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Hiinast avastatud hambad näitavad, et kaasaegsed inimesed lahkusid Aafrikast vähemalt 30 000 aastat varem kui varem arvati

Hiinast avastatud hambad näitavad, et kaasaegsed inimesed lahkusid Aafrikast vähemalt 30 000 aastat varem kui varem arvati


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Hiina ja Hispaania teadlaste meeskond ütleb, et vähemalt 80 000 aastat tagasi elas Aasias juba täiesti kaasaegse välimusega Homo sapiens. See väide põhineb 47 hamba põhjalikul analüüsil, mis kuulusid vähemalt 13 inimesele.

Ajaleht El Mundo teatab, et hambad leiti Fuyani koopast, mis asub Hiinast lõuna pool, Daoxianis . Uuring oli ajakirjas esitatud Loodus ja näitab, et tänapäeva inimesed elasid Aasias ammu enne Euroopasse ja Vahemere idaosale saabumist: tegelikult 30 000 kuni 70 000 aastat varem.

"Daoxi hambad on esimesed tõendid tänapäeva inimeste kohta Aafrikast välja ," Maria Martinon-Torres , aasta teadur Londoni ülikooli kolledž , uurimisrühma liige aadressil Atapuerca aastast 1998 ja uuringu kaasautor, rääkis El Mundo . Ta ütles ka:

"Suurem osa teadlaskonnast on toetanud hüpoteesi, et tänapäeva inimesed lahkusid Aafrikast alles umbes 50 000 aastat tagasi, mida tuntakse kui „Hiljuti Aafrikast väljas” hüpoteesi. Teisi varasemaid tõendeid Homo sapiens'i võimalikkuse kohta Aasias enne 50 000 aastat tagasi ei ole ühehäälselt aktsepteeritud kas seetõttu, et ei suudetud kindlaks teha, kas nad kuuluvad meie liiki, või seetõttu, et nende stratigraafiline kontekst, s.t täpne päritolu ja dateering, tekitavad kahtlusi. Daoxi jäänuste uurimisel oleme murdnud karantiini, millele need eeldused kehtisid ."

"Daoxi hambad on esimesed tõendid tänapäeva Aafrikast pärit inimeste kohta, mis meil täna on ," ütleb praeguse uuringu kaasautor Maria Martinon-Torres. ( historiayarqueología.com)

Teine juhtivteadur, Liu Wu Hiina selgroogsete paleontoloogia ja paleoantropoloogia instituudist (IVPP), rääkis CNN "Fossiilid näitavad, et 80 000 aastat tagasi ilmusid esimesed kaasaegsed inimesed kusagil Lõuna -Hiinas. Usume, et Lõuna -Hiina oli tõenäoliselt kaasaegse evolutsiooni keskne piirkond. "

Omalt poolt, Jose Maria Bermudez de Castro , uuringu kaasautor koos Martinon-Torresiga ja Atapuerca saidi kaasdirektor, selgitas et:

"Kaasaegsed inimesed saabusid Euroopasse umbes 40 000 aastat tagasi ning Hiinas ja Austraalias on varasemaid tõendeid nende olemasolu kohta 45 000 kuni 50 000 aastat tagasi. Seega on Fuyani koopa minimaalne näitaja 80 000 aastat tagasi suur hüpe. See kinnitab ka hüpoteesi Homo sapiens'i Aafrikast lahkumise kohta palju varem kui varem arvati ja nende läbimist Bab el-Mandebi väina kaudu Aafrika Sarvel. ."

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Bab el-Mandebi väin Aafrika Sarvel: koht, kust Homo sapiens lahkus Aafrikast palju varem kui arvati, ütles praeguse uuringu kaasautor Jose Maria Bermudez de Castro. ( )

Kuigi selle alalt on leitud 90 000 aasta taguseid Homo sapiens'i jäänuseid Skhul ja Qafzeh Iisraeli koobastes on tõsiasi, et need isikud säilitavad endiselt mõningaid arhailisi või primitiivseid jooni - midagi, mida Daoxi fossiilides pole.

"See artikkel sunnib teadlaskonda ümber korraldama kogu teabe selle kohta, kuidas, millal ja miks see esimene laienemine väljaspool Aafrikat toimus. Lisaks pole kahtlust, et Hiinas ja võib -olla ka teistes Kagu -Aasia piirkondades käivitatakse uusi projekte, et kinnitada meie uuringu iidsust "Ütles Jose Maria Bermudez de Castro El Mundo .

Hambaid avastati paljude erinevate imetajate fossiilidega, nii väljasurnud kui ka olemasolevatega. Maria Martinon-Torrese sõnul dateeringu kohta saadi tõendeid sellepärast, et: „Kõik fossiilid on suletud kaltsiumpõrandasse, mis on nagu hauakivi, ja sulgeb need. Seega peavad hambad olema sellest kihist vanemad. Eespool on stalagmiidid, mis on dateeritud uraaniseeriaga kuni 80 000 aastat. ”

Hammaste maksimaalne vanus on dateeritud 120 000 aastat tagasi. Selle varasema kuupäeva on järeldanud elusloodus, mis leiti inimjäänuste lähedalt - mis on tüüpiline Ülemine pleistotseen periood.

Neandertallased ja kaasaegsed inimesed

Martinon-Torres mõtiskles et:

"Huvitav on mõelda, et kuigi tänapäeva inimesed olid Aasias umbes 100 000 aastat tagasi, jõudsid nad Euroopasse alles 40 000 aastat tagasi . Me arvame, et võib -olla Neandertallased olid täiendavaks takistuseks troopilistele liikidele (Homo sapiens), kes polnud vaenuliku kliima jaoks valmis - kuigi neandertallased suutsid seal sadu tuhandeid aastaid ellu jääda. Arvasime alati, et Homo sapiens'i sisenemine põhjustas neandertallase väljasuremise. Kuid võib -olla peaksime olema avatud ka võimalusele, et nad suutsid teed avada alles siis, kui neandertallased hakkasid alla käima, pärast nii pikka isolatsiooni keerulises kohas. Alles siis, kui neandertallased olid demograafiliselt ja geneetiliselt nõrgemad, avanes Homo sapiensil võimalus siseneda. "

Homo Sapiens (vasakul) ja Homo neanderthalensis (paremal) koljude anatoomiline võrdlus. Clevelandi loodusloomuuseum. (Hairymuseummatt / CC BY - SA 2.0 )

Bermudez de Castro ja Martinon-Torres on teinud aastaid koostööd IVPP Pekingis . Hispaania uurijad külastasid Daoxiani asukohta aasta tagasi ja uurisid algseid hambaid. Seal said nad näha, et koopa tingimused ei ole ideaalsed, seega on vastupidavamad luustiku inimeste ja loomade jäänused ainsad, kes talusid pikka aega.

Esiletõstetud pilt: hambad leiti Fuyani koopast, mis asub Lõuna -Hiinas, Daoxianis, Hunani provintsis. (S.Xing / XJ.Wu / El Mundo )

Autor: Mariló TA

See artikkel ilmus esmakordselt hispaania keeles aadressil https://www.ancient-origins.es/ ja see on loaga tõlgitud.


    Fossiilsed sõrmed võivad Hiina inimkonna ajaloo ümber kirjutada

    Saudi Araabiast Al Wusta arheoloogilisest paigast leitud inimese sõrme fossiil. [Foto edastatakse Hiina päevalehele]

    Avastus võib vaidlustada aastaid levinud uskumusi

    Briti arheoloogide Saudi Araabiast leitud inimese sõrme fossiil toetab Hiina teadlaste pikka aega levinud teooriat, et tänapäeva inimesed lahkusid Aafrikast ja rändasid Hiinasse kümneid tuhandeid aastaid varem, kui arvati.

    Teadusringkondades levinud seisukoht on, et varajane Homo sapiens rändas Aafrikast praeguse Euroopa ja Lähis-Ida aladele umbes 60 000 aastat tagasi ning jõudis Lõuna-Hiinasse juba 45 000 aastat tagasi.

    88 000-aastase inimese sõrmeluu avastamine Saudi Araabias Nefudi kõrbes Al Wusta arheoloogilisel leiukohal on selle idee pea peale pööranud. Fossiilide vanus viitab varasemale rändele Aafrikast Euraasiasse - teooriale, mida toetavad teised Hiinas tehtud arheoloogilised avastused, mis olid varem skeptilised.

    "Praegu tundub tõenäoline, et varauusaegsed inimesed olid Lõuna -Hiinas umbes 100 000 aastat tagasi," ütles professor Chris Stringer, kes uurib Londoni loodusloomuuseumis inimese päritolu.

    Al Wusta arheoloogilise leiukoha teadlaste meeskond. [Foto edastatakse Hiina päevalehele]

    Al Wusta fossiilide avastas Oxfordi ülikooli teadlaste meeskond eesotsas arheoloog Huw Groucuttiga, kelle aruanne avaldati sel nädalal ajakirjas Nature. Ta oli 10 aastat otsinud inimfossiile, enne kui avastas ühe luu Homo sapieni keskmisest sõrmest.

    "See oli väga selgelt inimese sõrmeluu - see oli kohe põnevus," ütles Groucutt. Luu leiti jõehobude ja pühvlite fossiilide lähedalt, mis viitab sellele, et praegune kuiv ala oli kunagi suur märgala.

    Teadlased kasutasid arvutitomograafiat või CT -skaneerimist, et kinnitada, et luu oli inimene, millele järgnes protsess, mida tuntakse uraaniseeriana, et vähendada selle vanust.

    "Paljud geneetikud ütlevad, et kõik maailma inimesed on pärit sellest rändest umbes 50 000 kuni 60 000 aastat tagasi," ütles Groucutt. "Viimase paari aasta jooksul on see idee lagunenud."

    Mitmed Hiina arheoloogid on juba ammu kahtlustanud, et varajased inimesed asusid Hiinasse 80 000–120 000 aastat tagasi.

    2010. aastal avaldasid Hiina Teaduste Akadeemia arheoloogid Wu Xiujie ja Liu Wu ülevaate Hiinas 1970ndate aastate hominiidide arheoloogilistest leidudest. Nad väitsid, et mitmed avastused - sealhulgas inimese hambad, mis leiti Zhireni koopast Guangxi Zhuangi autonoomses piirkonnas - näitavad, et kaasaegsed inimesed eksisteerisid Hiinas umbes 100 000 aastat tagasi.

    Kuid mõned pidasid järeldusi kahtlasteks, kuna mitmed fossiilid jagasid arhailiste inimliikidega nagu Homo erectus.

    Hiina arheoloogid tegid ühe oma suurima läbimurde 2011. aastal Hunani provintsis Fuyani koopa väljakaevamistel, kus nad leidsid 47 tänapäeva inimesele kuuluvat hammast. Hambad maeti stalagmiitide alla, mis leiti olevat vähemalt 80 000 aastat vanad, mis viitab sellele, et fossiilid olid vanemad.

    Taaskord tabasid leiud aga skeptiliselt. Kohtinguks kasutatud stalagmiit oli fossiilidest lühikese vahemaa kaugusel ja mõned väitsid, et piirkonda võisid häirida geoloogilised protsessid.

    "Isiklikult olen ma rahul fossiilide vanuse ja Homo sapieni omistamisega Hiinas, kuid need on selles valdkonnas olnud vastuolulised ja heades ajakirjades on neid leide kahtlustanud," ütles Groucutt.

    "On inimesi, kes on väga kiindunud ideesse, et keegi ei lahkunud Aafrikast enne 50 000 aastat tagasi, eriti väga silmapaistvad hääled geneetikas. Seega on oluline, et minusugused inimesed - kes arvavad, et lahkusime varem ja sattusime sellistesse kohtadesse nagu Hiina - oleksid tõesti kindlad. Tuleb teha palju rohkem uuringuid ja rakendada kõige ajakohasemaid tehnikaid, ”ütles ta.


    47 koopa avastamine Hiina koopast muudab pildi inimeste rändest Aafrikast välja

    Need 47 inimese hammast, mis leiti Fuani koopast Hunani provintsist, näitavad seda Homo sapiens saabus Lõuna -Hiinasse vähemalt 80 000 aastat tagasi, tunduvalt enne liikide Euroopasse tulekut.

    Lõuna-Hiina koopast välja kaevatud 47 siledat hammast näitavad seda Homo sapiens võib -olla saabus sinna 80 000 aastat tagasi - ammu enne seda, kui inimesed suutsid oma jälje Põhja -Hiinasse või Euroopasse jätta.

    Sel nädalal ajakirjas Nature avaldatud leiud võivad sundida teadlasi ümber vaatama oma teooriaid inimeste rände kohta Aafrikast välja. Eelkõige võib avastus olla märk sellest, et neandertallased kujutasid Euroopale palju suuremat takistust, kui arheoloogid neile varem au andsid.

    "See on mängu muutja," ütles Oxfordi ülikooli paleoliitikumi arheoloog Michael Petraglia, kes ei osalenud selles töös. Uus hammaste vahemälu "muudab täielikult seda, mida me teame" Aafrikast väljas "liikumise kohta."

    Teadlased usuvad Homo sapiens esmakordselt tekkis Ida -Aafrikas 190 000–160 000 aastat tagasi, seejärel levis Vahemere idaosas umbes 100 000–60 000 aastat tagasi, ütles Exeteri ülikoolist pärit Robin Dennell, kes ei olnud ajalehega seotud.

    DNA analüüs ja kivitööriistade uuringud näitavad, et tänapäeva inimesed hakkasid Aasiasse rändama umbes 60 000 aastat tagasi, millele järgnesid edukad sissetungid läände Euroopasse umbes 40 000 aastat tagasi.

    Paleoantropoloogid on otsinud Lõuna -Hiina koobastest vihjeid loo täitmiseks. Need koopad on fossiile täis, kuid kogutud isendite vanust on raske kindlaks määrata või isegi öelda, millistele hominiiniliikidele need fossiilid kuuluvad.

    Äsja avastatud hambad Fuyani koopast on erinevad. Hunani provintsis asuvas lubjakivikoopas on ideaalne segu omadustest, mis võimaldasid teadlastel fossiilide vanust kindlaks teha.

    Happelises keskkonnas nagu Fuyani koobas on hambad sageli kõige paremini säilinud inimjäänused. Enamel, mis katab hamba välispinda, on inimkeha kõvem kude dentiin, mis moodustab suurema osa hambast, annab veidi rohkem, kuid on siiski luust kõvem.

    Selliste fossiilide jaoks on ülioluline mõista, kui sügavale nad olid maetud, sest iga kivimikiht kujutab endast ajastu erinevat ajastut. Mida sügavamalt esemeid leiti, seda vanemad nad on. Kui neid kihte mingil moel segada, muutub ekskavaatoritel nende fossiilide tegelikku vanust väga raske öelda.

    Õnneks oli Fuyani koopas vesi ladestanud kaltsiidi voolukivi kihi liivase savi kohale, mis hoidis inimese hambaid, sulgedes need ja takistades nende häirimist. Üle voolukivi kasvas mineraalimaardla, mida nimetatakse stalagmiidiks. Radiomeetriline uurimine näitas, et need mineraalid olid umbes 80 100 aastat vanad - see tähendab, et kogu selle all olev materjal, kaasa arvatud hambad, peab olema vanem.

    Voolukivi alt leidsid teadlased ka imetajate fossiile 38 liigist, sealhulgas Stegodon orientalis (mammutite ja elevantide sugulane) ja Ailuropoda peekon (hiiglasliku panda esivanem). Need väljasurnud suured imetajad elasid ülemise pleistotseeni ajal, umbes 125 000 kuni 10 000 aastat tagasi.

    Üheskoos võimaldasid stalagmiidimoodustised ja fossiilid teadlastel inimese hammaste vanust sulgeda - nende omanikud pidid elama millalgi 80 000–120 000 aastat tagasi.

    Need hambad, mis hõlmasid koerte hambaid ja purihambaid, näevad märkimisväärselt välja nagu tänapäeva inimestele kuuluvad, mitte aga varasemate hominiiniliikide, nt. Homo erektsioon. See kinnitas teadlaste jaoks, et hambad pidid olema pärit Homo sapiens mis tekkisid Aafrikas, mitte teistsugusest hominiini suguvõsast.

    "Fuyani hambad näitavad, et tänapäeva inimesed olid Lõuna -Hiinas kohal 30 000 kuni 60 000 aastat varem kui Vahemere idaosas ja Euroopas," kirjutas Dennell uuringule lisatud kommentaaris.

    See on päris suur vahe. See võib olla märk sellest, et meie neandertallastest sugulased blokeerisid Homo sapiensEsimesed katsed Euroopasse tungida. Neandertallaste eeliseks oli see, et nad olid kohanenud külma ja karmi Euroopa kliimaga juba ammu Homo sapiens, päikeselisele savannile sobivam liik jõudis sündmuskohale, juhtis tähelepanu Petraglia. See oleks muutnud need paleopioneerid halvasti varustatud, et konkureerida oma hominiinide nõbude vastu.

    Varem uskusid paljud teadlased, et inimeste Euroopasse tungimine viis üsna kiiresti neandertallaste hukkumiseni.

    "Ma tõesti arvan, et see avab uue mõistmisperioodi ja loovama mõtlemise teiste pikaajaliste mudelite võimaluste kohta," ütles Londoni Ülikooli kolledži paleoantropoloog María Martinón-Torres, kes juhtis uuringut koos Wu Liu ja Xiu-jie Wu Hiina Teaduste Akadeemiast.

    Sellele võib olla ka muid seletusi Homo sapiens"Euroopasse jõudmise viivitus, ütlesid teised.

    "Euroopa ja Põhja -Hiina vahelise tohutu maismaa valdavalt külmemad talveolud võivad paremini selgitada lõunatsoonide varasemat koloniseerimist," kirjutas Dennell.

    Mõlemal juhul on palju uusi küsimusi selle kohta, kuidas see ränne Lõuna-Hiinasse on seotud tänapäeva inimkonnaga, ütles Martinón-Torres. Kas need inimesed surid välja, enne kui nad asendati hilisema rändega? Kas nad segunesid kuidagi teistega Homo sapiens Aafrikast ja hiljem levis teistele mandritele?

    "Meil on tõesti palju uusi küsimusi praeguste populatsioonide päritolu kohta," ütles ta. "Ma arvan, et see on põnev periood."


    Kas Aasia kirjutab ümber inimkonna ajaloo?

    Poliitika, geograafia ja traditsioonid on arheoloogilist tähelepanu juba ammu suunanud Homo sapiens Euroopas ja Aafrikas. Nüüd esitavad uued uuringud väljakutseid vanadele ideedele, näidates, et varajane inimeste ränne algas kogu Aasias palju varem kui varem teada.

    Pange tähele, et see artikkel sisaldab pilte inimjäänustest.

    Nefudi kõrb on oranži ja kollase liivaluite kõle ala. See hõlmab umbes 25 000 ruut miili Araabia poolsaarest. Kuid kümneid tuhandeid aastaid tagasi oli see piirkond lopsakas järvede maa, mille kliima võis inimelule lahedam olla.

    2016. aasta jaanuari pärastlõunal uuris rahvusvaheline arheoloogide ja paleontoloogide meeskond Nefudi liiva- ja kruusamaastikul Al Wusta nimelises kohas ühe iidse järvesängi pinda. Nende silmad olid kooritud fossiilide, kivitööriistade juppide ja muude märkide järele, mis võivad jääda piirkonna kunagisest rohelisest minevikust.

    Saudi Geoloogiakeskuses töötav paleontoloog Iyad Zalmout märkas ootamatult seda, mis nägi välja nagu luu. Väikeste kirbude ja pintslitega eemaldas ta koos kolleegidega leiu maast.

    "Me teadsime, et see [on] oluline," meenutas Zalmout e -kirjas. See oli esimene otsene tõestus piirkonna suurte primaatide või hominiidide elust. 2018. aastal näitasid laboritestid, et see isend oli sõrme luu anatoomiliselt kaasaegselt inimeselt, kes oleks elanud vähemalt 86 000 aastat tagasi.

    Sellele Al Wusta avastusele eelnesid tõendid kivitööriistade näol 55 000–125 000 aastat tagasi Nefudis inimese kohaloleku kohta. Antropoloogide jaoks võivad "inimene" ja "hominiin" tähendada mis tahes liiki meie endaga lähedalt seotud liike. Sõrme luu oli vanim Homo sapiens piirkonnas leida.

    Arheoloogid leidsid selle Homo sapiens umbes 86 000 aasta vanune sõrme luu saidil Al Wusta Saudi Araabias. Ian Cartwright/Max Planck Inimajaloo Instituut

    Luu tutvumine on vastuolus teadusringkondades väljakujunenud jutustusega. Leiutised, eriti tänapäeva Iisraeli, Jordaania ja Liibanoni alad, mida tuntakse Levandi piirkonnana, on viinud arusaamisele, et H. sapiens jõudsid esmakordselt Aafrikast välja mitte varem kui 120 000 aastat tagasi, rännates tõenäoliselt mööda Vahemere rannikut põhja poole. Need inimesed asusid elama Levanti ja nende järeltulijad - või nende hilisema varase inimrände tagajärjed Aafrikast - rändasid Euroopasse kümneid tuhandeid aastaid hiljem.

    Alles hiljem, kui see lugu läheb, rändasid nad Aasiasse, näiteks Saudi Araabiasse. Mõne hinnangu kohaselt poleks anatoomiliselt kaasaegsed inimesed praegusel Al Wustal olnud alles umbes 50 000 aastat tagasi.

    Sõrmeluu lisab loole keerdkäiku sellest, kuidas ja millal meie liigid Aafrika mandrilt lahkusid ning paljude alguste ja peatustega asustasid suure osa ülejäänud maast. Uus avastuste saak, eriti Aasiast, viitab sellele, et tänapäeva inimesed lahkusid Aafrikast esimest korda umbes 200 000 aastat tagasi, valides mitu erinevat teed.

    Enam ei ole Levant tingimata kesksel kohal - ja idapoolsetel punktidel võis olla varajase inimrände jaoks ettenägematu tähtsus. Nagu ütleb antropoloog Michael Petraglia Max Plancki inimkonna ajaloo teadusinstituudist: „Uus lugu on avanemas.”

    Need leiud võiksid valgustada suuri vastamata küsimusi, näiteks miks inimesed rändasid, millised olid varasemad keskkonnatingimused ja kuidas H. sapiens suhtles teiste hominiinidega. Kuid muutuv narratiiv rõhutab ka seda, kui suur osa meie teadmistest pärineb - ja on piiratud -kus töötanud on arheoloogid ja teised uurijad. Geograafilist rõhku on pikka aega mõjutanud mitte teadus, vaid juurdepääs, rahastamine ja traditsioonid.

    (RE) MÕTLE INIMESELE

    G et meie uusimad lood toimetatakse teie postkasti igal reedel.

    Esimene vihje, et pikaajaline lugu inimtegevusest Aafrikast välja oli jätnud midagi kriitilist, pärines hästi uuritud Levanti piirkonnast, Iisraeli Misliya koopast. 2018. aastal avastasid arheoloogid, et leidsid sellest koopast inimese lõualuu.

    See luu, mis on kümnendikujulise uurimise käigus dateeritud kolme erineva meetodiga, on 177 000–194 000 aastat vana, lükates tagasi ajakava, millal inimesed siin esmakordselt elasid, vähemalt 50 000 aasta võrra. Ja lõualuu all olevatest kihtidest leitud vanemad kivitööriistad viitavad sellele, et inimesed oleksid võinud selles piirkonnas viibida veelgi kauem.

    Seega on võimalik, et inimesed lahkusid Aafrikast ja rändasid Levandisse - ja mujale - isegi varem kui selle lõualuu kuupäev. See mõttekäik saavutas veelgi suurema tõukejõu 2019. aasta juulis, kui rühm teadlasi avaldas uudseid järeldusi 1970ndatel Kreekas avastatud kolju kohta. See fossiil, nagu uus töö viitab, on inimlik ja rohkem kui 210 000 aastat vana.

    Lisaks sellele muutuvale ajajoonele mõtlevad teadlased ümber kus inimesed reisisid Aafrikast lahkudes. Al Wusta leid on vaid üks näide.

    Teadlased on avastanud, et need H. sapiens Hiinast leitud hambad on vähemalt 85 000 aastat vanad. S. Xing ja X-J. Wu

    2015. aastal avaldasid Hiina teadlased Hunani provintsis asuvas koopas oma avastuse 47 inimese hambast vanuses 85 000 kuni 120 000 aastat. Kuni selle avastuseni olid Lõuna -Aasiast leitud vanimad tänapäevased inimfossiilid vaid umbes 45 000 aastat vanad.

    Need uued leiud „kohustavad [meid] ümber mõtlema, millal ja kuidas me laiali läksime,” ütleb kohtuekspertiisi antropoloog María Martinón-Torres, Hispaanias Burgoses asuva rahvusliku evolutsiooni riikliku uurimiskeskuse direktor ning meeskonna liige, kes avastas ja avastas, kuidas uuris hambaid. Ta lisab: "Aafrikast väljas võib olla rohkem kui üks hajumine ... inimesed, nagu kõik teisedki loomad, võisid laieneda niivõrd, kuivõrd ei olnud ühtegi ökoloogilist ega geograafilist takistust, mis neid takistaks."

    2018. aastal avaldasid India teadlased täiustatud kivitööriistade kollektsiooni avastamise. Nad ütlevad, et see leid näitab hominiini olemasolu vähemalt 170 000 aastat - aastatuhandeid varem kui varasemad uuringud soovitasid. Ja mõned tõendid viitavad sellele, et varajased inimesed võisid suunduda otse Aasia poole, ületades Aafrikast üle Araabia poolsaare, minnes mööda Levantist, kust on pärit nii palju varasemaid tõendeid inimeste kohta väljaspool Aafrikat.

    Uute avastuste kombinatsioon on seega muutnud arusaamist ajast, marsruutidest ja geograafilisest vahemikust H. sapiens“Laiali Aafrikast välja. Kuid arheoloogide jaoks märgivad leiud ka omamoodi pimeala. Nagu Martinón-Torres ütleb: "Need leiud on ka suur hoiatusmärkus Aasia kohta."

    Arvan, et üha enam hakatakse teadvustama vajadust laiendada paleontoloogia ja arheoloogia geograafilist ulatust, mis on seotud inimeste varase rände ja evolutsiooniga. "Pikka aega," lisab Martinón-Torres, "Aasiat peeti tupikuks, millel oli teisejärguline roll inimkonna evolutsiooni peavoolus."

    "Arheoloogilistel välitöödel ja seal, kus see toimub, on tohutu eelarvamus ning meie inimkonna evolutsiooni teooriad on üles ehitatud nendele geograafilistele eelarvamustele," ütleb Petraglia, kes koos Zalmouti ja Saudi Araabia turismi- ja rahvuspärandi komisjoni kolleegidega leidis Al Wusta sõrmeluu .

    Sellele eelarvamusele on kaasa aidanud mitmed tegurid, selgitab arheoloog ja kirjanik Nadia Durrani, kes on kaasautor Arheoloogia: lühike sissejuhatus antropoloog Brian Faganiga. Arheoloogia sai alguse rohkem kui sajand tagasi "Lääne teadusdistsipliinina", ütleb ta.

    Esimesed Euroopa ja Ameerika arheoloogid keskendusid peamiselt Vahemere-Euroopale ja Piiblis mainitud maadele, sealhulgas tänapäeva Iraanile, Iraagile, Egiptusele, Iisraelile ja Läänekaldale. "Inimesi huvitasid Piibel ja klassikalised teemad," sealhulgas Vana -Kreeka ja Rooma, ütleb Durrani. Kui arheoloogid nendes piirkondades avastusi tegid, kasvas huvi nende piirkondade vastu ja samades kohtades tärkasid asutused, mis omakorda soodustasid sealset edasist uurimistööd.

    "Riikides, kus paleoantropoloogilisi uuringuid on läbi viidud juba aastakümneid, on tõenäolisemalt olulisi leide, mis on ka inimestele hästi tuntud ja hinnatud," ütleb Tübingeni ülikooli paleoantropoloogia direktor Katerina Harvati. "Ja seetõttu on neil [tõenäoliselt] rohkem rahastamisvõimalusi."

    Vastupidine on ka tõsi. Võib olla raske veenda kolleege või tulevasi rahastajaid koha potentsiaalis, kui seda on vähe uuritud ja teatud infrastruktuurivormid puuduvad. Mängida võivad keskkonna- ja looduslikud tõkked. Petraglia juhib tähelepanu sellele, et töötamine valdkondades, mida pole hästi uuritud, võib nõuda algusest peale selliste ülesannete täitmist nagu uuringud ja kaardistamine ning sageli ei ole vaja eelnevat tööd teha.

    Oluline on see, et poliitilised küsimused võivad arheolooge aidata või takistada. Durrani osales näiteks 1990. aastatel Jeemenis välitöödel ja juhtis hiljem ekskursioone sealsetes arheoloogilistes paikades. See töö peatus 2008. aastal piirkonna poliitilise ebastabiilsuse tõttu. Ta ütleb, et vägivald ja konfliktid takistavad juurdepääsu tõsiselt.

    Arheoloogid uurivad Al Wusta kaevamiskohta. Klint Janulis

    Uued leiud näitavad, et suhtumine Aasiasse muutub ja üha enam tähelepanu pööratakse sellele piirkonnale. Nihe langeb kokku majanduslike ja poliitiliste muutustega. Viimase kahe aastakümne jooksul on Hiina kutsunud stipendiume varem uurimata piirkondadesse. Hiljuti on Saudi Araabia avanud teatud arheoloogia- ja turismiobjektid.

    Teadlased loodavad, et aeg, juurdepääs ja tingimused paranevad veelgi. Vahepeal näitab see uuring, et anatoomiliselt kaasaegsed inimesed lahkusid Aafrikast oodatust varem ja rändasid lisaks põhjale ka lõunasse, piki Araabia poolsaart.

    Siiski on mõned neist leidudest tekitanud skepsist. Pittsburghi ülikooli emeriitprofessor Jeffrey Schwartz hoiatab järeldustest dramaatiliste järelduste tegemise eest. "Ma arvan, et me helistame liiga palju asju H. sapiens," ta ütleb.

    Seevastu Haifa ülikooli arheoloog Mina Weinstein-Evron, kes avastas koos Misliya koopa lõualuu, kahtlustab, et hiljutised leiud on H. sapiens kuid nõustub, et inimeste anatoomiliselt kaasaegse hajumise lugu pole veel kaugeltki selge. "Me ei tea midagi. Meil on siin tõendeid ja seal on palju tõendeid, "ütleb ta. "Ja siis me kasutame neid suuri sõnu nagu" ränne "ja" hajutamine ". Me räägime nii, nagu oleksid nad pileti ostnud. Kuid nad ei teadnud, kuhu nad lähevad. Nende jaoks polnud see ilmselt isegi liikumine, võib -olla oli see 10 kilomeetrit põlvkonna kohta. ”

    Veelgi enam, mõned geneetilised leiud viitavad sellele, et isegi kui inimesed rändasid Aafrikast välja ja Aasiasse varem, kui varem arvati, on võimalik, et need varased inimeste ränded olid evolutsioonilisest vaatenurgast lõppkokkuvõttes ebaõnnestunud. Aastal avaldatud kolme erineva teadlaste rühma järelduste kohaselt Loodus 2016. aastal erines euraaslaste DNA aafriklaste omast 60 000–80 000 aastat tagasi. Teisisõnu, kõik tänapäeval elavad inimesed on järglased H. sapiens kes rändasid Aafrikast välja sees see aken - nagu ka teised hominiinid, näiteks neandertallased.

    Teadlased tunnistavad seda H. sapiens võis Aafrikast välja viia palju erinevaid marsruute, mis on siin punasega näidatud. Catherine Gilman/SAPIENS

    Sellegipoolest on varasemad ränded intrigeerivad, ütleb bioloogiline antropoloog Luca Pagani, kes on kirjutanud ühe Loodus artiklid. "Kuigi see ei muuda meie ettekujutust sellest, millised ränded olid edukad, näitab see rikkalikumaid hajutamiskatseid," ütleb ta ja see on varase kaasaegse inimese loo oluline osa.

    Arvasin, et põhjused, miks teatud varajased inimränded ebaõnnestusid, võivad valgustada suuri küsimusi arheoloogias. Näiteks Martinón-Torres ja tema Hiinas töötavad kolleegid on väitnud, et varauusaegsed inimesed võisid konkureerida neandertallaste või teiste hominiinidega, mis võisid nende liikumist mõjutada.

    Vahepeal kahtlustab P etraglia Araabia ala võrsunud varauusaegseid inimesi, kuni kõrbe laienedes vesi kadus. "Kui soovite teada, kuidas kliimamuutused meid ühel päeval mõjutavad, siis on meil siin terve lugu kliimamuutuste mõjust inimpopulatsioonidele," ütleb ta. Lühidalt öeldes ei pruugi nende kartmatute inimeste järeltulijad ellu jääda, kuid nende lood võivad meid siiski tulevikku suunata.

    Parandus: 20. aprill 2020
    Selle loo varasem versioon sisaldas ebatäpsust Kaspia mere kaardil ja#8217 kujutamisel. Kaart on parandatud.


    Sisu

    "Hiljutine Aafrika päritolu" või Aafrikast välja II, viitab anatoomiliselt kaasaegsete inimeste rändele (Homo sapiens) Aafrikast välja pärast nende tekkimist c. 300 000 kuni 200 000 aastat tagasi, erinevalt "Aafrikast välja", mis viitab arhailiste inimeste rändele Aafrikast Euraasiasse ligikaudu 1,8 kuni 0,5 miljonit aastat tagasi. Lõuna-Etioopiast pärit Omo-Kibish I (Omo I) on praegu teadaolevalt vanim anatoomiliselt kaasaegne Homo sapiens luustik (196 ± 5 ka). [33]

    Alates 21. sajandi algusest on pilt "hiljutistest ühe päritoluga" rännetest muutunud oluliselt keerulisemaks, mitte ainult tänu kaasaegse arhailise segu avastamisele, vaid ka üha enam tõendeid selle kohta, et "hiljutine väljalangemine" Aafrika "ränne toimus paljude lainetena, mis levisid pika aja jooksul. 2010. aasta seisuga oli varase anatoomiliselt kaasaegse inimese rändeks Aafrikasse väljarändamiseks kaks peamist aktsepteeritud levikuteed: "Põhjatee" kaudu (Niiluse oru ja Siinai kaudu) ja "Lõunarada" Bab al Mandabi väina kaudu . [34]

    • Posth jt. (2017) näitavad, et varakult Homo sapiensvõi "teine ​​meiega lähedalt seotud Aafrika liik" võis esmakordselt Aafrikast välja rännata umbes 270 000 aastat tagasi. [35]
    • Misliya koopa leiud, mis sisaldavad kaheksa hambaga osalist lõualuu, on dateeritud umbes 185 000 aastat tagasi. 250 000–140 000 aasta tagused kihid samas koopas sisaldasid Levalloisi tüüpi tööriistu, mis võiksid esimese rände kuupäeva veelgi varasemaks muuta, kui neid saab seostada tänapäevaste inimeste lõualuu leidudega. [36] [37]
    • Idasuunaline hajumine Kirde -Aafrikast Araabiasse 150 000–130 000 aastat tagasi, tuginedes Jebel Faya 127 000 aasta tagustele leidudele (avastatud 2011. aastal). [12] [13] Selle lainega on tõenäoliselt seotud Lõuna -Hiinas asuva Zhirendongi koopa leiud, mis pärinevad enam kui 100 000 aastat tagasi. [34] Muud tõendid kaasaegse inimese kohaloleku kohta Hiinas pärinevad 80 000 aastat tagasi. [18]
    • Kõige olulisem hajumine Aafrikast toimus umbes 50–70 000 aastat tagasi niinimetatud lõunatee kaudu, kas enne [38] või pärast [27] [28] Toba sündmust, mis juhtus 69 000–77 000 aastat tagasi. [38] See levik järgis Aasia lõunarannikut ja jõudis Austraaliasse umbes 65 000–50 000 aastat tagasi või mõne uuringu kohaselt kõige varem 50 000 aastat tagasi. [24] [25] Lääne-Aasia "okupeeriti" uuesti umbes 50 000 aastat tagasi selle laine põhjal ja Euroopa asustati Lääne-Aasiast umbes 43 000 aastat tagasi. [34] kirjeldab täiendavat rändelainet pärast lõunarannikuteed, nimelt põhjarännet Euroopasse umbes 45 000 aastat tagasi. [märkus 3] Selle võimaluse välistavad aga Macaulay jt. (2005) ja Posth jt. (2016), who argue for a single coastal dispersal, with an early offshoot into Europe.

    Beginning 135,000 years ago, tropical Africa experienced megadroughts which drove humans from the land and towards the sea shores, and forced them to cross over to other continents. [39] [note 4]

    Modern humans crossed the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb in the southern Red Sea, and moved along the green coastlines around Arabia, and thence to the rest of Eurasia. Fossils of early Homo sapiens were found in Qafzeh and Es-Skhul Caves in Israel and have been dated 80,000 to 100,000 years ago. These humans seem to have either become extinct or retreated back to Africa 70,000 to 80,000 years ago, possibly replaced by southbound Neanderthals escaping the colder regions of ice-age Europe. [40] Hua Liu et al. analyzed autosomal microsatellite markers dating to about 56,000 years ago. They interpret the paleontological fossil as an isolated early offshoot that retracted back to Africa. [41]

    The discovery of stone tools in the United Arab Emirates in 2011 at the Faya-1 site in Mleiha, Sharjah, indicated the presence of modern humans at least 125,000 years ago, [12] leading to a resurgence of the "long-neglected" North African route. [13] [42] [14] [15] This new understanding of the role of the Arabian dispersal began to change following results from archaeological and genetic studies stressing the importance of southern Arabia as a corridor for human expansions out of Africa. [43]

    In Oman, a site was discovered by Bien Joven in 2011 containing more than 100 surface scatters of stone tools belonging to the late Nubian Complex, known previously only from archaeological excavations in the Sudan. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates placed the Arabian Nubian Complex at approximately 106,000 years old. This provides evidence for a distinct Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia, around the earlier part of the Marine Isotope Stage 5. [44]

    According to Kuhlwilm and his co-authors, Neanderthals contributed genetically to modern humans then living outside of Africa around 100,000 years ago: humans which had already split off from other modern humans around 200,000 years ago, and this early wave of modern humans outside Africa also contributed genetically to the Altai Neanderthals. [45] They found that "the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and early modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously thought". [45] According to co-author Ilan Gronau, "This actually complements archaeological evidence of the presence of early modern humans out of Africa around and before 100,000 years ago by providing the first genetic evidence of such populations." [45] Similar genetic admixture events have been noted in other regions as well. [46]

    In China, the Liujiang man (Chinese: 柳江人 ) is among the earliest modern humans found in East Asia. [47] The date most commonly attributed to the remains is 67,000 years ago. [48] High rates of variability yielded by various dating techniques carried out by different researchers place the most widely accepted range of dates with 67,000 BP as a minimum, but do not rule out dates as old as 159,000 BP. [48] Liu, Martinón-Torres et al. (2015) claim that modern human teeth have been found in China dating to at least 80,000 years ago. [49]

    Coastal route Edit

    By some 50-70,000 years ago, a subset of the bearers of mitochondrial haplogroup L3 migrated from East Africa into the Near East. It has been estimated that from a population of 2,000 to 5,000 individuals in Africa, only a small group, possibly as few as 150 to 1,000 people, crossed the Red Sea. [50] [51] The group that crossed the Red Sea travelled along the coastal route around Arabia and the Persian Plateau to India, which appears to have been the first major settling point. [52] Wells (2003) argued for the route along the southern coastline of Asia, across about 250 kilometres (155 mi) [ kahtlane - arutage ] , reaching Australia by around 50,000 years ago.

    Today at the Bab-el-Mandeb straits, the Red Sea is about 20 kilometres (12 mi) wide, but 50,000 years ago sea levels were 70 m (230 ft) lower (owing to glaciation) and the water was much narrower. Though the straits were never completely closed, they were narrow enough to have enabled crossing using simple rafts, and there may have been islands in between. [53] [34] Shell middens 125,000 years old have been found in Eritrea, [54] indicating the diet of early humans included seafood obtained by beachcombing.

    The dating of the Southern Dispersal is a matter of dispute. [38] It may have happened either pre- or post-Toba, a catastrophic volcanic eruption that took place between 69,000 and 77,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba. Stone tools discovered below the layers of ash disposed in India may point to a pre-Toba dispersal but the source of the tools is disputed. [38] An indication for post-Toba is haplo-group L3, that originated before the dispersal of humans out of Africa and can be dated to 60,000–70,000 years ago, "suggesting that humanity left Africa a few thousand years after Toba". [38] Some research showing slower than expected genetic mutations in human DNA was published in 2012, indicating a revised dating for the migration to between 90,000 and 130,000 years ago. [55] Some more recent research suggests a migration out-of-Africa of around 50,000-65,000 years ago of the ancestors of modern non-African populations, similar to most previous estimates. [21] [56] [57]

    Y-DNA and mtDNA haplogroups spread by three routes after leaving Africa: "South Route" (from Iran via India to Oceania), "North Route" (from Iran to Altai) and "West route" (from Iran to the Middle East). [58] [59]

    Spreading route Y-DNA haprogroups
    Staying in Africa A, B, E
    South Route C1b2, F, K, M, S, H, L
    North Route D, C1a1, C2, N, O, Q
    West Route C1a2, I, J, G, R, T

    Western Asia Edit

    A fossil of a modern human dated to 54,700 years ago was found in Manot Cave in Israel, named Manot 1, [60] though the dating was questioned by Groucutt et al. (2015).

    South Asia and Australia Edit

    It is thought that Australia was inhabited around 65,000–50,000 years ago. As of 2017, the earliest evidence of humans in Australia is at least 65,000 years old, [22] [23] while McChesney stated that

    . genetic evidence suggests that a small band with the marker M168 migrated out of Africa along the coasts of the Arabian Peninsula and India, through Indonesia, and reached Australia very early, between 60,000 and 50,000 years ago. This very early migration into Australia is also supported by Rasmussen et al. (2011). [26]

    Fossils from Lake Mungo, Australia, have been dated to about 42,000 years ago. [61] [62] Other fossils from a site called Madjedbebe have been dated to at least 65,000 years ago., [23] though some researchers doubt this early estimate and date the Madjedbebe fossils at about 50,000 years ago at the oldest. [24] [25]

    East Asia Edit

    Tianyuan man from China has a probable date range between 38,000 and 42,000 years ago, while Liujiang man from the same region has a probable date range between 67,000 and 159,000 years ago. According to 2013 DNA tests, Tianyuan man is related "to many present-day Asians and Native Americans". [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] Tianyuan is similar in morphology to Liujiang man, and some Jōmon period modern humans found in Japan, as well as modern East and Southeast Asians. [68] [69] [70] [71]

    Europe Edit

    According to Macaulay et al. (2005), an early offshoot from the southern dispersal with haplogroup N followed the Nile from East Africa, heading northwards and crossing into Asia through the Sinai. This group then branched, some moving into Europe and others heading east into Asia. [27] This hypothesis is supported by the relatively late date of the arrival of modern humans in Europe as well as by archaeological and DNA evidence. [27] Based on an analysis of 55 human mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) of hunter-gatherers, Posth et al. (2016) argue for a "rapid single dispersal of all non-Africans less than 55,000 years ago."

    Mitochondrial haplogroups Edit

    Within Africa Edit

    The first lineage to branch off from Mitochondrial Eve was L0. This haplogroup is found in high proportions among the San of Southern Africa and the Sandawe of East Africa. It is also found among the Mbuti people. [72] [73] These groups branched off early in human history and have remained relatively genetically isolated since then. Haplogroups L1, L2 and L3 are descendants of L1–L6, and are largely confined to Africa. The macro haplogroups M and N, which are the lineages of the rest of the world outside Africa, descend from L3. L3 is about 70,000 years old, while haplogroups M and N are about 65-55,000 years old. [74] [57] The relationship between such gene trees and demographic history is still debated when applied to dispersals. [75]

    Of all the lineages present in Africa, only the female descendants of one lineage, mtDNA haplogroup L3, are found outside Africa. If there had been several migrations, one would expect descendants of more than one lineage to be found. L3's female descendants, the M and N haplogroup lineages, are found in very low frequencies in Africa (although haplogroup M1 populations are very ancient and diversified in North and North-east Africa) and appear to be more recent arrivals. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] A possible explanation is that these mutations occurred in East Africa shortly before the exodus and became the dominant haplogroups thereafter by means of the founder effect. Alternatively, the mutations may have arisen shortly afterwards.

    Southern Route and haplogroups M and N Edit

    Results from mtDNA collected from aboriginal Malaysians called Orang Asli indicate that the hapologroups M and N share characteristics with original African groups from approximately 85,000 years ago, and share characteristics with sub-haplogroups found in coastal south-east Asian regions, such as Australasia, the Indian subcontinent and throughout continental Asia, which had dispersed and separated from their African progenitor approximately 65,000 years ago. This southern coastal dispersal would have occurred before the dispersal through the Levant approximately 45,000 years ago. [27] This hypothesis attempts to explain why haplogroup N is predominant in Europe and why haplogroup M is absent in Europe. Evidence of the coastal migration is thought to have been destroyed by the rise in sea levels during the Holocene epoch. [76] Alternatively, a small European founder population that had expressed haplogroup M and N at first, could have lost haplogroup M through random genetic drift resulting from a bottleneck (i.e. a founder effect).

    The group that crossed the Red Sea travelled along the coastal route around Arabia and Persia until reaching India. [52] Haplogroup M is found in high frequencies along the southern coastal regions of Pakistan and India and it has the greatest diversity in India, indicating that it is here where the mutation may have occurred. [52] Sixty percent of the Indian population belong to Haplogroup M. The indigenous people of the Andaman Islands also belong to the M lineage. The Andamanese are thought to be offshoots of some of the earliest inhabitants in Asia because of their long isolation from the mainland. They are evidence of the coastal route of early settlers that extends from India to Thailand and Indonesia all the way to eastern New Guinea. Since M is found in high frequencies in highlanders from New Guinea and the Andamanese and New Guineans have dark skin and Afro-textured hair, some scientists think they are all part of the same wave of migrants who departed across the Red Sea

    60,000 years ago in the Great Coastal Migration. The proportion of haplogroup M increases eastwards from Arabia to India in eastern India, M outnumbers N by a ratio of 3:1. Crossing into Southeast Asia, haplogroup N (mostly in the form of derivatives of its R subclade) reappears as the predominant lineage. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] M is predominant in East Asia, but amongst Indigenous Australians, N is the more common lineage. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] This haphazard distribution of Haplogroup N from Europe to Australia can be explained by founder effects and population bottlenecks. [77]

    Autosomaalne DNA redigeerimine

    A 2002 study of African, European and Asian populations, found greater genetic diversity among Africans than among Eurasians, and that genetic diversity among Eurasians is largely a subset of that among Africans, supporting the out of Africa model. [78] A large study by Coop et al. (2009) found evidence for natural selection in autosomal DNA outside of Africa. The study distinguishes non-African sweeps (notably KITLG variants associated with skin color), West-Eurasian sweeps (SLC24A5) and East-Asian sweeps (MC1R, relevant to skin color). Based on this evidence, the study concluded that human populations encountered novel selective pressures as they expanded out of Africa. [79] MC1R and its relation to skin color had already been discussed by Liu, Harding et al. (2000), lk. 135 harvp error: no target: CITEREFLiu,_Harding_et_al.2000 (help) . According to this study, Papua New Guineans continued to be exposed to selection for dark skin color so that, although these groups are distinct from Africans in other places, the allele for dark skin color shared by contemporary Africans, Andamanese and New Guineans is an archaism. Endicott et al. (2003) suggest convergent evolution. A 2014 study by Gurdasani et al. indicates that the higher genetic diversity in Africa was further increased in some regions by relatively recent Eurasian migrations affecting parts of Africa. [80]

    Pathogen DNA Edit

    Another promising route towards reconstructing human genetic genealogy is via the JC virus (JCV), a type of human polyomavirus which is carried by 70–90 percent of humans and which is usually transmitted vertically, from parents to offspring, suggesting codivergence with human populations. For this reason, JCV has been used as a genetic marker for human evolution and migration. [81] This method does not appear to be reliable for the migration out of Africa, in contrast to human genetics, JCV strains associated with African populations are not basal. From this Shackelton et al. (2006) conclude that either a basal African strain of JCV has become extinct or that the original infection with JCV post-dates the migration from Africa.

    Admixture of archaic and modern humans Edit

    Evidence for archaic human species (descended from Homo heidelbergensis) having interbred with modern humans outside of Africa, was discovered in the 2010s. This concerns primarily Neanderthal admixture in all modern populations except for Sub-Saharan Africans but evidence has also been presented for Denisova hominin admixture in Australasia (i.e. in Melanesians, Aboriginal Australians and some Negritos). [82]

    The rate of admixture of Neanderthal admixture to European and Asian populations as of 2017 has been estimated at between about 2–3%. [83]

    Archaic admixture in some Sub-Saharan African populations hunter-gatherer groups (Biaka Pygmies and San), derived from archaic hominins that broke away from the modern human lineage around 700,000 years, was discovered in 2011. The rate of admixture was estimated at around 2%. [31] Admixture from archaic hominins of still earlier divergence times, estimated at 1.2 to 1.3 million years ago, was found in Pygmies, Hadza and five Sandawe in 2012. [84] [30] From an analysis of Mucin 7, a highly divergent haplotype that has an estimated coalescence time with other variants around 4.5 million years BP and is specific to African populations is inferred to have been derived from interbreeding between African modern and archaic humans. [85]

    Stone tools Edit

    In addition to genetic analysis, Petraglia et al. also examines the small stone tools (microlithic materials) from the Indian subcontinent and explains the expansion of population based on the reconstruction of paleoenvironment. He proposed that the stone tools could be dated to 35 ka in South Asia, and the new technology might be influenced by environmental change and population pressure. [86]


    Oldest human fossil outside of Africa found in Israel cave [VIDEO]

    A recent fossil of a jawbone complete with teeth discovered at a cave in Israel has revealed that our ancestors left Africa at least 50,000 years earlier than previously thought. According to the study published in the journal Science, scientists have dated the jawbone to 177,000-194,000 years ago.

    A team of researchers discovered the fossil, an adult upper jawbone with several teeth, at the Misliya cave in Israel, one of several prehistoric cave sites located on Mount Carmel.

    "This finding -- that early modern humans were present outside of Africa earlier than commonly believed -- completely changes our view on modern human dispersal and the history of modern human evolution," lead researcher Israel Hershkovitz, Professor at Tel Aviv University said.

    Based on fossils found in Ethiopia, the common consensus of anthropologists has been that modern humans appeared in Africa roughly 160,000-200,000 years ago. They also said that modern humans evolved in Africa and started migrating out of Africa around 100,000 years ago.

    "But if the fossil at Misliya dates to roughly 170,000-190,000 years ago, the entire narrative of the evolution of Homo sapiens must be pushed back by at least 100,000-200,000 years," Hershkovitz said.

    He added: "In other words, if modern humans started travelling out of Africa some 200,000 years ago, it follows that they must have originated in Africa at least 300,000-500,000 years ago."

    The earliest remains of modern human that have been found so far outside of Africa, at the Skhul and Qafzeh caves in Israel, were dated to 90,000-120,000 years ago.

    "Our research makes sense of many recent anthropological and genetic finds," Hershkovitz said.

    "About a year ago, scientists reported finding the remains of modern humans in China dating to about 80,000-100,000 years ago. This suggested that their migration occurred earlier than previously thought, but until our discovery at Misliya, we could not explain it," Hershkovitz added.


    ɿirst of our kind' found in Morocco

    Fossils of five early humans have been found in North Africa that show Homo sapiens emerged at least 100,000 years earlier than previously recognised.

    It suggests that our species evolved all across the continent, the scientists involved say.

    Prof Jean-Jacques Hublin, of the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, told me that the discovery would "rewrite the textbooks" about our emergence as a species.

    "It is not the story of it happening in a rapid way in a 'Garden of Eden' somewhere in Africa. Our view is that it was a more gradual development and it involved the whole continent. So if there was a Garden of Eden, it was all of Africa."

    Prof Hublin was speaking at a news conference at the College de France in Paris, where he proudly showed journalists casts of the fossil remains his team has excavated at a site in Jebel Irhoud in Morocco. The specimens include skulls, teeth, and long bones.

    Earlier finds from the same site in the 1960s had been dated to be 40,000 years old and ascribed to an African form of Neanderthal, a close evolutionary cousin of Homo sapiens.

    But Prof Hublin was always troubled by that initial interpretation, and when he joined the MPI he began reassessing Jebel Irhoud. And more than 10 years later he is now presenting new evidence that tells a very different story.

    The latest material has been dated by hi-tech methods to be between 300,000 and 350,000 years old. And the skull form is almost identical to modern humans.

    The few significant differences are seen in a slightly more prominent brow line and smaller brain cavity.

    Prof Hublin's excavation has further revealed that these ancient people had employed stone tools and had learned how to make and control fire. So, not only did they look like Homo sapiens, they acted like them as well.

    Until now, the earliest fossils of our kind were from Ethiopia (from a site known as Omo Kibish) in eastern Africa and were dated to be approximately 195,000 years old.

    "We now have to modify the vision of how the first modern humans emerged," Prof Hublin told me with an impish grin.

    Before our species evolved, there were many different types of primitive human species, each of which looked different and had its own strengths and weaknesses. And these various species of human, just like other animals, evolved and changed their appearance gradually, with just the occasional spurt. They did this over hundreds of thousands of years.

    By contrast, the mainstream view has been that Homo sapiens evolved suddenly from more primitive humans in East Africa around 200,000 years ago and it is at that point that we assumed, broadly speaking, the features we display now. What is more, only then do we spread throughout Africa and eventually to the rest of the planet. Prof Hublin's discoveries would appear to shatter this view.

    Jebel Irhoud is typical of many archaeological sites across Africa that date back 300,000 years. Many of these locations have similar tools and evidence for the use of fire. What they do not have is any fossil remains.

    Because most experts have worked on the assumption that our species did not emerge until 200,000 years ago, it was natural to think therefore that these other sites were occupied by an older, different species of human. But the Jebel Irhoud finds now make it possible that it was actually Homo sapiens that left the tool and fire evidence in these places.

    "We are not trying to say that the origin of our species was in Morocco - rather that the Jebel Irhoud discoveries show that we know that [these type of sites] were found all across Africa 300,000 years ago," said MPI team member Dr Shannon McPhearon.

    Prof Chris Stringer from the Natural History Museum in London, UK, was not involved in the research. He told BBC News: "This shows that there are multiple places in Africa where Homo sapiens was emerging. We need to get away from this idea that there was a single ɼradle'."

    And he raises the possibility that Homo sapiens may even have existed outside of Africa at the same time: "We have fossils from Israel that are probably the same age and they show what could be described as proto-Homo sapiens features."

    Prof Stringer says it is not inconceivable that primitive humans who had smaller brains, bigger faces, stronger brow ridges and bigger teeth - but who were nonetheless Homo sapiens - may have existed even earlier in time, possibly as far back as half a million years ago. This is a startling shift in what those who study human origins believed not so long ago.

    "I was saying 20 years ago that the only thing we should be calling Homo sapiens are humans that look like us. This was a view that Homo sapiens suddenly appeared in Africa at some point in time and that was the beginning of our species. But it now looks like I was wrong," Prof Stringer told BBC News.


    Now-Extinct Relative Had Sex with Humans Far and Wide

    A mysterious extinct branch of the human family tree that once interbred with ours apparently lived in a vast range from Siberia to Southeast Asia, mating with just as widely spread a group of modern humans, scientists find.

    This new research also demonstrates that contrary to the findings of the largest previous genetic studies, modern humans apparently settled Asia in multiple waves of migration, investigators added.

    These lost relatives, known as the Denisovans, were discovered from at least 30,000-year-old bones and teeth unearthed in the Siberian Denisova cave in 2008. Analysis of DNA taken from these fossils suggested they shared a common origin with Neanderthals, but were nearly as genetically distinct from Neanderthals as Neanderthals were from living people.

    Although we modern humans are the only surviving members of our lineage, other now-extinct human groups once lived alongside our ancestors, including Neanderthals, Denisovans and an as-yet- unnamed lineage recently discovered in Africa. Modern humans even occasionally interbred with these relatives, with estimates suggesting that Neanderthal DNAmakes up1 percent to 4 percent of modern Eurasian genomesand Denisovan DNA 4 percent to 6 percent of modern New Guinean and Bougainville Islander genomes in the islands of Melanesia. [See images of mysterious human ancestor]

    Now, using state-of-the-art genome analysis methods, an international team of scientists confirmed that Denisovans must have roamed widely, from Siberia to tropical Southeast Asia. They apparently left a genetic footprint not only in present-day Melanesia, but also in Australia, the Philippines and elsewhere.

    "They must have extended over a large geographic range," researcher David Reich, an evolutionary geneticist at Harvard Medical School, told LiveScience. Indeed, these findings suggest "Denisovans were spread more widely geographically and ecologically than any other hominin, with the exception of modern humans," said molecular anthropologist Mark Stoneking at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. (Hominins include those species after the human lineage Homo split from that of chimpanzees.)

    Tracing Denisovan genes

    The new study was initiated byStoneking, an expert on genetic variation in Southeast Asia and Oceania who has assembled diverse samples from that region. Stoneking, Reich and their colleagues analyzed DNA from 33 present-day populations in south Asia, Southeast Asia and Oceania, including Borneo, Fiji, Indonesia, Malaysia, Australia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Polynesia.

    "Denisovan DNA is like a medical imaging dye that traces a person's blood vessels &mdash it is so recognizable that you can detect even a little bit of it in one individual," Reich said. "In a similar way, we were able to trace Denisovan DNA in the migrations of people."

    Their analysis shows that, in addition to Melanesians, Denisovans contributed DNA to Australian aborigines, a Philippine "Negrito" group called Mamanwa, and several other populations in eastern Southeast Asia and Oceania. However, groups in the west or northwest, including other Negrito groups such as the Onge in the Andaman Islands and the Jehai in Malaysia, as well as mainland East Asians, did not interbreed with Denisovans.

    Overall, this suggests that Denisovans interbred with modern humansin Southeast Asia at least 44,000 years ago, before the time of the separation of the Australians and New Guineans.

    "The fact that Denisovan DNA is present in some aboriginal populations of Southeast Asia but not in others shows that there was a checkerboard of populations with and without Denisovan material more than 44,000 years ago," Stoneking said, adding the discrepancy could be explained if the Denisovans lived in Southeast Asia. [Top 10 Mysteries of the First Humans]

    "We often think of population mixtures as a kind of recent phenomenon in human history, such as in the Americas, but what the genetic data is telling us more and more with the Neanderthals and Denisovans is that it happened over many times in history as a common feature of our evolution," Reich said.

    "There might be a tendency to think that mating between modern humans and archaic humans such as Neanderthals and Denisovans is a very strange behavior and therefore there must be something unusual or different about populations that engaged in such behavior," Stoneking added. "Instead, I think the picture we are getting from both this work as well as from analyses of genetic data from all modern human populations is that there are two things humans like to do &mdash migrate and mate &mdash and the product of these two is going to be admixture."

    "The prediction I would make, which is already largely fulfilled, is that every human population shows signs of admixture, either with other modern human populations and-or with archaic humans, and that this is very normal behavior for humans," Stoneking told LiveScience.

    Waves of migration

    In addition, the patterns the scientists found can only be explained by at least two waves of migration of modern humans into Asia. The first gave rise to the aboriginal populations that currently live in Southeast Asia and Oceania, and later migrations gave rise to relatives of East Asians who now are the primary population of Southeast Asia.

    "This shows the power of sequencing ancient DNA as a tool for understanding human history," Reich said. [History's Most Overlooked Mysteries]

    Such findings support the idea of modern humans dispersing eastward to Asia by a southern route through India to Australia and Melanesia. This concept was previously supported by archaeological evidence, but never had strong genetic support until now.

    "The archaeological evidence suggested that the first people got to Australia and New Guinea incredibly early, with tools that were less advanced technologically than later seen in the Middle East, Europe and Asia," Reich said. "The genetic work now supports that, showing there were multiple waves of migration to Asia and Oceania, with some quite earlier than others."

    The researchers now want to pinpoint the time at which interbreeding with Denisovans occurred, "and to figure out if the genes that modern humans received from Denisovans have contributed anything of importance," Stoneking said.

    The scientists detailed their findings online Sept. 22 in the American Journal for Human Genetics.

    Jälgige LiveScience'i, et saada viimaseid teadusuudiseid ja avastusi Twitteris @eluteadus ja edasi Facebook.


    Oldest known human fossil outside Africa discovered in Israel

    A prehistoric jawbone discovered in a cave in Israel has prompted scientists to rethink theories of how the earliest human pioneers came to populate the planet, suggesting that our ancestors left Africa far earlier than previously thought.

    The fossil, dated to nearly 200,000 years ago, is almost twice as old as any previous Homo sapiens remains discovered outside Africa, where our species is thought to have originated.

    Until recently, several converging lines of evidence – from fossils, genetics and archaeology – suggested that modern humans first dispersed from Africa into Eurasia about 60,000 years ago, quickly supplanting other early human species, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans, that they may have encountered along the way.

    However, a series of recent discoveries, including a trove of 100,000-year-old human teeth found in a cave in China, have clouded this straightforward narrative. And the latest find, at the Misliya cave site in northern Israel, has added a new and unexpected twist.

    “What Misliya tells us is that modern humans left Africa not 100,000 years ago, but 200,000 years ago,” said Prof Israel Hershkovitz, who led the work at Tel Aviv University. “This is a revolution in the way we understand the evolution of our own species.”

    The find suggests that there were multiple waves of migration across Europe and Asia and could also mean that modern humans in the Middle East were mingling, and possibly mating, with other human species for tens of thousands of years.

    “Misliya breaks the mould of existing scenarios for the timing of the first known Homo sapiens in these regions,” said Chris Stringer, head of human origins at the Natural History Museum in London. “It’s important in removing a long-lasting constraint on our thinking.”

    Larger teeth

    The fossil, a well-preserved upper jawbone with eight teeth, was discovered at the Misliya cave, which appears to have been occupied for lengthy periods. The teeth are larger than average for a modern human, but their shape and the fossil’s facial anatomy are distinctly Homo sapiens, an analysis of the fossil in the journal Science concludes.

    Sophisticated stone tools and blades discovered nearby suggest the cave’s inhabitants were capable hunters, who used sling projectiles and elegantly carved blades used to kill and butcher gazelles, oryx, wild boars, hares, turtles and ostrich. The team also discovered evidence of matting made from plants that may have been used to sleep on. Radioactive dating places the fossil and tools at between 177,000 and 194,000 years old.

    Prof Hershkovitz said the record now indicates that humans probably ventured beyond the African continent whenever the climate allowed it.

    “I don’t believe there was one big exodus out of Africa,” he said. “I think that throughout hundreds of thousands of years [humans] were coming in and out of Africa all the time.”

    Reconstructions of the ancient climate records, based on deep sea cores, show that the Middle East switched between being humid and extremely arid, and that the region would have been lush and readily habitable for several periods matching the age of the Misliya fossil.

    The idea of multiple dispersals is supported by recent discoveries such as the teeth unearthed in China, human fossils in Sumatra from about 70,000 years ago, archaeological evidence from Northern Australia at 65,000 years and fossils previously discovered near Misliya dating to 90,000-120,000 years ago.

    The scenario also raises the possibility that the eastern Mediterranean may have acted as a crossroads for encounters between our own ancestors and the various other human species, such as Neanderthals, who had already reached Europe.

    “We’re like a train station that everyone’s passing through,” said Prof Hershkovitz.

    Neanderthals

    Scientists have already shown that interbreeding with Neanderthals, whose lineage diverged from our own 500,000 years ago, occurred some time in the past 50,000 years. As a legacy, modern-day Eurasians carry 1-4 per cent of Neanderthal DNA.

    However, a recent analysis of DNA taken from a Neanderthal leg bone found in a German cave hinted at much earlier encounters between the two species, dating back more than 200,000 years. The new fossil adds plausibility to this theory.

    “It means modern humans were potentially meeting and interacting during a longer period of time with other archaic human groups, providing more opportunity for cultural and biological exchanges,” said Rolf Quam, Binghamton University anthropology professor and a co-author of the study.

    The discovery also raises intriguing questions about the fate of the earliest modern human pioneers. Genetic data from modern-day populations around the world strongly suggest that everyone outside Africa can trace their ancestors back to a group that dispersed around 60,000 years ago. So the inhabitants of the Misliya cave are probably not the ancestors of anyone alive today, and scientists can only speculate why their branch of the family tree came to an end.

    Prof David Reich, a geneticist at Harvard University and an expert in population genetics and ancient DNA, said: “It’s important to distinguish between the migration out of Africa that’s being discussed here and the ‘out-of-Africa’ migration that is most commonly discussed when referring to genetic data. This [Misliya] lineage contributed little if anything to present-day people.”

    “These early exits are sometimes termed ‘unsuccessful’ or ‘failed’,” said Mr Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London. “Some of these groups could have gone extinct through natural processes, through competition with other humans, including later waves of modern humans, or they could have been genetically swamped by a more extensive 60,000 year old dispersal.” – Guardian


    Are these our ancestors?

    The owner of the jaw bone wasn't necessarily part of the modern human population that went on to populate the world, said Professor Hiscock.

    They may have moved back to Africa. Or maybe they died out.

    "If that's true, why did they die out and why were our ancestors able to move out when these people didn't, given that they're anatomically the same as us?" he said.

    Perhaps, he added, our ancestors acquired cultural characteristics in Africa that allowed them to colonise the globe that these early modern humans didn't have.

    Tools found near the jaw bone, in Misliya Cave, also add to the story.

    The style of stone tool, called Levallois, is a very economical way of making tools, said University of New South Wales palaeontologist Darren Curnoe.

    "You can get a piece of rock and quite quickly, knock off a fully formed tool. Per lump of rock, you can produce a lot more tools."

    Levallois tools have been uncovered in Europe that are almost 300,000 years old.

    It was assumed they were made by Neanderthals, because modern humans didn't make it that far until around 50,000 years ago, Dr Curnoe said.

    But the new Misliya Cave fossil find raises the possibility that modern humans could have made it to Europe a lot earlier, he added.

    "We don't have the evidence yet, but it's certainly possible. We can't dismiss that idea outright."


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