, ja jäi sinna kuni oma surmani. Pärast seda võtsime tema, mina ja mu kallis õde Mamie koos maja ja pärast abiellumist elas ta veel mõned aastad minu õe juures, kuni viimane läks maale elama, pärast mida elas tädi meie lähedal. Tuntud märkmikus, mille isa alustas jaanuaris 1855, kus ta esmakordselt elus tegi märkmeid mõtetest, et need oleksid tulevastes kirjutistes kättesaadavad, on kavandatava tegelase ligikaudne ja mõnevõrra lõhestamata kirjeldus , millest suurem osa oli tema jaoks eriliselt kohaldatav: "Ta ohverdas lastele - ja sai piisavalt tasu. Alates" lapsest endast alati (kellegi teise) lapsed ", et teda haarata - ja nii juhtub, et ta pole kunagi "abielus-tal pole kunagi last; on alati pühendunud "kellegi teise lastele - ja nad armastavad teda;" ja ta on alati sõltuv noorusest kuni "surmani" ja sureb üsna õnnelikult.

Minu armastus Mamie vastu, nagu te teate, oli kõige tõesem ja õrnem - nii oli ka tema õe ja Harry oma -, aga kaotus - meie elust - ei ole nii suur, kui see oleks olnud aastaid tagasi - sest sellest on tükk aega möödas olla minu kaaslane. Ta polnud Londonis elanud ligi 18 aastat. Ta oli alati väga armastatud, kui ta meid vaatama tuli - ja jäi meiega erilistel puhkudel. Kuid ta oli loobunud kogu perest ja sõpradest nende inimeste pärast, kelle ta oli enda juurde võtnud - härra Hargreaves on igati vääritu inimene - ja minu jaoks oli alati hämmastav, et ta suudab seda tugevat tunnet ja austust säilitada ja kiindumust tema vastu elu lõpuni. Proua Hargreaves on oma pika haiguse ajal Mamiele truuks jäänud ja pühendunud - ja me olime Kittyga talle väga tänulikud - ma ei tea, mida me oleksime saanud lõpuks ilma tema abita teha - olime tänulikud kallis Mamie kõik meie endile - kui härra ja proua Hargreaves enne surma ära läksid - olime Kittyga juba mõnda aega tema lähedal - ja lõpuks olime alati tema toas - ma ei tea - ja ma ei tee seda hooli! mis on saanud härra Hargreavesist - ma ei taha enam kunagi temaga kohtuda - ja ma loodan ja palvetan, et ma teda elusana ei näe! Ta vaene naine on elanud pärast Mamie surma koos mõne sõbraga maal ja tal on kaks õde, kes on temaga väga head - ta püüab nüüd saada juhuteenust majahoidja või kaaslaseks ja kui Kitty või mina saame teda aidata või soovitada tal on selleks liiga hea meel - tal on olnud kurb elu - ja saab palju paremini hakkama ilma oma vastiku abikaasata.


Mamie Dickens

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Mamie Eisenhower

Mamie Eisenhower (1896–1979) oli Ameerika esimene leedi (1953–61) ning kuulsa USA armeeülema ja USA 34. presidendi Dwight D. Eisenhoweri naine. Ike sõjaväekarjäär hoidis paari pidevalt liikvel- tegelikult ei ostaks nad isegi oma esimest kodu enne, kui nende abielu on kestnud üle 30 aasta. Aastakümneid kestnud meelelahutus kõrgeimal sõjalisel ja poliitilisel tasemel jättis Mamie presidendiprouaks saades heasse asendisse ning sai tuntuks kui armuline ja osav Valge Maja perenaine. Though outwardly social, she closely guarded her privacy and was reluctant to take a public stance on most issues. The Eisenhowers faced a series of medical challenges while in the White House, which led Mamie to closely monitor and care for Ike during his recoveries.

Mary Geneva “Mamie” Doud spent her early years in Iowa before the family settled in Denver, Colorado, in 1905. The second daughter of a highly successful meatpacking executive, Mamie enjoyed a privileged childhood that exposed her to the luxuries of traveling, fine clothes and jewelry. An average student, she nonetheless was a bright child who displayed an ear for the piano and keen social instincts. Mamie also absorbed financial lessons from her father and the basics of hosting through her parents’ frequent parties, skills that later served her well as first lady.

After the Douds purchased a winter home in San Antonio, Texas, Mamie met her future husband at Fort Sam Houston in October 1915. A second lieutenant who was on duty as officer of the day, Eisenhower recalled Mamie as “saucy in the look about her face and in her whole attitude,” and invited her to join him on his appointed rounds. Following a swift courtship, Ike presented her with a copy of his West Point class ring to mark their engagement on Valentine’s Day 1916. They originally planned to be married in November, but the pending conflicts in Europe and Mexico forced a hastily rearranged wedding date of July 1, 1916, in Denver.

Although she primarily focused on supporting her husband and ceremonial duties as first lady, Mamie threw her weight behind a few select causes. She led the local and national fundraising drives for the American Heart Association in 1956, and later supported increased benefits and the formation of a retirement community for military personnel and widows. Mamie also did her part to combat segregation through such symbolic acts as inviting African-American children to the White House Easter Egg Roll, and she accepted an honorary membership to the National Council of Negro Women.

Mamie famously supported the president through a series of health scares, which included a serious heart attack in 1955, an abdominal operation in 1956 and a stroke the following year. However, she endured her share of physical problems as well. Mamie spent long hours in bed due to a heart condition instigated by a childhood case of rheumatic fever, and she suffered from an inner-ear infliction called Ménière’s disease, which affected her balance. The occasional sight of the first lady stumbling and grasping to steady herself fueled a nasty, and unfounded, rumor that she had a drinking problem.

A longtime fan of Richard Nixon, her husband’s former running mate, Mamie officially joined the Nixon family with her grandson’s marriage to the president elect’s daughter in December 1968. She went on to enjoy frequent overnight visits to the White House and Camp David, and took part in a televised campaign spot for Nixon’s 1972 reelection. The campaign marked a change in the former first lady’s public persona once known for an outlook that cut across partisan lines, she became increasingly vocal in support of her preferred candidates in the final years before her death at age 82.


Mary (Mamie) Dickens - History

This is the name of several New Testament characters, most importantly Mary the mother of Jesus. According to the gospels, Jesus was conceived in her by the Holy Spirit while she remained a virgin. This name was also borne by Mary Magdalene, a woman cured of demons by Jesus. She became one of his followers and later witnessed his crucifixion and resurrection.

Due to the Virgin Mary this name has been very popular in the Christian world, though at certain times in some cultures it has been considered too holy for everyday use. In England it has been used since the 12th century, and it has been among the most common feminine names since the 16th century. In the United States in 1880 it was given more than twice as often as the next most popular name for girls (Anna). It remained in the top rank in America until 1946 when it was bumped to second (by Linda). Although it regained the top spot for a few more years in the 1950s it was already falling in usage, and has since dropped out of the top 100 names.

This name has been borne by two queens of England, as well as a queen of Scotland, Mary Queen of Scots. Another notable bearer was Mary Shelley (1797-1851), the author of Frankenstein. A famous fictional character by this name is Mary Poppins from the children's books by P. L. Travers, first published in 1934.

The Latinized form of this name, Maria, is also used in English as well as in several other languages.


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Anning grew up in poverty in Southwest England

Anning was born in 1799 to a family of religious dissenters in Lyme Regis, a seaside town on the southwest coast of England. She grew up digging for prehistoric fossils with her father, who sold their findings to eager locals to supplement his meager income as a carpenter. Her childhood was marked by sadness. Of her parents’ 10 children, Mary and her older brother Joseph were the only two to survive into adulthood Mary, named after a sister who died in a fire.

The frequent storms would regularly erode the limestone and shale, which then shed the ancient impressions and remains of shells, extinct creatures and other unidentified curiosities. The tourists who accounted for much of the local economy scooped them up as souvenirs, with little understanding of the history that each revealed.

To be fair, they couldn’t have known that they were purchasing prehistoric marine creatures from 200 million years prior. The early 19th-century British fossil craze began before French scientist Georges Cuvier began to circulate extinction theory, and half a century before Charles Darwin published his seminal book Liikide päritolu kohta, which introduced the theory of evolution to the greater consciousness.

Anning was only 11 years old when her father died of tuberculosis, leaving her to pursue their amateur paleontology alongside her older brother. It was, at that point, less of a hobby and more of an economic necessity. The young siblings hunted for fossils in the limestone and shale cliffs overlooking the ocean so that they could provide critical income for the family, which had been left with debt held by its late patriarch.

During the economic recession of the 1810s, when food was scarce and Napoleon was stoking war across Europe, the Anning family depended on public assistance to supplement their meager income. Anning had largely taught herself how to read as a child but constrained by her lack of formal education and the Victorian era’s pervasive misogyny, she continued the hard and dangerous work of searching for fossils.

There were low points — Anning went on a dry spell out in the field during 1920, sending the family’s finances spiraling. They were selling their own furniture to make end’s meet until a professional fossil collector named Thomas Birch decided to sell his collection in order to bail them out. It was a show of faith in the Anning siblings, who had already impressed so many members of the scientific establishment by finding the first Ichthyosaurus — an extinct marine reptile — to be recognized by the London Geological Society. In 1819, the fossil went on display at the British Museum in London.


Meie ajalugu

Hildene, is formed from two old English words, “hil” meaning hill and “dene,” meaning valley with stream. Robert and wife Mary named their Manchester home based on their views of the Taconic Mountains to the west, Green Mountains to the east and the Battenkill flowing through the great valley of Vermont below, hill and valley with stream.

Robert Lincoln built Hildene as a summer home at the turn of the 20th century. He was the only child of Abraham and Mary Todd Lincoln to survive to maturity. Robert first visited Manchester as a young man in the summer of 1864 when he came to the Equinox Hotel to meet his mother and his brother Tad. Some forty years later he returned to purchase 392 acres of land to build what he would call his ancestral home. At the time, Robert was president of the Pullman Company, the largest manufacturing corporation in the country.

When Peggy Beckwith, the last Lincoln descendant to live at Hildene, died in 1975, she left Hildene to the Church of Christ, Scientist - as was her grandmother's wish. The will stipulated that the church maintain Hildene as a memorial to the Lincoln family, but It didn't take long for them to realize they were not in a position to do so and made plans to sell Hildene to developers. When local neighbors and community members learned of the church's plans they fought to save Hildene and after three years in court finally won the right to purchase Hildene. The non-profit Friends of Hildene raised the money to purchase the estate in 1978 and began the long process of restoring the home and formal garden.

Now, the 412 acre estate, with its Georgian revival mansion and 14 historic buildings includes the home, formal garden and observatory Welcome Center and The Museum Store in the historic carriage barn 1903 Pullman car, Sunbeam a solar powered goat dairy and cheese-making facility and the lower portion of the property, Dene Farm, was recently incorporated into the guest experience. This land functions as a campus for environmental and agricultural education for high school students and includes a teaching greenhouse, composting facility, animal barn, vegetable gardens, apple orchard, and 600 foot floating wetland boardwalk. Nearby, the 1832 schoolhouse, still used for education programs, stands in contrast to the new facilities. The agricultural project in the Dene embodies Hildene’s deep commitment to conservation, stewardship and sustainability and to its mission Values into Action.


Mary Frances (Mamie) Hill

The eldest child of James J. and Mary T. Hill, Mary Frances was born in the Hills’ first home at Canada and Pearl streets in St. Paul, on August 3, 1868.

Mary Francis, or Mamie as she was usually called, began her education at Visitation Convent Academy in the 1870s, the first of the Hill daughters to attend school there.

In the spring of 1888 she became engaged to one of her father’s employees, Samuel Hill (no relation). Sam had graduated from Harvard and had been in practice with the local law firm, Jackson, Atwater and Hill, but was hired by James J. Hill and worked in a variety of positions at the railway, including head of the Montana Central Railroad.

The couple was married by family friend Father Louis Caillet at the Hills’ Ninth and Canada home on September 6, 1888, and they honeymooned in Europe. Wedding gifts included 1,000 shares of stock in the St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba Railway, valued at $1 million, which provided a yearly dividend of $6,000.

The couple moved into a modest house at 344 South 7th Street in Minneapolis. In 1889, their first child, Mary Mendenhall, was born. Son James Nathan Branson followed in 1893.

Sam Hill continued to work for his father-in-law throughout the 1890s and acquired substantial real estate holdings in the Pacific Northwest. In 1899 he left the railroad, and the family moved to Seattle by 1901.

Mamie and Sam’s marriage was often troubled, and in 1903 the couple were living in separate residences. Mamie made her primary home in Washington, DC, while Sam remained in Seattle. The children divided their time between their parents and frequently stayed with their grandparents at the Hill House and the North Oaks farm. Mamie also maintained homes or apartments in New York City, Lenox, Massachusetts, and Tarrytown-on-the-Hudson, New York.

Sam later built a huge residence in Washington State, named “Maryhill” after his daughter, which overlooked the Columbia River gorge and is now an art museum. Sam Hill died in 1931 and one obituary described him as a “globe-trotter, lawyer, financier, railroad builder, militant apostle of peace, ‘father of good roads’ and active director of a dozen big industries. a human dynamo transmitting inexhaustible power to a myriad of projects.”

The James J. Hill Reference Library in St. Paul was the recipient of many items that belonged to her father. Mamie gave the library a large elephant tusk, mounted by Tiffany, that hung in the hallway at the Hill House, a commemorative silver punch bowl and loving cup given to James Hill, the cap and gown that Hill wore when he received his honorary degree at Yale University in 1910, and a number of large art folios, among other donations. She also had a large portrait painted of Hill and ordered an exhibit case to hold the items she had presented to the library.

Mamie, whose health was fragile, died in New York on April 13, 1947. She was buried in the Hill family section of Resurrection Cemetery in Mendota Heights, Minnesota.


Mary (Mamie) Dickens - History

"that spirit which directs my life" — Charles Dickens (cited in Ackroyd, 346)

ary Scott Hogarth (1820-1837, beloved sister-in-law and companion of Charles Dickens, died (probably of heart failure or stroke) on 7 May 1837, the Sunday following a double triumph for 25-year-old Charles Dickens: the publisher's informing Dickens of the extraordinary sales of the twelfth monthly number of Pickwick Papers and the appearance in print that very day of the fourteenth monthly number, and the performance at the St. James's Theatre of a farce written by Dickens, Is She His Wife?, or, Something Singular! . After a night's illness, Mary died on the Sunday afternoon. From her lifeless fingers Charles took a ring which he was to wear in memory of her his entire life. He dreamt of her every night for months after her death, and wrote of her to his confidant John Forster as "that spirit which directs my life, and . . . has pointed upwards with an unchanging finger for more than four years past" (letter dated 29 January 1842 cited in Ackroyd, 346, and Slater, 101). He recollected afterwards, "she died in my arms, and the very last words she whispered were of me . . ." (cited by Slater in Oxford Companion , 274) —but, given Dickens's egocentricity, we would be surprised if her last words had NOT been of him.

Finally beginning to realize that the money he was making as a writer would enable him to lead a more upper-middle-class existence, and having celebrated the birth of his first child (Charles Culliford Boz, otherwise known as "Charles Dickens, Junior") on 6 January 1837, Charles Dickens looked about for a suitable (i. e., more "genteel"), more spacious house, and found 48 Doughty Street (where Dickens lived from April 1837 until December 1839, and where he wrote major works: The Pickwick Papers , Oliver Twist , Nicholas Nickleby , and Barnaby Rudge ). After Dickens took the house on a three-year lease at the rate of eighty pounds per annum, he, Catherine, Dickens's brother Fred, and Mary moved in on 25 March 1837. Having moved from the cramped quarters of Dickens's bachelor rooms at Furnival's Inn, Holborn, the Dickenses had scarcely settled into their new Georgian-terraced residence in Bloomsbury when Mary was stricken. For the brief time that she lived with Catherine and Charles during her sister's confinement, Mary had been "Charles's intimate friend, a privileged sister and domestic companion" (Kaplan 92). As the video series Dickens of London suggests, she very likely was the first to hear particularly good bits of Pickwick and Oliver that Dickens had just penned. He valued her opinions and reactions to his work even above those of his young wife Catherine, trusting that her observations and reactions represented those of the common reader.

Daniel Maclise's version of Little Nell, one of the saintly and virginal
young women Dickens created from his memories of Mary.

Numerous critics and biographers, in particular the noted Dickens scholar and former editor of The Dickensian , Dr. Michael Slater, have written extensively on the massive influence that the memory of the dead seventeen-year-old Scottish girl exerted upon Dickens throughout his career. A wealth of material on the subject in print and on the internet, and an increasing interest in her as evidenced in recent Dickens biographies by Fred Kaplan and Peter Ackroyd, complements the relative paucity of meaningful references to her— and particularly to Dickens's dreams of her— in John Forster's authoritative Life of Charles Dickens , published shortly after the novelist's death at the age of 58. Perhaps Forster thought Dickens's obsession with the memory of his young sister-in-law none of the public's business. The great friend, legal adviser, and biographer of Dickens does, however, give the epitaph which Dickens (as a brother-in-law so devoted that visitors to London's Kensal Green Cemetery thought him her brother) composed for her: "God numbered her among his angels." She apparently was, according to others who knew and even those who merely met her, "sweet, beautiful, and lighthearted" (Slater, Oxford Companion , p. 272). But her sweetness of disposition and somewhat conventional brunette beauty captured by Phiz cannot alone explain the profound influence that his memories of her, sometimes shaped as visions and sometimes as vivid dreams, exerted upon Dickens. As numerous critics have noted, Mary probably served Dickens as the basis— the spiritual essence, as it were— of Little Nell in The Old Curiosity Shop (the child-character's death in January 1841 brought back the pain of Dickens's parting from his sister-in-law on Sunday, 7 May 1837), of Rose Maylie in Oliver Twist , of the protagonist's seventeen-year-old sister Kate in Nicholas Nickleby , and of Agnes in David Copperfield . For his own, real-world children, Dickens used the name "Mary" for the first girl in the family, born 6 March 1838, just under a year after Mary Scott Hogarth's death.

One may argue, as do both Slater and Ackroyd, that Dickens's obsession with his memories of Mary severely limited his capacity to understand and graph the female psyche. Only after the arrival in his life of an eighteen-year-old actress, the blonde and assertive Ellen Ternan, does Dickens begin to use another model for his young women, particularly for Lucie Manette in A Tale of Two Cities (1859) and for Estella Havisham in Great Expectations (1861). In his chapter "Mary" in Dickens and Women (1988), Slater adds that the little governess in Martin Chuzzlewit (1844), Ruth Pinch, is almost certainly a version of Mary, Ruth's sexless intimacy and joyous rapport with her brother Tom mirroring perhaps what Dickens felt his relationship with Mary had been in the three years he knew her. Slater's analysis of Ruth-as-Mary even provides an added— and not ironic— implication to Dickens's using "Eden" as a place-name in the novel:

he had just suffered the loss of a very dear young relative to whom he was most affectionately attached, and whose society has been, for a time, the chief solace of his labours' (no concessions to wedded bliss there!). 'That pleasant smile and those sweet words which [were] bestowed upon an evening's work in our merry banterings round the fire were more precious to me', he later wrote to Mary's mother, 'than the applause of a whole world would be.' In his diary he stated, 'I shall never be so happy again as in those Chambers three Stories high [in Furnival's Inn] — never if I roll in wealth and fame. I would hire them, to keep empty, if I could afford it.' [see The Pilgrim Edition of Letters of Dickens , I, 257, 259, 260, 263, 266 note 4, 323, 629, and 630 quoted from Slater, p. 82.]

When he began to achieve wealth and fame a very few years later, he found, I believe, a better way of immortalizing the Eden of his adult years than by the museum-fantasy he had confided to his diary. He ears to be recreating it in his enduring fictional world, first in Martin Chuzzlewit (1844), where it is (to the pure at least) purely a brother/sister idyll. Ruth Pinch, that 'blooming little busy creature', keeps gleeful house for her child-like brother, Tom, in a 'triangular parlour and two small rooms' in Islington: As she sat opposite to Tom at supper, fingering one of Tom's pet tunes upon the table-cloth, and smiling in his face, he had never been so happy his life. [ Martin Chuzzlewit , Ch.37] (Slater, "Mary," p. 83)

To the list of saintly and virginal young women whom Dickens created from his memories of Mary we should almost certainly add Lilian, the child-guide of Trotty Veck's visions in The Chimes (1844, reflecting the 30 September dream that Dickens had in Genoa of the spirit of Mary looking like a Raphael Madonna), Dot Peerybingle, the devoted sister in The Cricket on the Hearth (1845), and Milly Swidger, the young wife who never becomes a mother in The Haunted Man (1848). Finally, Michael Slater in Dickens and Women makes a highly plausible case for Marion in the 1846 Christmas Book The Battle of Life as an exemplification of Mary in both her self-sacrificing character and romantic position between Alfred and Grace:

Dickens wanted to tell a story which should show in high relief the way in which ordinary human beings [96/97] fought every day 'bloodless battles' of moral courage and self-sacrificing love triumphing over personal considerations. The effect was to be obtained by setting his story on the site of an ancient battle 'where thousands upon thousands had been killed', the kind of battle famous in history though actually a shame and disgrace to humanity, a manifestation of 'the evil passions of men'.

Once he had further decided that the 'bloodless' modern battle of the story was to take the form of a striking instance of sisterly self-sacrifice, that theme so perennially dear to his heart, it was perhaps inevitable that his mind should turn to thoughts of Mary, his lost perfect sister, and that her replacement in his household, her younger sister, Georgina, should also come into the picture. On the sixth anniversary of Mary's death, in May 1843, when sixteen-year-old Georgina had been nearly a year resident under his roof, Dickens had written to her mother:

I trace in many respects a strong resemblance between [Mary's] mental features and Georgina's —so strange a one, at times, that when she and Kate and I are sitting together, I seem to think that what has happened is a melancholy dream from which I am just awakening. The perfect like [sic] of what she was, will never be again, but so much of her spirit shines out in this sister, that the old time comes back again at some seasons, and I can hardly separate it from the present.

The leading characters in The Battle of Life are two sisters called Grace and Marion — an example, Steven Marcus observes, of Dickens beginning, 'surely unconsciously', to play 'what in the interests of brevity I will call the alphabet game'. For so closely does the characterization of the two girls relate to the characters of Georgina and Mary Hogarth that it can hardly be purely fortuitous that the fictional names begin in each case with the same initial letter as the names of their respective originals. The ages of the originals are reversed, however, Grace being the elder but only by 'four years at most'. Georgina was, at the time Dickens was writing The Battle , three-quarters of the way through her nineteenth year, and death had frozen Mary in Dickens's mind at the age of seventeen.

Georgina, whom Dickens was to come to refer to as his 'little house keeper', is reflected in the 'quiet household figure' of Grace with her 'home-adorning, self-denying qualities . . . and her sweet temper, so gentle and retiring' and Mary in the more beautiful younger sister Marion, who becomes invested, during the course of the story, with an exalted spiritual quality. This manifests itself in a certain expression of face that Dickens confesses himself unable to put a name to, 'a something shining more and more through all the rest of its expression':

It was not exultation, triumph, proud enthusiasm. They are not so calmly shown. It was not love and gratitude alone, though love and gratitude were part of it. It emanated from no sordid thought, for sordid thoughts do not light up the brow, and hover on the lips, and move the spirit like a fluttered light, until the sympathetic figure trembles. [97/98]

Both the sisters love the same young man, Alfred Heathfield. He is as near to being their brother as is compatible with decency for he is their father's ward and has been brought up with them. Grace suppresses her feelings for the sake of her beloved Marion, whom Alfred has asked to marry him when he shall return from a three-year absence required by his career. Marion can read her sister's heart, however, and in her great love for her, determines to sacrifice her own love for Alfred and to vanish mysteriously on the day of his return she is certain that, if she stays away long enough, his heart will turn to Grace. It costs her much agony to do this not only because of her own love for Alfred but also because of the pain it will cause her father (the girls' mother, of course, is dead) and the pain of separation from her adored sister, but she heroically carries out her resolution and, as she had foreseen, Grace and Alfred do eventually marry. They have a little daughter whom they name after her, just as Dickens and Catherine had named their first daughter after Mary. Six years after Marion's disappearance Alfred and his wife are sitting in the garden of their home and Dickens mingles, in his description of how Marion is still a presence among them, the way in which he himself thought constantly of Mary, 'unchanging, youthful, radiant', and the way in which Georgina seemed to him to recall her, as he had written to Mrs Hogarth. Where was Marion, the narrator asks:

Not there. Not there. She would have been a stranger sight in her old home now, even than that home had been at first, without her. But a lady sat in the familiar place, from whose heart she had never passed away in whose true memory she lived, unchanging, youthful, radiant with all promise and all hope in whose affection . . . she had no rival, no successor upon whose gentle lips her name was trembling then.

The spirit of the lost girl looked out of those eyes. Those eyes of Grace, her sister, sitting with her husband in the orchard, on their wedding-day [i. e., the anniversary of that day], and his and Marion's birth-day.

It is at this point that 'the lost girl' is restored to them. She appears like one coming back from the dead, a vision of a 'figure, with its white garments rustling in the evening air' but —

It was no dream, no phantom conjured up by hope and fear, but Marion, sweet Marion! So beautiful, so happy, so unalloyed by care and trial, so elevated and exalted in her loveliness, that as the setting sun shone brightly on her upturned face, she might have been a spirit visiting the earth upon some healing mission. [98-99]

She is, she tells Grace, 'still your maiden sister, unmarried, unbetrothed: your own loving old Marion . . . ' and she addresses Alfred now as her 'kind brother'. Dickens's imagination, dwelling on Mary, has taken him one stage further than it did in Oliver Twist. In that novel he had rewritten Mary's history to give it a different ending (Rose survives her sudden terrible illness) in the Battle she does 'die' so that her sister may become the wife of the man they both love but she is miraculously resurrected, as it were, to take her place as loving sister to them both. Alfred, we notice, has not seen her for nine years, exactly the period of time that had elapsed between Mary's death and the writing of this story (the only one he ever wrote in which, for no obvious reason, Dickens was moved to tell his readers his age).

With Mary thus fixed in her sisterly role — the role that Georgina was carrying on in real life — and Georgina herself blended with Catherine in the wife-figure of Grace, Dickens, disguised as the featureless Alfred Heathfield, 'possesses all the [Hogarth] sisters now', as Marcus says, 'and everything they do has reference to him' ('Dickens's story is really saying that Mary's death was in some way a sacrifice made out of love for him'). One feels that the element of fantasy, at whatever level of consciousness or subconsciousness it was operating, has got decidedly out of hand in this story, resulting in a preposterously artificial plot and characters to match. This strains the reader's imagination in a way that contemporary reviewers were not slow to point out. Dickens himself seems to have realized that he had failed to accomplish what he had hoped and blamed the small space into which he had to cram the tale owing to the Christmas Book format 'What an affecting story I could have made of it in one octavo volume', he lamented to Forster. But whether he could, in fact, have succeeded in gaining the requisite artistic control over the 'day-dreaming' (to use Marcus's word) that lay at the heart of the story's conception must be a matter of doubt.

For it was day-dreaming, and similar to the use made of his memories of Fanny in the next Christmas Book, The Haunted Man . He clearly was at this time (the late 1840s) much preoccupied with his past, brooding over it and reshaping it in various fictional patterns as well as embarking on an actual autobiography. (Michael Slater, "Mary" in Dickens and Women : pp. 96-99)

On 26 April 1842, when he and Catherine beheld the thundering waters of Niagara Falls, he received the distinct impression that among the many voices that he heard in the roaring torrent was Mary's. He wrote from America to Forster that he felt that in spirit after her death Mary had visited the wonder of nature "many times . . . since her sweet face faded from my earthly sight" (Forster, I, 171). Another recollection of her, dating from Dickens's self-imposed Italian (financial) exile, shows that he had gradually lost his sense of her physical appearance, but not of her voice.

Almost as soon as Dickens had moved his family from the Villa Bagnerello at Albaro to the more commodious and beautifully frescoed Palazzo Peschiere within Genoa's city walls, Dickens reported having dreamed of Mary for the first time since 1838, when "she had vanished in the wilds of Yorkshire, after he had told his dreams to Catherine" (Ackroyd 439). Towards the end of September 1844 (Slater in The Oxford Companion speculates that the precise date was the 30th), Mary appeared to him as he slept looking like a Raphael Madonna, wrapped in blue drapery, although he did not recognise the vision as his dead sister-in-law until she spoke. He cried to the spirit, as Forster reports, "Forgive me! We poor living creatures are only able to express ourselves by looks and words" (Forster, Vol. 1, p. 231 Ackroyd 439). Dickens rationalized the vision afterwards by considering such influences as the large altar in his bedroom and the mark upon the wall above it where a religious poster must once have hung, and the ringing of the convent bells next door. The exact nature of the relationship between the Christmas Book characters of Meggy Veck, Lilian Fern, Dot Peerybingle, and Milly Swidger has not been explored by biographers and critics thus far.

Slater concludes, perhaps in sympathy with Catherine, the mother of Dickens's dozen children who was displaced in his affections by a young actress when the plainness of matronly middle-age had eradicated any trace of her youthful beauty,

the woman whom the young Dickens loved not as brother but as a lover, the woman whom he married and lived with for twenty-two years, fathering a large family by her, appears to have had had less impact upon his deepest imagination and on his art than any of the other women who hold an important place in his emotional history. [102]

Viited

Ackroyd, Peter. Dickens . London: Sinclair-Stevenson, 1990.

"The Dickens House Museum." London Walks . Accessed 11 March 2007. http://www.london-walks.co.uk/30/the-dickens-house-museum.shtml.

"Ellen Ternan." Wikipedia . Accessed 14 March 2007. http://en.wikipedia?Ellen_Ternan

Forster, John. The Life of Charles Dickens . 2 kd London: Chapman & Hall, rpt. 1895.

Kaplan, Fred. Dickens: A Biography . New York: William Morrow, 1988.

"Mary Hogarth" (portrait by Phiz). Accessed 11 March 2007. http://www.charlesdickensonline.com/Favorites/f064.htm

Slater, Michael. "Hogarth, Mary Scott." The Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens , ed. Paul Schlicke. Oxford: Oxford U. P., 1999.

— -. "Mary." Dickens and Women . London and Melbourne: J. M. Dent & Sons, 1986. Pp. 77-102.


Later Life and Death

Writing well into her later years, Christie wrote more than 70 detective novels as well as short fiction. Though she also wrote romance novels like Unfinished Portrait (1934) and A Daughter&aposs a Daughter (1952) under the name Mary Westmacott, Christie&aposs success as an author of sleuth stories has earned her titles like the "Queen of Crime" and the "Queen of Mystery." Christie can also be considered a queen of all publishing genres as she is one of the top-selling authors in history, with her combined works selling more than 2 billion copies worldwide.

Christie was a renowned playwright as well, with works like The Hollow (1951) ja Verdict (1958). Her play The Mousetrap opened in 1952 at the Ambassador Theatre and𠅊t more than 8,800 showings during 21 years—holds the record for the longest unbroken run in a London theater. Additionally, several of Christie&aposs works have become popular movies, including Mõrv Orient Expressil (1974) ja Death on the Nile (1978).

Christie was made a dame in 1971. In 1974, she made her last public appearance for the opening night of the play version of Mõrv Orient Expressil. Christie died on January 12, 1976.


Vaata videot: Rare Photos Not Appropriate for History Books (November 2021).