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Julius Caesari rekonstrueerimine

Julius Caesari rekonstrueerimine


Antistius edastas oma leiud Rooma rahvale oluliste poliitiliste teadaannete jaoks- foorum. See sündmus on esimene mõrva eksperditunnistajana tegutseva arsti esimene salvestatud lugu, mis annab meile sõna & acirc € ˜forensic & acirc € ˜ -& acirc € ˜foorumist & rsquo. 2000 aastat hiljem hakati seda terminit taas rakendama hoopis teistsugusele lahkamisele.

2003. aastal otsustas kaasaegsete ekspertide meeskond Itaalia kohtuekspertiisi Luciano Garafano juhtimisel viia läbi oma digitaalse lahkamise. Kasutades spetsiaalset tarkvara Caesari ja rsquose surnukeha kolmemõõtmelise rekonstrueerimise loomiseks, võtsid nad iidsed tõendid, sealhulgas esialgse lahkamise, ja taastasid mõrva asjaolud. Kaasaegne patoloogide, politseiprofiilide ja klassikaliste ajaloolaste meeskond asus seejärel uurima, mida nad võiksid järeldada.

Antistiuse ja rsquose kontot kasutades rakendati 3 -D rekonstrueerimisele Caesari ja rsquose vigastusi. Seda tehes kasutas Garafano rünnaku taastamiseks oma vägivallavägivalla kogemust.

Rakendati mitmeid stsenaariume ja Garafano jõudis järeldusele, et 23 mehel oli võimatu kõigil noad & nbsp; Tegelikult oli tõenäolisem, et mõrvas osales aktiivselt 5-10 meest, ülejäänud moodustasid enda ümber sõela, et takistada teiste senaatorite sekkumist.

Julius Caesari surm. Google Images


Sisu

Gaius Julius Caesar sündis patriitslaste perekonda sugu Julia, mis väitis põlvnemist legendaarse Trooja vürsti Aenease pojast Juluselt, väidetavalt jumalanna Veenuse pojalt. [6] Juulid olid albaanide päritolu, neid mainiti kui üht juhtivatest albaanide majadest, mis asusid Rooma umbes 7. sajandi keskpaiku eKr pärast Alba Longa hävitamist. Neile anti koos teiste aadlike albaanide perekondadega patriitslaste staatus. [7] Juulid eksisteerisid ka Bovillaes varasel perioodil, millest annab tunnistust väga vana kiri selle linna teatri altaril, mis räägib nende ohverdamisest vastavalt lege Albanavõi Albani riitused. [8] [9] [10] tunnused "Caesar" pärineb Plinius Vanema sõnul esivanemast, kes sündis keisrilõikega (ladina tegusõnast "lõikama"), caedere, Caes-). [11] Ajalooline Augusta pakub välja kolm alternatiivset selgitust: esimesel Caesaril oli paks juuksepea ("keisrid") et tal olid säravad hallid silmad ("oculis caesiis") või et ta tappis Puna sõdade ajal elevandi ("caesai" mauride keeles) lahingus. [12] Caesar andis välja münte, millel olid kujutatud elevandid, mis viitab sellele, et ta pooldas oma nime viimast tõlgendamist.

Hoolimata iidsetest sugupõlvedest ei olnud Julii Caesares eriti poliitiliselt mõjukad, kuigi nad olid nautinud oma poliitilise varanduse mõningast elavnemist 1. sajandi alguses eKr. [13] Caesari isa, keda kutsuti ka Gaius Julius Caesariks, valitses Aasia provintsi, [14] ja tema õde Julia, Caesari tädi, abiellus Gaius Mariusega, kes oli Vabariigi üks silmapaistvamaid tegelasi. [15] Tema ema Aurelia Cotta oli pärit mõjukast perest. Caesari lapsepõlvest on jäädvustatud vähe. [16]

Aastal 85 eKr suri Caesari isa ootamatult, [17] muutes Caesari 16 -aastaselt perekonnapeaks. Tema täisealiseks saamine langes kokku kodusõjaga tema onu Gaius Mariuse ja tema rivaali Lucius Cornelius Sulla vahel. Mõlemad pooled puhastasid veriselt oma poliitilisi vastaseid, kui nad olid üleval. Marius ja tema liitlane Lucius Cornelius Cinna kontrollisid linna, kui Caesar uueks kandidaadiks nimetati flamen dialis (Jupiteri ülempreester), [18] ja ta oli abielus Cinna tütre Corneliaga. [19] [20]

Pärast Sulla viimast võitu tegid Caesari sidemed vana režiimiga ta aga uue sihtmärgiks. Temalt võeti ära pärand, naise kaasavara ja preesterlus, kuid ta keeldus Corneliast lahutamast ja oli hoopis sunnitud end varjama. [21] Ohtu tema vastu tühistas ema perekonna sekkumine, kuhu kuulusid Sulla toetajad, ja Vestali neitsid. Sulla andis vastumeelselt alla ja väidetavalt kuulutas ta, et nägi Caesaris palju Mariusi. [16] Preesterluse kaotamine oli võimaldanud tal jätkata sõjalist karjääri, kuna Jupiteri ülempreestril ei olnud lubatud hobust puudutada, kolm ööd oma voodist väljas või ühel ööl väljaspool Roomat vaadata ega armeed vaadata. [22]

Caesar tundis, et diktaatori meelt muutes oleks Sullast kaugel palju turvalisem, nii et ta lahkus Roomast ja liitus armeega, teenides Aasia Marcus Minucius Thermuse ja Kiliikia Servilius Isauricuse juhtimisel. Ta teenis silmapaistvalt, võites kodanikukrooni oma osa eest Mytilene piiramises. Ta läks missioonile Bithyniasse, et kindlustada abi kuningas Nicomedese laevastikule, kuid veetis Nicomedese õukonnas nii kaua, et tekkisid kuulujutud kuningaga seotud afäärist, mida Caesar kogu oma elu ägedalt eitas. [23]

Kuuldes Sulla surmast 78. aastal eKr, tundis Caesar end piisavalt turvaliselt, et naasta Rooma. Tal puudusid vahendid, kuna tema pärand konfiskeeriti, kuid ta omandas tagasihoidliku maja Roomas madalama klassi naabruses Subura. [24] Ta pöördus õiguskaitse poole ja sai tuntuks oma erakordse kõnepruugi tõttu, mida saatsid kirglikud žestid ja kõrge hääl ning endiste kuberneride halastamatu kohtu alla andmine, kes olid kurikuulsad väljapressimise ja korruptsiooni poolest.

Teel üle Egeuse mere [25] röövisid piraadid Caesari ja hoidsid teda vangis. [26] [27] Ta säilitas oma vangipõlves üleoleku. Piraadid nõudsid 20 talendi hõbeda lunaraha, kuid ta nõudis, et nad küsiksid 50. [28] [29] Pärast lunaraha maksmist tõstis Caesar laevastiku, jälitas ja püüdis piraate enne nende vangistamist. Ta lasi need risti lüüa omal jõul, nagu ta oli vangistuses olles lubanud [30] - lubadus, mida piraadid võtsid naljana. Leebuse märgiks lasti tal kõigepealt kõri läbi lõigata. Peagi kutsuti ta tagasi Aasiasse sõjategevusse, tõstes abipersonali, et tõrjuda sissetung idast. [31]

Roomasse naastes valiti ta sõjaväetribüüniks, mis oli esimene samm poliitilises karjääris. Ta valiti kvestor aastal 69 eKr, [32] ja sel aastal esitas ta oma tädi Juliale matusekõne, sealhulgas tema abikaasa Mariuse kujutised, mida Sulla päevilt pole nähtud matuserongkäigus. Sel aastal suri ka tema naine Cornelia. [33] Caesar läks pärast naise matuseid, kevadel või suve alguses 69. aastal eKr Hispaaniasse kvestoriks. [34] Seal olles kohtus ta väidetavalt Aleksander Suure kujuga ja mõistis rahulolematusega, et ta on nüüd sellises eas, kui Aleksandril oli maailm jalge ees, kuigi ta oli saavutanud suhteliselt vähe. Tagasi tulles 67. aastal eKr [35] abiellus ta Sulla lapselapse Pompeiaga, kellest ta hiljem 61 eKr pärast Bona Dea skandaali sattumist lahutas. [36] Aastal 65 eKr valiti ta valituks curule aedilening lavastas uhkeid mänge, mis pälvisid talle edasise tähelepanu ja rahva poolehoiu. [37]

Aastal 63 eKr kandideeris ta ametisse pontifex maximus, Rooma riigiusu ülempreester. Ta kandideeris kahe võimsa senaatori vastu. Süüdistusi altkäemaksu andmises esitasid kõik osapooled. Caesar võitis mugavalt, hoolimata vastaste suurematest kogemustest ja seisust. [38] Cicero oli sel aastal konsul ja ta paljastas Catiline'i vandenõu vabariigi kontrolli alla haaramiseks, mitmed senaatorid süüdistasid Caesarit vandenõus osalemises. [39]

Pärast serveerimist pretor aastal 62 eKr määrati Caesar Hispania Ulteriori (Pürenee poolsaare lääneosa) valitsemiseks propraator, [40] [41] [42] kuigi mõned allikad viitavad sellele, et tal olid prokonsulaarvolitused. [43] [44] Ta oli endiselt suurtes võlgades ja pidi enne lahkumist oma võlausaldajad rahuldama. Ta pöördus Rooma rikkaima mehe Marcus Licinius Crassuse poole. Crassus tasus mõned Caesari võlad ja tegutses teiste käendajana, vastutasuks poliitilise toetuse eest, olles vastu Pompey huvidele. Sellegipoolest, et vältida erakodanikuks saamist ja olla seega võlgade eest süüdistatav, lahkus Caesar oma provintsi enne provintsi lõppu. Hispaanias vallutas ta kaks kohalikku hõimu ja teda kiideti imperaator oma vägede poolt reformis ta võlgade seadust ja täitis kõrgelt oma kubernerikoha. [45]

Caesar sai tunnustust imperaator aastal 60 eKr (ja uuesti hiljem 45 eKr). Rooma Vabariigis oli see aunimetus, mille võtsid teatud sõjaväejuhid. Pärast eriti suurt võitu kuulutasid sõjaväelased väljal oma ülema imperaator, tunnustust, mis on vajalik, et kindral saaks taotleda senatilt triumfi. Siiski soovis Caesar astuda ka vabariigi kõrgeima magistraadi konsuliks. Kui ta peaks tähistama triumfi, peaks ta jääma sõduriks ja viibima tseremooniani linnast väljas, kuid valimistel kandideerimiseks peab ta andma oma käsu ja sisenema Rooma eraisikuna. Mõlemat ei suutnud ta teha olemasoleva aja jooksul. Ta küsis senatilt luba seista tagaselja, kuid Cato blokeeris ettepaneku. Seistes silmitsi valikuga triumfi ja konsulaadi vahel, valis Caesar konsulaadi. [46]

Aastal 60 eKr taotles Caesar koos kahe teise kandidaadiga valimist konsuliks 59 eKr. Valimised olid rumalad - väidetavalt kasutas isegi Cato oma rikkumatuse mainega altkäemaksu ühe Caesari vastase kasuks. Võitis Caesar koos konservatiivse Marcus Bibulusega. [47]

Caesar oli juba Marcus Licinius Crassuse poliitilises võlas, kuid tegi ka avamänge Pompeyle. Pompeius ja Crassus olid kümme aastat vastuolus, nii et Caesar püüdis neid lepitada. Neil kolmel oli piisavalt raha ja poliitilist mõju avaliku äri juhtimiseks. See mitteametlik liit, mida tuntakse Esimese Triumviraadina ("kolme mehe reegel"), kindlustas Pompeius abielludes Caesari tütre Juliaga. [48] ​​Ka Caesar abiellus uuesti, seekord Calpurnia, kes oli teise võimsa senaatori tütar. [49]

Caesar pakkus välja seaduse avalike maade vaestele ümberjagamiseks - vajadusel relvade abil - ettepaneku, mida toetasid Pompeius ja Crassus, muutes triumviraadi avalikuks. Pompeius täitis linna sõduritega, mis hirmutas triumviraadi vastaseid. Bibulus üritas tunnused ebasoodsaks kuulutada ja seega uue seaduse kehtetuks tunnistada, kuid Caesari relvastatud toetajad tõrjusid ta foorumilt minema. Tema litsentsidel olid nägu purustatud, kaks temaga kaasas olnud kõrgemat magistraati said haavata ja ta viskas väljaheite ämbri. Oma elu kartuses läks ta ülejäänud aastaks oma majja pensionile, avaldades aeg -ajalt halbu märke. Need katsed osutusid ebaefektiivseks Caesari seadusandluse takistamisel. Rooma satiirikud nimetasid aastat hiljem "Juliuse ja Caesari konsuliks". [50]

Kui Caesar esimest korda valiti, püüdis aristokraatia piirata oma tulevast võimu, määrates Itaalia metsa ja karjamaad, mitte provintsi kuberneriks saamist, kuna tema sõjaline juhtimiskohustus pärast tema ametiaastat oli lõppenud. [51] Poliitiliste liitlaste abiga kindlustas Caesar läbipääsu lex Vatinia, andes talle kuberneriks Cisalpine Gauli (Põhja -Itaalia) ja Illyricumi (Kagu -Euroopa). [52] Pompeyuse ja tema äia Piso õhutusel lisati Transalpine Gaul (Lõuna-Prantsusmaa) hiljem pärast selle kuberneri enneaegset surma, andes talle käsu nelja leegioni kohta. [52] Tema kuberneri ametiajaks ja seega ka puutumatuseks süüdistuse esitamiseks määrati tavapärase asemel viis aastat. [53] [54] Kui tema konsuliamet lõppes, hoidus Caesar oma ametiaasta rikkumiste eest süüdistuste esitamisest ja lahkus kiiresti oma provintsi. [55]

Gallia vallutamine

Caesar oli endiselt sügavalt võlgades, kuid kubernerina oli võimalik raha teenida, olgu selleks siis väljapressimine [56] või sõjaline seiklus. Caesari alluvuses oli neli leegioni, kaks tema provintsi piirnesid vallutamata territooriumiga ja Gallia osad olid teadaolevalt ebastabiilsed. Mõned Rooma gallia liitlased olid oma konkurentide poolt Magetobriga lahingus lüüa saanud, kasutades selleks germaani hõimude kontingenti. Roomlased kartsid, et need hõimud valmistuvad rändama lõunasse, Itaaliale lähemale, ja et neil on sõjakad kavatsused. Caesar kasvatas kaks uut leegioni ja alistas need hõimud. [57]

Vastuseks Caesari varasemale tegevusele hakkasid Kirde hõimud end relvastama. Caesar käsitles seda agressiivse käiguna ja pärast ebaselget kaasamist ühendatud hõimude vastu vallutas ta hõimud tükkhaaval. Vahepeal alustas üks tema leegion hõimude vallutamist kaugel põhjas, otse Suurbritannia vastas. [58] Kevadel 56 eKr pidasid triumviirid konverentsi, sest Rooma oli segaduses ja Caesari poliitiline liit oli katkemas. Lucca konverents uuendas esimest triumviraati ja pikendas Caesari kubernerivalitsust veel viieks aastaks. [59] Põhja vallutamine viidi peagi lõpule, samas jäid mõned vastupanutaskud alles. [60] Caesaril oli nüüd kindel baas Suurbritannia pealetungi alustamiseks.

Aastal 55 eKr tõrjus Caesar kahe germaani hõimu sissetungi Galliasse ja järgnes sellele, ehitades silla üle Reini jõe ja näidates jõudu Saksamaa germaani territooriumil, enne kui ta tagasi pöördus ja lammutas. Suve lõpus, olles alistanud veel kaks hõimu, läks ta Suurbritanniasse, väites, et britid aitasid eelmisel aastal ühte tema vaenlast, võimalik, et Bretagne'i Venetiat. [61] Tema teadmised Suurbritanniast olid kehvad ja kuigi ta sai rannikul rannaääre, ei suutnud ta kaugemale jõuda. Ta ründas oma rannapeast välja ja hävitas mõned külad, seejärel naasis talveks Galliasse. [62] Ta naasis järgmisel aastal paremini ettevalmistatuna ja suurema jõuga ning saavutas rohkem. Ta edenes sisemaal ja sõlmis mõned liidud, kuid kehv saak tõi kaasa Gallia ulatusliku mässu, sundides Caesari viimast korda Suurbritanniast lahkuma. [63]

Kui Caesar viibis Suurbritannias, oli tema tütar Julia, Pompeyuse naine, surnud sünnitusel. Caesar üritas Pompey toetust uuesti kindlustada, pakkudes talle abiellumiseks oma õetütret, kuid Pompeius keeldus. Aastal 53 eKr Crassus tapeti, põhjustades ebaõnnestunud invasiooni ida poole. Rooma oli kodusõja lävel. Pompeius määrati erakorralise meetmena ainukonsuliks ja abiellus Caesari poliitilise vastase tütrega. Triumviraat oli surnud. [64]

Kuigi gallide hõimud olid sõjaliselt sama tugevad kui roomlased, tagas gallide sisemine lõhe Caesarile kerge võidu. Vercingetorixi katse 52. aastal eKr ühendada neid Rooma sissetungi vastu tuli liiga hilja. [65] [66] Ta osutus targaks väepealikuks, võites Gergovia lahingus Caesari, kuid Caesari põhjalikud piiramistööd Alesia lahingus sundisid ta lõpuks alla andma. [67] Hoolimata järgmisel aastal laialivalguvatest sõjapuhangutest, [68] Gallia vallutati tegelikult. Plutarchos väitis, et Gallia sõdade ajal oli armee võidelnud kolme miljoni mehe vastu (kellest miljon suri ja teine ​​miljon orjastati), alistas 300 hõimu ja hävitas 800 linna. [69] Tänapäeva ajaloolased vaidlevad ohvrite arvu üle. [70]

Kodusõda

Aastal 50 eKr käskis senat (eesotsas Pompeyusega) Caesaril oma armee laiali saata ja Rooma tagasi pöörduda, sest tema kuberneriaeg oli lõppenud. [71] Caesar arvas, et teda süüdistatakse, kui ta siseneb Rooma ilma kohtuniku puutumatuseta. Pompeius süüdistas Caesarit allumatuses ja riigireetmises. 10. jaanuaril 49 eKr ületas Caesar Rubiconi jõe (Itaalia piir) ainult ühe leegioni Legio XIII Geminaga ja sütitas kodusõja. Rubiconi ületamisel pidas Caesar Plutarchose ja Suetoniuse sõnul tsiteerima Ateena näitekirjanikku Menandrit, kreeka keeles "die on heidetud". [72] Erasmus märgib aga, et kreeka imperatiivse meeleolu täpsem ladina tõlge oleks "alea iacta esto", lase surra heidetakse. [73] Pompeius ja paljud senatist põgenesid lõunasse, kuna neil polnud suurt usaldust Pompey äsja üles tõstetud vägede vastu. Pompeius, hoolimata suurest arvust Caesarist, kellel oli kaasas ainult kolmeteistkümnes leegion, ei kavatsenud sõdida. Caesar jälitas Pompeyt, lootes vallutada Pompeius enne, kui tema leegionid pääsevad. [74]

Pompeiusel õnnestus põgeneda enne, kui Caesar teda tabada suutis. Hispaaniasse suundudes lahkus Caesar Itaaliast Mark Antony kontrolli all. Pärast hämmastavat 27-päevast marsruudimarssi alistas Caesar Pompey leitnandid, pöördus seejärel tagasi itta, et esitada väljakutse Pompeyle Illyrias, kus 10. juulil 48 eKr Dyrrhachium'i lahingus ei suutnud Caesar vaevu katastroofilist lüüasaamist vältida. Ülimalt lühikese kihluse ajal hiljem samal aastal võitis ta 9. augustil 48 eKr Kreekas Pharsalus Pompeyuse otsustavalt. [75]

Roomas määrati Caesar diktaatoriks, [78] kus Mark Antony oli tema hobuse isand (teine ​​juht). Caesar juhatas tema enda valimist teise konsulaadiks ja astus 11 päeva pärast sellest diktatuurist tagasi. [78] [79] Seejärel jälitas Caesar Pompeiuset Egiptusesse, saabudes peagi pärast kindrali mõrva. Seal esitati Caesarile Pompeyuse lõigatud pea ja pitsatirõngas, saades need pisaratega vastu. [80] Seejärel lasi ta Pompey mõrvarid tappa. [81]

Seejärel sattus Caesar Egiptuse kodusõda lapsvaarao ja tema õe, naise ja kaasregendi kuninganna Kleopatra vahel. Võib -olla vaarao rolli tõttu Pompey mõrvas asus Caesar Kleopatra poolele. Ta pidas vastu Aleksandria piiramisele ja hiljem võitis ta vaarao vägesid Niiluse lahingus 47 eKr ja seadis valitsejaks Kleopatra. Caesar ja Kleopatra tähistasid oma võitu võidukäiguga Niilusel 47. aasta kevadel eKr. Kuningliku praamiga oli kaasas 400 täiendavat laeva ning Caesarile tutvustati Egiptuse vaaraode luksuslikku elustiili. [82]

Caesar ja Cleopatra ei olnud abielus. Caesar jätkas suhteid Kleopatraga kogu oma viimase abielu jooksul - Rooma silmis ei tähendanud see abielurikkumist - ja tõenäoliselt sündis talle poeg, keda kutsuti Caesarioniks. Kleopatra külastas Roomat mitmel korral, resideerides Caesari villas Rooma lähedal, üle Tiberi. [82]

48. aasta lõpus eKr nimetati Caesar uuesti diktaatoriks, ametiajaks üks aasta. [79] Pärast 47. aasta eKr esimeste kuude veetmist Egiptuses läks Caesar Lähis -Itta, kus ta hävitas Ponti kuninga, tema võit oli nii kiire ja täielik, et ta pilkas Pompeiuse varasemaid võite selliste vaeste vaenlaste üle. [83] Teel Pontosse külastas Caesar Tarsust 27. – 29. Mail 47 eKr (25. – 27. Mai greg.), Kus ta leidis entusiastlikku toetust, kuid kus Cicero sõnul plaanis Cassius ta sel hetkel tappa. . [84] [85] [86] Seejärel suundus ta Aafrikasse, et tegeleda Pompey senaatori toetajate jäänustega. Titus Labienus võitis teda 4. jaanuaril 46 eKr Ruspinas, kuid taastus, saades 6. aprillil 46 eKr Thapsuses märkimisväärse võidu Cato üle, kes siis enesetapu tegi. [87]

Pärast seda võitu määrati ta 10 aastaks diktaatoriks. [88] Pompey pojad, kes põgenesid Hispaaniasse, andis Caesar tagaajamise ja alistas viimased opositsiooni jäänused Munda lahingus 45. märtsil eKr. [89] Selle aja jooksul valiti Caesar oma kolmandaks ja neljandaks ametiajaks konsuliks aastatel 46 eKr ja 45 eKr (viimati ilma kolleegita).

Kui ta veel Hispaanias kampaaniat tegi, hakkas senat Caesarile aumärke andma. Caesar polnud oma vaenlasi keelanud, selle asemel andestas peaaegu kõik, ja avalikkus ei olnud talle tõsiselt vastu. Aprillis peeti suuri mänge ja pidustusi, et austada Caesari võitu Mundas. Plutarchos kirjutab, et paljud roomlased leidsid, et Caesari võidu järel peetud triumf on halva maitsega, kuna kodusõjas lüüasaanud polnud olnud välismaalased, vaid hoopis roomlased. [90] Caesari naasmisel Itaaliasse 45. septembril eKr esitas ta testamendi, nimetades oma vanavanaisa Gaius Octaviuse (Octavian, hiljem tuntud kui Augustus Caesar) oma peamiseks pärijaks, jättes oma suure pärandi ja vara koos oma nimega. Caesar kirjutas ka, et kui Octavianus sureb enne Caesari surma, on Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus järgmine pärija järjest. [91] Oma testamendis jättis ta ka olulise kingituse Rooma kodanikele.

Caesar kehtestas 44. aastal eKr Rubiconi ületamise ja 44. eKr mõrva vahel uue põhiseaduse, mille eesmärk oli saavutada kolm eraldi eesmärki. [92] Esiteks tahtis ta mahasuruda kogu relvastatud vastupanu provintsides ja seeläbi Vabariigile korra tagasi tuua. Teiseks soovis ta luua Roomas tugeva keskvalitsuse. Lõpuks tahtis ta kõik provintsid kokku siduda ühtseks tervikuks. [92]

Esimene eesmärk saavutati, kui Caesar alistas Pompeyuse ja tema toetajad. [92] Kahe ülejäänud eesmärgi saavutamiseks pidi ta tagama, et tema kontroll valitsuse üle oleks vaieldamatu, [93] nii et ta võttis need volitused enda autoriteeti suurendades ja Rooma teiste poliitiliste institutsioonide autoriteeti vähendades. Lõpuks võttis ta kasutusele rea reforme, mille eesmärk oli lahendada mitu kaua tähelepanuta jäetud küsimust, millest tähtsaim oli tema kalendrireform. [94]

Diktatuur

Kui Caesar Rooma tagasi jõudis, andis senat talle triumfid võitude eest, näiliselt Gallia, Egiptuse, farnase ja Juba üle, mitte Rooma vastaste üle. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] Kui Egiptuse endine kuninganna Arsinoe IV oli ahelates paraadil, imetlesid pealtvaatajad tema väärikat kandmist ja olid haletsusväärsed. [95] Peeti võidumänge, metsaliste jahtidel osales 400 lõvi ja gladiaatorite võistlused. Merelahing peeti üleujutatud basseinis Marsi väljal. [96] Circus Maximuses võitlesid kaks sõjavangide armeed - kumbki 2000 inimest, 200 hobust ja 20 elevanti - surmani. Jälle kaebasid mõned kõrvalseisjad, seekord Caesari raiskava ekstravagantsuse pärast. Mäss puhkes ja peatus alles siis, kui Caesar lasi preestrite poolt Marsi väljal ohverdada kaks märatsejat. [96]

Pärast triumfi otsustas Caesar vastu võtta ambitsioonika seadusandliku tegevuskava. [96] Ta käskis korraldada rahvaloenduse, mis sundis teravilja dooli vähendama, ja määras, et vandekohtunikud võivad pärineda ainult senatist või ratsutamisastmest. Ta võttis vastu rikkaliku seaduse, mis piiras teatud luksuskaupade ostmist. Pärast seda võttis ta vastu seaduse, mis autasustas peresid paljude laste saamise eest, et kiirendada Itaalia taasasustamist. Seejärel keelas ta ametialased gildid, välja arvatud muistsed fondid, keelatud, kuna paljud neist olid õõnestavad poliitilised klubid. Seejärel võttis ta vastu kuberneride suhtes kehtiva tähtajalise seaduse. Ta võttis vastu võlgade ümberkorraldamise seaduse, mis lõpuks kõrvaldas umbes neljandiku kõikidest võlgadest. [96]

Seejärel ehitati paljude teiste avalike tööde kõrval ka Caesari foorum koos Venus Genetrixi templiga. [97] Samuti reguleeris Caesar rangelt riiklikult toetatava teravilja ostmist ja vähendas saajate arvu kindlale arvule, kes kõik kanti eriregistrisse. [98] Aastatel 47–44 eKr tegi ta plaane maa jagamiseks umbes 15 000 oma veteranile. [99]

Kõige olulisem muudatus oli aga tema kalendrireform. Rooma kalendrit reguleeris tollane kuu liikumine. Asendades selle päikese põhjal Egiptuse kalendriga, said Rooma põllumehed seda aasta -aastalt järjepideva hooajalise istutamise aluseks võtta. Ta seadis aasta pikkuseks 365,25 päeva, lisades iga neljanda aasta veebruari lõpus interkalaarset/hüppepäeva. [94]

Kalendri aastaaegadega vastavusse viimiseks määras ta, et 46. eKr lisatakse kolm lisakuud (tavaline interkalaarne kuu veebruari lõpus ja kaks lisakuud pärast novembrit). Nii avanes Juliuse kalender 1. jaanuaril 45 eKr. [94] [96] See kalender on peaaegu identne praeguse lääne kalendriga.

Vahetult enne mõrva läbis ta veel mõned reformid. [96] Ta määras ametnikud oma maareformide läbiviimiseks ja käskis Kartaago ja Korintose üles ehitada. Samuti laiendas ta ladina keelte õigusi kogu Rooma maailmas ning tühistas seejärel maksusüsteemi ja pöördus tagasi varasema versiooni juurde, mis võimaldas linnadel koguda aumärke nii, nagu nad tahtsid, mitte ei vajanud Rooma vahendajaid. Tema mõrv takistas edasisi ja suuremaid skeeme, mis hõlmasid enneolematu templi ehitamist Marsile, tohutut teatrit ja Aleksandria raamatukogu mastaabis raamatukogu. [96]

Samuti tahtis ta muuta Ostia suureks sadamaks ja lõigata kanal läbi Korintose kanna. Sõjaliselt tahtis ta vallutada daaklasi ja partelasi ning kätte maksta Carrhae kaotuse eest. Nii algatas ta ulatusliku mobilisatsiooni. Veidi enne tema mõrva nimetas senat ta elutsensoriks ja Isamaa isaks ning Quintilise kuu nimetati tema auks ümber juuliks. [96]

Talle anti täiendavaid autasusid, mida hiljem kasutati tema mõrva õigustamiseks tulevaste jumalike monarhidena: emiteeriti tema kujutisega münte ja tema kuju pandi kuningate kõrval. Talle anti senatis kuldne tool, tal lubati igal ajal kanda võidukleiti ja talle pakuti poolametlikku või populaarset kultust, mille ülempreestriks oli Mark Antony. [96]

Poliitilised reformid

Caesari poliitiliste ametissenimetuste ajalugu on keeruline ja ebakindel. Caesar pidas nii diktatuuri kui ka tribunaati, kuid vahelduslikult konsulaadi ja prokonsulaadi vahel. [93] Näib, et tema volitused osariigis on toetunud nendele magistratuuridele. [93] Esmakordselt määrati ta diktaatoriks 49. aastal eKr, võib -olla juhtima valimisi, kuid loobus diktatuurist 11 päeva jooksul. Aastal 48 eKr nimetati ta uuesti diktaatoriks, ainult seekord määramata ajaks, ja 46 eKr määrati ta 10 aastaks diktaatoriks. [100]

Aastal 48 eKr anti Caesarile alalised tribüünide volitused, [101] [ ebaõnnestus kinnitus ], mis muutis tema isiku pühaks ja võimaldas tal senatile veto panna, [101] kuigi vähemalt ühel korral üritasid tribüünid teda takistada. Süüdistavad tribüünid viidi sel juhul senati ette ja loovutati nende ametist. [101] See ei olnud esimene kord, kui Caesar rikkus tribüüni pühadust. Pärast seda, kui ta oli esmakordselt Roomas marssinud 49. aastal eKr, avas ta sunniviisiliselt riigikassa, ehkki tribüün pani sellele pitseri. Pärast kahe takistava tribüüni tagandamist ei kohanud Caesar ehk üllatuslikult teiste Tribunician College'i liikmete vastuseisu. [101]

Kui Caesar 47 eKr Rooma naasis, olid senati auastmed tugevalt ammendunud, nii et ta kasutas oma tsensuurivolitusi paljude uute senaatorite määramiseks, mis tõstis senati liikmeskonna lõpuks 900 -ni. [102] Kõik ametisse nimetamised olid tema enda määratud partisanid, kes röövisid senaatori aristokraatialt prestiiži ja muutsid senati talle üha alluvamaks. [103] Et minimeerida riski, et mõni teine ​​kindral võib teda vaidlustada, [100] võttis Caesar vastu seaduse, mis seadis kuberneridele tähtajalised piirangud. [100]

Aastal 46 eKr andis Caesar endale tiitli "Moraalide prefekt", mis oli amet, mis oli uus ainult nime poolest, kuna tema volitused olid identsed tsensorid. [101] Seega võis ta omada tsensuurivolitusi, samas ei allunud ta tehniliselt samadele kontrollidele, mille all olid tavalised tsensorid, ning kasutas neid volitusi senati täitmiseks oma partisanidega. Samuti lõi ta pretsedendi, mida järgisid tema keiserlikud järeltulijad, nõudes senatilt talle mitmesuguste tiitlite ja autasude andmist. Talle anti näiteks tiitel "Isamaa isa" ja "imperaator". [100]

Mündid olid tema sarnased ja talle anti senati koosolekutel esimene sõna. [100] Seejärel suurendas Caesar igal aastal valitavate kohtunike arvu, mis lõi suure hulga kogenud kohtunikke ja võimaldas Caesaril oma toetajaid premeerida. [102]

Caesar astus isegi samme Itaalia muutmiseks provintsiks ja teiste impeeriumi provintside tihedamaks sidumiseks ühtseks tervikuks. Selle protsessi, mis ühendas kogu Rooma impeeriumi üheks tervikuks, selle asemel, et säilitada seda ebavõrdsete vürstiriikide võrgustikuna, viiks lõpuks lõpule Caesari järglane, keiser Augustus.

Oktoobris 45 eKr loobus Caesar oma ainukonsuli kohast ja aitas ülejäänud aastaks valida kaks järeltulijat, mis teoreetiliselt taastas tavalise konsulaadi, kuna põhiseadus ei tunnustanud ühtegi konsulit ilma kolleegita. [102] Veebruaris 44 eKr, üks kuu enne mõrva, määrati ta alatiseks diktaatoriks. Caesari ajal oli tema leitnantidel [100] palju volitusi, peamiselt seetõttu, et Caesar oli sageli Itaaliast väljas. [100]

Elu lõpus hakkas Caesar valmistuma sõjaks Partia impeeriumi vastu. Kuna tema puudumine Roomast võib piirata tema võimalust oma konsule ametisse kutsuda, võttis ta vastu seaduse, mis lubas tal nimetada ametisse kõik magistraadid ja kõik konsulid ning tribüünid. [102] See muutis kohtunikud tegelikult rahvaesindajatest diktaatori esindajateks. [102]

Mõrv

Märtsi Iididel (15. märts, vt Rooma kalender) 44. aastal eKr pidi Caesar ilmuma senati istungile. Mitu senaatorit pidasid vandenõu Caesari mõrvamiseks. Mark Antony, olles eelmisel õhtul õudusunenäost süžeest ebamääraselt teada saanud vabastaja nimega Servilius Casca ja kartis halvimat ning läks Caesarit minema. Plotterid aga olid seda ette näinud ja kartnud, et Antony tuleb Caesarile appi, korraldanud Treboniusel tema vahele võtta just siis, kui ta lähenes Pompeyuse teatri portikile, kus istungjärk pidi toimuma, ja pidas ta õues kinni. (Plutarchos aga määrab selle Antoniuse edasilükkamise aktsiooni Brutus Albinusele). Kui ta kuulis senati saalist müra, põgenes Antony. [104]

Plutarchose sõnul esitas Tillius Cimber talle Caesari senati saabudes avalduse oma pagendatud venna tagasikutsumiseks. [105] Teised vandenõulased kogunesid tuge pakkuma. Nii Plutarchos kui ka Suetonius ütlevad, et Caesar lehvitas ta eemale, kuid Cimber haaras ta õlgadest ja tõmbas Caesari tuunika alla. Seejärel hüüdis Caesar Cimberile: "Noh, see on vägivald!" ("Ista quidem vis est!"). [106]

Casca tootis samaaegselt oma pistoda ja tegi pilguga diktaatori kaela. Caesar pöördus kiiresti ümber ja haaras Cascast käest kinni. Plutarchose sõnul ütles ta ladina keeles: "Casca, sa kaabakas, mis sa teed?" [107] Casca ehmunult hüüdis: "Appi, vend!" kreeka keeles ("ἀδελφέ, βοήθει", "adelphe, boethei"). Mõne hetkega tabas kogu rühm, kaasa arvatud Brutus, diktaatorit. Caesar üritas põgeneda, kuid verest pimestatud komistas ja kukkus ning mehed jätkasid tema pussitamist, kui ta lamas kaitseta madalamatel astmetel. the portico. According to Eutropius, around 60 men participated in the assassination. He was stabbed 23 times. [108]

According to Suetonius, a physician later established that only one wound, the second one to his chest, had been lethal. [109] The dictator's last words are not known with certainty, and are a contested subject among scholars and historians alike. Suetonius reports that others have said Caesar's last words were the Greek phrase " καὶ σύ, τέκνον " [110] (transliterated as "Kai sy, teknon?": "You too, child?" in English). However, Suetonius' own opinion was that Caesar said nothing. [111]

Plutarch also reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators. [112] The version best known in the English-speaking world is the Latin phrase "Et tu, Brute?" ("And you, Brutus?", commonly rendered as "You too, Brutus?") [113] [114] best known from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, where it actually forms the first half of a macaronic line: "Et tu, Brute? Then fall, Caesar." This version was already popular when the play was written, as it appears in Richard Edes's Latin play Caesar Interfectus of 1582 and The True Tragedie of Richarde Duke of Yorke & etc. of 1595, Shakespeare's source work for other plays. [115]

According to Plutarch, after the assassination, Brutus stepped forward as if to say something to his fellow senators they, however, fled the building. [116] Brutus and his companions then marched to the Capitol while crying out to their beloved city: "People of Rome, we are once again free!" They were met with silence, as the citizens of Rome had locked themselves inside their houses as soon as the rumour of what had taken place had begun to spread. Caesar's dead body lay where it fell on the Senate floor for nearly three hours before other officials arrived to remove it.

Caesar's body was cremated. A crowd which had gathered at the cremation started a fire, which badly damaged the forum and neighbouring buildings. On the site of his cremation, the Temple of Caesar was erected a few years later (at the east side of the main square of the Roman Forum). Only its altar now remains. [117] A life-size wax statue of Caesar was later erected in the forum displaying the 23 stab wounds.

In the chaos following the death of Caesar, Mark Antony, Octavian (later Augustus Caesar), and others fought a series of five civil wars, which would culminate in the formation of the Roman Empire.

Aftermath of the assassination

The result unforeseen by the assassins was that Caesar's death precipitated the end of the Roman Republic. [118] The Roman middle and lower classes, with whom Caesar was immensely popular and had been since before Gaul, became enraged that a small group of aristocrats had killed their champion. Antony, who had been drifting apart from Caesar, capitalised on the grief of the Roman mob and threatened to unleash them on the Optimates, perhaps with the intent of taking control of Rome himself. To his surprise and chagrin, Caesar had named his grandnephew Gaius Octavius his sole heir (hence the name Octavian), bequeathing him the immensely potent Caesar name and making him one of the wealthiest citizens in the Republic. [119]

The crowd at the funeral boiled over, throwing dry branches, furniture, and even clothing on to Caesar's funeral pyre, causing the flames to spin out of control, seriously damaging the Forum. The mob then attacked the houses of Brutus and Cassius, where they were repelled only with considerable difficulty, ultimately providing the spark for the civil war, fulfilling at least in part Antony's threat against the aristocrats. [120] Antony did not foresee the ultimate outcome of the next series of civil wars, particularly with regard to Caesar's adopted heir. Octavian, aged only 18 when Caesar died, proved to have considerable political skills, and while Antony dealt with Decimus Brutus in the first round of the new civil wars, Octavian consolidated his tenuous position.

To combat Brutus and Cassius, who were massing an enormous army in Greece, Antony needed soldiers, the cash from Caesar's war chests, and the legitimacy that Caesar's name would provide for any action he took against them. With the passage of the lex Titia on 27 November 43 BC, [121] the Second Triumvirate was officially formed, composed of Antony, Octavian, and Caesar's loyal cavalry commander Lepidus. [122] It formally deified Caesar as Divus Iulius in 42 BC, and Caesar Octavian henceforth became Divi filius ("Son of the divine"). [123]

Because Caesar's clemency had resulted in his murder, the Second Triumvirate reinstated the practice of proscription, abandoned since Sulla. [124] It engaged in the legally sanctioned killing of a large number of its opponents to secure funding for its 45 legions in the second civil war against Brutus and Cassius. [125] Antony and Octavian defeated them at Philippi. [126]

Afterward, Mark Antony formed an alliance with Caesar's lover, Cleopatra, intending to use the fabulously wealthy Egypt as a base to dominate Rome. A third civil war broke out between Octavian on one hand and Antony and Cleopatra on the other. This final civil war, culminating in the latter's defeat at Actium in 31 BC and suicide in Egypt in 30 BC, resulted in the permanent ascendancy of Octavian, who became the first Roman emperor, under the name Caesar Augustus, a name conveying religious, rather than political, authority. [127]

Julius Caesar had been preparing to invade Parthia, the Caucasus, and Scythia, and then march back to Germania through Eastern Europe. These plans were thwarted by his assassination. [128] His successors did attempt the conquests of Parthia and Germania, but without lasting results.

Deification

Julius Caesar was the first historical Roman to be officially deified. He was posthumously granted the title Divus Iulius (the divine/deified Julius) by decree of the Roman Senate on 1 January 42 BC. The appearance of a comet during games in his honour was taken as confirmation of his divinity. Though his temple was not dedicated until after his death, he may have received divine honours during his lifetime: [129] and shortly before his assassination, Mark Antony had been appointed as his leekima (priest). [130] Both Octavian and Mark Antony promoted the cult of Divus Iulius. After the death of Caesar, Octavian, as the adoptive son of Caesar, assumed the title of Divi Filius (Son of the Divine).

Health and physical appearance

Based on remarks by Plutarch, [131] Caesar is sometimes thought to have suffered from epilepsy. Modern scholarship is sharply divided on the subject, and some scholars believe that he was plagued by malaria, particularly during the Sullan proscriptions of the 80s. [132] Other scholars contend his epileptic seizures were due to a parasitic infection in the brain by a tapeworm. [133] [134]

Caesar had four documented episodes of what may have been complex partial seizures. He may additionally have had absence seizures in his youth. The earliest accounts of these seizures were made by the biographer Suetonius, who was born after Caesar died. The claim of epilepsy is countered among some medical historians by a claim of hypoglycemia, which can cause epileptoid seizures. [135] [136] [137]

In 2003, psychiatrist Harbour F. Hodder published what he termed as the "Caesar Complex" theory, arguing that Caesar was a sufferer of temporal lobe epilepsy and the debilitating symptoms of the condition were a factor in Caesar's conscious decision to forgo personal safety in the days leading up to his assassination. [138]

A line from Shakespeare has sometimes been taken to mean that he was deaf in one ear: "Come on my right hand, for this ear is deaf". [139] No classical source mentions hearing impairment in connection with Caesar. The playwright may have been making metaphorical use of a passage in Plutarch that does not refer to deafness at all, but rather to a gesture Alexander of Macedon customarily made. By covering his ear, Alexander indicated that he had turned his attention from an accusation in order to hear the defence. [140]

Francesco M. Galassi and Hutan Ashrafian suggest that Caesar's behavioral manifestations—headaches, vertigo, falls (possibly caused by muscle weakness due to nerve damage), sensory deficit, giddiness and insensibility—and syncopal episodes were the results of cerebrovascular episodes, not epilepsy. Pliny the Elder reports in his Looduslugu that Caesar's father and forefather died without apparent cause while putting on their shoes. These events can be more readily associated with cardiovascular complications from a stroke episode or lethal heart attack. Caesar possibly had a genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease. [141]

Suetonius, writing more than a century after Caesar's death, describes Caesar as "tall of stature with a fair complexion, shapely limbs, a somewhat full face, and keen black eyes". [142]

Name and family

The name Gaius Julius Caesar

Using the Latin alphabet of the period, which lacked the letters J ja U, Caesar's name would be rendered GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR the form CAIVS is also attested, using the older Roman representation of G kõrval C. The standard abbreviation was C. IVLIVS CÆSAR, reflecting the older spelling. (The letterform Æ is a ligature of the letters A ja E, and is often used in Latin inscriptions to save space.)

In Classical Latin, it was pronounced [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuːl.i.ʊs ˈkae̯sar]. In the days of the late Roman Republic, many historical writings were done in Greek, a language most educated Romans studied. Young wealthy Roman boys were often taught by Greek slaves and sometimes sent to Athens for advanced training, as was Caesar's principal assassin, Brutus. In Greek, during Caesar's time, his family name was written Καίσαρ (Kaísar), reflecting its contemporary pronunciation. Thus, his name is pronounced in a similar way to the pronunciation of the German Keiser.

In Vulgar Latin, the original diphthong [ae̯] first began to be pronounced as a simple long vowel [ɛː] . Then, the plosive /k/ before front vowels began, due to palatalization, to be pronounced as an affricate, hence renderings like [ˈtʃeːsar] in Italian and [ˈtseːzar] in German regional pronunciations of Latin, as well as the title of Tsar. With the evolution of the Romance languages, the affricate [ts] became a fricative [s] (thus, [ˈseːsar] ) in many regional pronunciations, including the French one, from which the modern English pronunciation is derived.

Caesar's cognomen itself became a title it was promulgated by the Bible, which contains the famous verse "Render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and unto God the things that are God's". The title became, from the late first millennium, Keiser in German and Tsar or Czar in the Slavic languages. The last Tsar in nominal power was Simeon II of Bulgaria, whose reign ended in 1946. This means that for approximately two thousand years, there was at least one head of state bearing his name.

Perekond

  • Father Gaius Julius Caesar (proconsul of Asia) (proconsul of Asia in 90s BC)
  • Mother Aurelia (one of the Aurelii Cottae)
  • First marriage to Cornelia (Cinnilla), from 84 BC until her death in 69 or 68 BC
  • Second marriage to Pompeia, from 67 BC until he divorced her around 61 BC over the Bona Dea scandal
  • Third marriage to Calpurnia, from 59 BC until Caesar's death
    , by Cornelia, born in 83 or 82 BC , by Cleopatra VII, born 47 BC, and killed at age 17 by Caesar's adopted son Octavianus.
  • Posthumously adopted: Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, his great-nephew by blood (grandson of Julia, his sister), who later became Emperor Augustus.
    (born 85 BC): The historian Plutarch notes that Caesar believed Brutus to have been his illegitimate son, as his mother Servilia had been Caesar's lover during their youth. [144] Caesar would have been 15 years old when Brutus was born. (born ca. 60s BC), the daughter of Caesar's lover Servilia was believed by Cicero among other contemporaries, to be Caesar's natural daughter. (born ca. 85–81 BC): On several occasions Caesar expressed how he loved Decimus Brutus like a son. This Brutus was also named an heir of Caesar in case Octavius had died before the latter. Ronald Syme argued that if a Brutus was the natural son of Caesar, Decimus was more likely than Marcus. [145]

Grandchild from Julia and Pompey, dead at several days, unnamed. [146]

    , mother of Caesarion , mother of Brutus , queen of Mauretania and wife of Bogudes
    (married to his paternal aunt Julia) (his relative through Antony's mother Julia) (his third cousin)

Rumors of passive homosexuality

Roman society viewed the passive role during sexual activity, regardless of gender, to be a sign of submission or inferiority. Indeed, Suetonius says that in Caesar's Gallic triumph, his soldiers sang that, "Caesar may have conquered the Gauls, but Nicomedes conquered Caesar." [147] According to Cicero, Bibulus, Gaius Memmius, and others (mainly Caesar's enemies), he had an affair with Nicomedes IV of Bithynia early in his career. The stories were repeated, referring to Caesar as the Queen of Bithynia, by some Roman politicians as a way to humiliate him. Caesar himself denied the accusations repeatedly throughout his lifetime, and according to Cassius Dio, even under oath on one occasion. [148] This form of slander was popular during this time in the Roman Republic to demean and discredit political opponents.

Catullus wrote two poems suggesting that Caesar and his engineer Mamurra were lovers, [149] but later apologised. [150]

Mark Antony charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors. Suetonius described Antony's accusation of an affair with Octavian as political slander. Octavian eventually became the first Roman Emperor as Augustus. [151]

During his lifetime, Caesar was regarded as one of the best orators and prose authors in Latin —even Cicero spoke highly of Caesar's rhetoric and style. [152] Only Caesar's war commentaries have survived. A few sentences from other works are quoted by other authors. Among his lost works are his funeral oration for his paternal aunt Julia and his Anticato, a document written to defame Cato in response to Cicero's published praise. Poems by Julius Caesar are also mentioned in ancient sources. [153]

Mälestused

  • The Commentarii de Bello Gallico, usually known in English as The Gallic Wars, seven books each covering one year of his campaigns in Gaul and southern Britain in the 50s BC, with the eighth book written by Aulus Hirtius on the last two years.
  • The Commentarii de Bello Civili (Kodusõda), events of the Civil War from Caesar's perspective, until immediately after Pompey's death in Egypt.

Other works historically have been attributed to Caesar, but their authorship is in doubt:

  • De Bello Alexandrino (On the Alexandrine War), campaign in Alexandria
  • De Bello Africo (On the African War), campaigns in North Africa and
  • De Bello Hispaniensi (On the Hispanic War), campaigns in the Iberian Peninsula.

These narratives were written and published annually during or just after the actual campaigns, as a sort of "dispatches from the front." They were important in shaping Caesar's public image and enhancing his reputation when he was away from Rome for long periods. They may have been presented as public readings. [154] As a model of clear and direct Latin style, The Gallic Wars traditionally has been studied by first- or second-year Latin students.

Historiograafia

The texts written by Caesar, an autobiography of the most important events of his public life, are the most complete primary source for the reconstruction of his biography. However, Caesar wrote those texts with his political career in mind, so historians must filter the exaggerations and bias contained in it. [155] The Roman emperor Augustus began a cult of personality of Caesar, which described Augustus as Caesar's political heir. The modern historiography is influenced by the Octavian traditions, such as when Caesar's epoch is considered a turning point in the history of the Roman Empire. Still, historians try to filter the Octavian bias. [156]

Many rulers in history became interested in the historiography of Caesar. Napoleon III wrote the scholarly work Histoire de Jules César, which was not finished. The second volume listed previous rulers interested in the topic. Charles VIII ordered a monk to prepare a translation of the Gallia sõjad in 1480. Charles V ordered a topographic study in France, to place The Gallic Wars in context which created forty high-quality maps of the conflict. The contemporary Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent catalogued the surviving editions of the Kommentaarid, and translated them to Turkish language. Henry IV and Louis XIII of France translated the first two commentaries and the last two respectively Louis XIV retranslated the first one afterwards. [157]

Poliitika

Julius Caesar is seen as the main example of Caesarism, a form of political rule led by a charismatic strongman whose rule is based upon a cult of personality, whose rationale is the need to rule by force, establishing a violent social order, and being a regime involving prominence of the military in the government. [158] Other people in history, such as the French Napoleon Bonaparte and the Italian Benito Mussolini, have defined themselves as Caesarists. [159] [160] Bonaparte did not focus only on Caesar's military career but also on his relation with the masses, a predecessor to populism. [161] The word is also used in a pejorative manner by critics of this type of political rule.

Depictions

Bust in Naples National Archaeological Museum, photograph published in 1902


The first wife: Cornelia

The first of Julius Caesar’s wives was Cornelia, daughter of the four-time consul Lucio Cornelio Cinna. They were married in 84 B.C. when Caesar was fifteen or sixteen, and she was about thirteen or fourteen, until 69 B.C.

During the fifteen years that the marriage lasted (a third of which they spent separated), the young couple had to live challenging moments. When Caesar did not want to give in to pressure from Lucio Cornelio Sulla (the dictator at the time) to get a divorce, Cornelia’s dowry was confiscated, and they had to flee to avoid arrest. On that occasion, only the intervention of Aurelia’s family, Julio Caesar’s mother, saved them from losing their lives.

Sometime between 78 and 75 B.C., Cornelia gave birth to Julia the only legitimate descendant Julius Caesar would have in his entire life. Years later, in 59 B.C., Julia would marry Pompey the Great to strengthen the First Triumvirate ties.

It was likely a happy union, which does not mean that Caesar had numerous relationships with women of all walks of life. It was commonly accepted that aristocratic husbands sought to satisfy their libido in other women’s arms, often prostitutes. Still, this did not mean that many couples were not very much in love and had an active sex life.

In 69 B.C., before Caesar left Rome to serve as a quaestor (a public official) in Hispania, Cornelia died in childbirth, and her stillborn did not survive either.

It was not uncommon for older women from noble families to receive grandiose public funerals. Still, the decision to hold one for Cornelia drew attention because she was still very young.

Since many understood it as a sign of genuine affection from a man with a good heart to his wife, his gesture was very well received by the people. However, Caesar indeed took advantage of the event for political gain by reminding the crowd how honorable his lineage was and his family’s services to the state.


Why Julius Caesar Built a Bridge Over The Rhine And Destroyed it 18 Days Later

In the early summer of 55 BC Julius Caesar had already begun his conquest of Gaul three years earlier. At that time the eastern border of the new provinces was located on the Rhine. The Germanic tribes on the eastern side of the river launched incursions to the west under the protection provided by this natural border.

But on the other side of the river there were also tribes allied with Rome, like the Ubians. They offered Caesar ships for the legions to cross the river and attack the Germanic tribes.

The Ubians, too, who from all the nations beyond the Rhine, had sent ambassadors to Caesar and formed an alliance and given hostages, earnestly begged “to bring them help, because they were gravely oppressed by the Suebi or, if other matters prevented him, let him at least transport his army up the Rhine ' that this would be enough for their present help and their hope for the future (…) They promised a large number of ships to transport the army.

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War IV.16

Caesar's Rhine Bridge, by John Soane (1814)

However, Caesar rejected the offer and decided to build a bridge instead. In doing so, he would demonstrate not only his support for the Ubian allies, but also Rome's ability to carry the war whenever it wished across the border. Also, as he wrote, that he considered ships unsafe, this was more consistent with his own dignity and that of the Roman people.

Caesar, for the reasons I have mentioned, had resolved to cross the Rhine but not to cross it in ships that he did not consider sufficiently safe, nor did he consider consistent with his own dignity or that of the Roman people. Therefore, although he had the greatest difficulty in forming a bridge, due to the breadth, speed and depth of the river, he felt that he should try it himself, or that his army should not be led in any other way.

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War IV.17

The construction was carried out between present-day Andernach and Neuwied, downstream from Koblenz, an area where the depth of the river would be up to 9 meters. Watchtowers were erected on both banks to protect the entrances, and piles and barriers were placed upriver as a measure of protection against attacks and debris carried by the current.

Caesar's 40,000 soldiers built the bridge in just 10 days on double wooden piles that were driven into the riverbed, dropping a huge and heavy stone on them as a mace. The construction system ensured that the greater the flow, the harder the bridge was held together.

Illustration of Caesar’s Rhine Bridge from “History of Rome, and of the Roman people, from its origin to the invasion of the barbarians" (1883)

Two foot-and-a-half thick logs pointed at the bottom, and as long as the river was deep, were locked together with two feet of separation these were inserted and fitted with devices into the river, and were driven with mallets, not perpendicularly like posts, but inclined and stretched out towards the river current. Then further down, at a distance of forty feet, he would set in front of the first two others locked in the same way and struck against the force and current of the river. Both, in addition, were kept firmly separated by beams two feet thick (the space occupied by the junction of the piles), placed at their ends between two brackets on each side, and consequently that these were in different directions and fixed on opposite sides to each other, so great was the force of the work,

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War IV.17

It is not known who was the engineer responsible for this new bridge construction technique, which had never been used before. Cicero suggests in a letter that his name was Mumarra, although we cannot rule out the possibility that it was Marcus Vitruvius Polio (the architect who was the author of the famous Ten Books of Architecture ), who was meeting Caesar. It is estimated that the length of this bridge could have been between 140 and 400 meters, and its width between 7 and 9 meters.

Once it was finished, Caesar crossed with his troops to the other bank, where the Ubians were waiting for him. Then he learned that the tribes of the Sicambrians and the Suevi had withdrawn to the East, in anticipation of his arrival. Not being able to present a battle and after destroying some villages, Caesar decided to turn around, cross again the bridge and knock it down behind him. It had lasted 18 days.

A scale model of Caesar’s Rhine Bridge at The Museo Della Civilta Romana in Rome. Foto: MrJennings/Flickr

Two years later history repeated itself. Near the place where the first bridge had been and about 2 kilometers to the north (possibly next to the current Urmitz), Caesar built a second, although this time he did not elaborate on the details.

Having decided on these matters, he began to build a bridge a little higher than the place where he had earlier transported his army. Once the plan is known and established, the work is carried out in a few days due to the great effort of the soldiers. Having left a strong guard on the bridge on the side of the Trier, so that no commotion would occur between them, he led the rest of the forces and the cavalry.

Julius Caesar, Comments on the Gallic War VI.9

As before, the Suebi, seeing what was coming their way, retreated to the East again, abandoning their villages and hiding in the forests. Caesar returned to Gaul and again destroyed the bridge. Only this time he only knocked down the end that touched the eastern shore, erecting defense towers to protect the rest of the bridge.

In order not to completely free the barbarians from the fear of their return, and in order to delay his warriors, having driven back his army, he broke, over a distance of 200 feet, the far end of the bridge, which connected him to the Ubian shore, and at the end of the bridge he erected four-story towers, and placed a guard of twelve cohorts for the purpose of defending the bridge, and reinforced the place with considerable fortifications.

Julius Caesar, Commentary on the Gallic War VI.29

Reconstruction of a Roman pile driver, used to build the Rhine bridge at Ehrenbreitstein Fortress in Koblenz, Germany. Foto: Holger Weinandt/Wikimedia Commons

Caesar's strategy produced the desired effect. It demonstrated the power of Rome and her ability to cross the Rhine at will at any time. Thus Julius Caesar secured the borders of Gaul, and for several centuries the Germans refrained from crossing them.

It also allowed the Roman colonization of the Rhine Valley, where permanent bridges would later be built in Castra Vetera (Xanten), Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (Colonia), Confluentes (Coblenz) and Moguntiacum (Mainz).

Archaeological excavations carried out in the late 19th century in the Andernach-Neuwied area found remains of pilings in the Rhine (their analysis in the 20th century showed that they had been cut down in the middle of the 1st century BC), which may belong to Caesar's bridges, although the place of its location has never been able to be determined exactly.

As for the Ubians, in 39 BC Marco Vipsanio Agrippa finally transferred them to the west bank of the Rhine in payment their longstanding loyalty, as they had been asking for a long time, fearing reprisals from neighboring tribes. They remained loyal to Rome throughout its history, eventually mixing with the Franks who gave rise to new kingdoms in Gaul during the Middle Ages.

This article was originally published in La Brújula Verde. It has been translated from Spanish and republished with permission.


3 Pics: What Julius Caesar actually looked like: New Science 3D reconstruction

[Spears sent me this one. This is fascinating. Most people don’t seem to have an idea of what real leaders and great generals actually looked like. They aren’t necessarily handsome. In this case, a birth problem may have affected the size of his head. One friend of mine has a theory that we’re ruled by people with big heads, and this new sculpture of Caesar would certainly fit his theory!! All that matters is that the work must be accurate. This then would be the face of one of the greatest white men who ever lived. His feats were incredible. The Romans were used to doing amazing stuff, but his feats exceeded even those! He was a true warrior and a great leader whom men died for willingly. You don’t get that kind of loyalty without extreme ability. In that sense, Caesar and Napoleon are identical. You’re looking at the face of one of the greatest military minds of all time.

The scientist says that Caesar was about corpses – and indeed that is true! The Romans were a white people who killed their enemies by the million even though they only had swords, spears and a few other devices! They created a civilisation that was 1,000 years ahead of the rest of Europe! We must become like them again! That is what Hitler was trying to do. WHITE WARRIORS create CIVILISATIONS!

NB: I’ve also put a translation of the original Dutch article below the first one because it contains a bunch of additional details. Jan]

Julius Caesar, the reviled and revered Roman emperor, has gotten a new look, thanks to a recent 3D reconstruction of his face and head.

The National Museum of Antiquities in the Netherlands unveiled the new bust Friday, giving viewers a fascinating image of what Caesar would have looked like in real life — complete with a huge bump covering part of his head.

“So he has a crazy bulge on his head,” said physical anthropologist Maja d’Hollosy, the person behind the reconstruction, according to Dutch newspaper, HLN.

The reconstruction was made on the basis of a 3D scan of a marble portrait in the museum’s collection.

“The piece of sculpture is pretty damaged,” the museum said in a news release. “That is why it was decided to supplement the disappeared parts, such as nose and chin, on the basis of second portraiti of Julius Caesar: the so-called Tusculum bust.”

The museum said the 3D reconstrcution will be on display until the end of August.

Here is a direct translation from the original Dutch because the other stories do not contain many details:-

The Roman ruler Julius Caesar, murdered on March 15 of the year 44 BC, has a new face. Physical anthropologist Maja d’Hollosy made it for the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden, where it is unveiled today and can still be seen for free.

The bust was the idea of ??archaeologist Tom Buijtendorp, whose book “Caesar in the Low Countries” was published at the same time. D’Hollosy used, among other things, his research results that have now been published. She went on for the face of Caesar further from two busts, one from Leiden and one from Turin, and from coins with Caesar from his own time. Especially the head in Turin seems certain that it is made alive and reasonably realistic, says Buijtendorp. “So he has a crazy bulge on his head. A doctor said that such a thing occurs in a heavy delivery. You do not invent that as an artist. And realistic portraits were in fashion “.

The image in Leiden is very similar to that in Turin, although the most powerful man of his time lost a piece of his forehead, mouth and nose. D’Hollosy made a 3d print of the head from Leiden. There she took off the top layer and then applied a new one, using clay and silicone rubber. That way Julius got a lifelike face. “I do not let him look happy and friendly. He was a general who was about corpses, “says d’Hollosy.


New 3D reconstruction of Caesar

This is rediculous. They just guessed like anyone else. "Lets take all the descriptions and statues and then blow up his forehead like a hot air balloon. Jah. that's what he looked like." He looks like Mr. Mackey. There is zero chance in hell that he looked like an over-inflated beach ball. I choose to keep thinking about rugged, slightly balding Caesar with a human-sized head.

You're telling me thats not the face of somebody who demands the result of their soldiers? /s

This is the ideal caesarian head. You may not like it, but this is what peak gravitas looks like.

His face looks really small in comparison to his head lol

There’s no way this is accurate, right? It looks like a perfect model that someone inflated.

Coming from Pixar this summer. Finding Pompey

Tag line: “He just wanted to be Consul.”

I thought so too, but still interesting to see, I think. The dimensions need to be it a bit more balanced, as all things should be.

What is this reconstruction based on? Caesar was cremated and we have no remains or a skull from which to form something like this

Looks like they took the hundreds of relatively life-like statues and images of Caesar, turned them sideways, and adjusted the "freakish birdiness" factor upward by about four for no God-damned reason at all.

According to the article (Dutch), the Tusculum Portrait, except with some artist's interpretation.

Not my Caesar! Edit: spelling

No wonder the Senate hated him. He’s a heqing beach ball!!

Image from the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden (Dutch Imperial Museum of Antiquity). More photos can be found in this article (also Dutch).

Sorry, I don't have the time to translate the articles right now.

3D reconstruction of face Caesar: 'Just someone you can come across at the supermarket'

A new 3D reconstruction of the head of Julius Caesar shows a remarkably ordinary man. The image is based on recent research, but leaves much to be guessed about.

His cheeks have sunken and deep lines are running through his skin. Despite his frown, his eyes are quite soft and his mouth is soft. In relation to his narrow face, his bald skull is strikingly large, and there is a strange bump on it.

This new performance by Julius Caesar takes some getting used to. It is a 3D reconstruction, presented yesterday at the National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden. The everyday appearance, ostensibly of flesh and blood, looks a lot more approachable than the strict soldier on images from Antiquity or the angular manners from Asterix and Obelix. It fits into a trend of museums that bring (pre) historical persons to life through reconstructions based on excavated skulls. Only the reconstruction in Leiden does not have a skull, but antique busts as a starting point. Caesar's skull has been lost.

So, lean and with receding hairline, Caesar may have looked shortly before he was killed in 44 BC. Can, emphasize the archaeologists responsible for the reconstruction, Tom Buijtendorp and Maja d'Hollosy. They based their images on a bust in the archaeological museum in Turin. According to Buijtendorp, this is a rough copy of a fairly faithful, vanished image. "On the bust of Turin there is a lump on the right side of the skull," he explains. 'Such a bump is a typical remnant of a heavy birth,' showed pediatric surgeon Van Lindert of the Radboud UMC. A sculptor would not think of such a thing, so that argues for the veracity of the original. '

On the authority of Buijtendorp, d'Hollosy, specialist in facial reconstructions, used the Turin bust as one of her sources of information. A scan of a bust from the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden served as a basis. A couple of millimeters were 'peeled off' and then they applied layers of 'skin' again by hand.

'In addition, there is always some interpretation', explains d'Hollosy. 'The space for the eyes on the bust of Leiden, for example, was ridiculously large. I have reduced it to a normal size. And the nose of the Turin bust was strangely narrow. It is now made just as wide as the remains of the nose on the statue from Leiden. '

That such an interpretation is necessary, says PhD student Sam Heijnen, who is doing research at the Radboud University on imperial portraits: ɽuring Caesar's life, it was in order to make really real images, including wrinkles. But that did not make them truthful yet. These images were also full of symbolism. "Saskia Stevens, senior of Utrecht University, explains:" Men like Caesar wanted to show that they had always worked hard for the Roman cause. That's why they liked to show themselves tough and wrinkly: that fitted in with the ideal of a dedicated, sober soldier. We do not know how well such an image represented the person. '

Buijtendorp acknowledges these uncertainties: 'This reconstruction mainly challenges the prevailing image of Caesar. He is truer than the well-known symmetrical Caesar statues with their full hairdo. But the image is not the absolute truth either. '

Stevens is enthusiastic about the result, with all the triumphs: 'I find this very attractive to a general public. Instead of those strict white images you suddenly see a person someone you might encounter in the supermarket. & quot


Mar 15, 44 BCE: Julius Caesar Assassinated

On March 15, 44 B.C.E., Julius Caesar, dictator of Rome, was stabbed to death by dozens of senators.

Arts and Music, Social Studies, World History

Death of Caesar

Julius Caesar was assassinated by about 40 Roman senators on the "ides of March" (March 15) 44 BCE. Caesar's death resulted in a long series of civil wars that ended in the death of the Roman Republic and the birth of the Roman Empire.

Painting by Jean-Leon Gerome, courtesy the Walters Art Museum

On March 15, 44 B.C.E., Julius Caesar was stabbed to death in Rome, Italy. Caesar was the dictator of the Roman Republic, and his assassins were Roman senators, fellow politicians who helped shape Roman policy and government.

Julius Caesar was immensely popular with the people of Rome. He was a successful military leader who expanded the republic to include parts of what are now Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, and Belgium. Caesar was also a popular author who wrote about his travels, theories, and political views.

Many members of the Senate, a group of appointed (not elected) political leaders, resented Caesar&rsquos popularity and arrogance. After Caesar attained the status of dictator for life in 44 B.C.E., these officials decided to strike the ultimate blow against his power. A group of as many as 60 conspirators decided to assassinate Caesar at the meeting of the Senate on March 15, the ides of March. Collectively, the group stabbed Caesar a reported 23 times, killing the Roman leader.

The death of Julius Caesar ultimately had the opposite impact of what his assassins hoped. Much of the Roman public hated the senators for the assassination, and a series of civil wars ensued. In the end, Caesar&rsquos grandnephew and adoptive son Octavian emerged as Rome&rsquos leader. He renamed himself Augustus Caesar. The reign of Augustus marked the end of the Roman Republic and the start of the Roman Empire.


The Battle of Gergovia

The Gallic tribes called a general council at Bibracte and declared Vercingetorix as the supreme commander of the allied Gallic forces. He demanded 15,000 cavalry which he planned to use to destroy the grain and hay supplies of the Romans. Vercingetorix also ordered his allies to burn their corn as part of his scorched earth policy. The next aim was to attack the Roman province in the knowledge that if the region fell, the Roman commander was marooned.

Lucius Caesar was in charge of defending the province, and he had 22 cohorts at his disposal. Vercingetorix began to shadow Julius Caesar&rsquos movements as the Roman commander was marching across the margins of Lingones territory. Caesar was attempting to get to the province to prevent any major attack. However, Vercingetorix was within nine miles of Caesar&rsquos camp and called a staff conference.

Statue of Vercingetorix &ndash Renegade Tribune

The Gallic leader thought that Caesar was looking to concede the campaign by retreating for safety. He believed the Romans would return with an even bigger force, so Vercingetorix called on his army to attack as soon as possible. The plan was to use cavalry to swoop down on the supply train and either slow the legionnaires down or force them to abandon their supplies.

Alas, Vercingetorix&rsquos plan backfired at the Battle of Gergovia when his initial cavalry charge failed. Caesar probably expected the Gauls to follow up with infantry but in reality, the Gallic infantry was too far from the action to have an impact. Caesar quickly realized the enemy&rsquos mistake and forced its cavalry to retreat. However, he refused to commit his infantry and Vercingetorix was able to retreat to Alesia, the capital of the Mandubii. The attack at Gergovia was poorly planned and executed, but worse was to come for Vercingetorix as he was totally outmaneuvered by Caesar in the next conflict.


Writing the First Long-Lived Extortion Law

Caesar's Lex Iulia De Repetundis (The Extortion Law of the Julians) was not the first law against extortion: that is generally cited as the Lex Bembina Repetundarum, and usually attributed to Gaius Gracchus in 95 BCE. Caesar's extortion law remained a fundamental guide for the conduct of Roman magistrates for at least the next five centuries.

Written in 59 BCE, the law restricted the number of gifts that a magistrate could receive during his term in a province and ensured that governors had their accounts balanced when they left.


Vaata videot: Desaparición forzada en Iguala: una reconstrucción forense (Oktoober 2021).