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Barnum, Phineas Taylor - ajalugu

Barnum, Phineas Taylor - ajalugu


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Showman
(1810-1891)

Sündinud 5. juulil 1810 Connecticuti Peetelis, õppis Barnum gümnaasiumis ja sai seejärel antiklerikaalse ajalehe The Herald of Freedom toimetajaks. Kuid ta kolis 1834. aastal New Yorki ja otsustas seal rahuldust pakkuda, avas ta 1842. aastal New Yorgi muuseumi, kus on loodusloo eksponaate ja "uudishimu", veidrikke, muusikat ja draamat. Muuseumi peamine vaatamisväärsus oli "väljapääs", mida paljud patroonid kogunesid vaatama, et leida end väljas.

Barnum tuuritas Euroopas 1844. aastal, kääbus, kellele kuulutati "Kindral Tom Thumb", ja 1850. aastal propageeris ta lauljatar Jenny Lindi pikka kontsertreisi Ameerika Ühendriikides. Mõlemad ettevõtmised osutusid rahaliselt edukaks.

Seejärel teenis ta show -ärist pensionile jäämise ajal Connecticuti seadusandlikus koosseisus (1867–69) ja sai 1875. aastal Bridgeporti linnapeaks. 1871. aastal kuulutas Barnum välja, et avatakse "Greatest Show onEarth", mis tuuritas rahvast edukalt ringi. Pärast kümne aasta pikkust edu oli konkurents sunnitud ühendama jõud James A. Bailey'ga (1881), et moodustada Suur Barnum ja Bailey Circus. Esitati kaks, kolm või isegi neli tegevusringi. Ja 1882. aastal sai Jumbo, tohutu etendusega elevant, uue tsirkuse staariks.

Barnum saavutas universaalse tunnustuse kui mees, kellel oli geenius näitemängu jaoks. Ta suri 7. aprillil 1891 Philadelphias.


Umbes P.T. Barnum

Phineas Taylor Barnum - see on teie ja minu jaoks PT - oli 19. sajandi Ameerika kõige tähelepanuväärsem ettevõtja ja meelelahutaja. Ta on Ameerika leidlikkuse ikoon ja meie edutamise kaitsepühak, tema lugu on põnev 19. sajandi ühiskondliku, kaubandusliku, poliitilise ja tööstusajaloo uurimine ning tema lugu algab ammu enne tema kuulsa tsirkuse loomist 1872. aastal.

Ta oli ettevõtja, muuseumiomanik, ärijuht, poliitik, linnaarendaja, kogukonna heategija, filantroop, karskusjuht, emantsipeerija, õppejõud ja autor. Barnum oli pühendunud ühiskonna intellektuaalsele ja kultuurilisele arengule ning oli hääl vabaduse ja valikute poole püüdlemisel.


Barnumi ajalugu on olnud vaikne areng enam kui sajandi jooksul, ehkki mitte tugeva kogukonnatunde puudumise tõttu. Nagu ajakirjanik ja ajaloolane Robert Autobee märgib, on Barnumi võitlus Denveri sageli erinevate prioriteetide varjus ja sellele vastav kogukonnatunne, mis tuleneb linna tähelepanuta jätmisest vanemate linnaosade suhtes, kujundanud naabruskonna identiteeti. Kuigi Denveri linn eristab Barnumit, mida piirab Kuues avenüü (põhjas), Federal Boulevard (ida pool), Alameda (lõuna) ja Perry tänav (läänes) ning külgnevat ja paralleelset Barnum West'i, mis ulatub Sheridani puiesteeni, Denveri teiste Westside'i linnaosade elanikud on teadaolevalt omastanud Barnumi räpase maine ja identifitseerivad end elanikena. Või nii ütlevad mõned Barnumi elanikud uhkusega. Barnum, nagu Curtis Park, Park Hill või Montclair, sai alguse üheksateistkümnenda sajandi Denveri eeslinnast. Kuid erinevalt nendest linnaosadest kujunes Barnum töölisklassi perede varjupaigaks. Ehkki Barnum pole kunagi jõukas, on ta olnud jõukam kui paljud teised Westside Denveri linnaosad, kodu tagasihoidlike vahenditega peredele, uhkuse ja identiteeditundega, mis on jätkunud isegi siis, kui selle näod on kahekümnenda sajandi jooksul muutunud.


Barnum, Phineas Taylor - ajalugu

Plakat pärit Barnum & amp; Bailey suurim näitus Maa peal. Miss Rose Meers, suurim elusolev daam - Kongressi raamatukogu, trükiste ja fotode osakond

P. T. (Phineas Taylor) Barnum Bridgeportist, Connecticut, oli ajaloo üks suurimaid meelelahutusettevõtjaid. Tema rändnäitused, muuseumid ja maailmakuulus tsirkus aitasid tal koguda mitme miljoni dollari varanduse teel, et saada isiklikuks sõbraks selliste ikooniliste tegelastega nagu Abraham Lincoln, Inglismaa kuninganna Victoria ja Mark Twain. Tema leidlikud turunduskampaaniad kindlustasid tema positsiooni kaasaegse reklaami ja show -esitusena.

Töötades ajastul, mil Ameerika Ühendriikide sinised seadused piirasid sotsiaalselt vastuvõetavaid meelelahutusvorme, pakkus Barnum massidele lõbu ja imestust. Ta otsis kogu maailmast vaatamisväärsusi, mida kasutas, et kasutada ära avalikkuse uudishimu ja soovi põnevuse ja tõusutee järele. Ajaloolane Irving Wallace märkis, et showmehena kinkis Barnum nautimise kingituse „New Yorgile ja seejärel Ameerikale ning lõpuks maailmale”.

Praktilise naljamehe varajane elu

P. T. Barnum sündis 5. Tema isa Philo Barnum oli talupidaja, rätsep, kõrtsipidaja ja toidupood, kellel oli kahe naise poolt 10 last. Phineas oli Philo kuues laps ja esimene tema teise naise Irene poolt. Kogu Peineel oli Phinease lapsepõlves konservatiivsete väärtuste kindlus, kus domineeris koguduse kirik. Igapäevaelu raevukuse ja rutiini vastu võitlemiseks kasutasid sellised mehed nagu Phinease emaisa (ka nimega Phineas) ühe vähestest sotsiaalselt lubatud meelelahutusvormidest - praktilist nalja.

Barnum meenutas, et tema vanaisa „läheks kaugemale, ootaks kauem, töötaks rohkem ja mõtleks sügavamale, et praktilist nalja teha, kui miski muu taeva all”, nagu märkis biograaf A. H. Saxon. See oli tema vanaisa ärev isiksus ja armastus kahjutu ja lõbusa pettuse vastu, mida Phineas kasutas meelelahutustööstuse meteorilise tõusu ajal.

"Humbugsi prints"

Druidish Band Company reklaam, 1849 ühest Barnumi ja#8217 varasematest muusikateostest ja#8211 Connecticuti ajalooühingust

Phineast kirjeldati kui tugevat õpilast, kes paistis silma matemaatikas ja põlgas füüsilist tööd. Ta töötas isa heaks nende talus ja hiljem perekonnale kuuluvas üldkaupluses. Pärast isa surma 1825 likvideeris Barnum perekonna varad ja läks tööle Peeteli lähedal asuvasse Grassy Plains'i poodi, kus ta kohtus ja abiellus järgmise 44 aasta naise Charity Hallet'iga.

Tema karjäär isehakanud “Humbugsi printsina” sai alguse 25-aastaselt, kui klient nimega Coley Bartram sisenes toidupoodi Barnum koos John Moodyga. Bartram teadis, et Phineasil on nõrk spekulatiivsete investeeringute suhtes ja ta soovis müüa „uudishimu”. Joice Heth, afroameeriklanna, kes on väidetavalt 161 -aastane, ja asutajaisa George Washingtoni endine meditsiiniõde, meelitas kohale hulgaliselt uudishimulikke pealtvaatajaid, kes olid valmis maksma võimaluse eest teda kuulda ja isegi laulda. Barnum hüppas võimalusele oma esitusi turundada.

Kunagi ei tohi alahinnata, Barnum turustas Joice Hethit kui „maailma suurimat uudishimu”, ütles Raymund Fitzsimons oma raamatus Barnum Londonis. Ta ujutas New Yorgi piirkonna üle plakatite ja reklaamidega. Kui huvi Hethi vastu hakkas New Yorgis vähenema, viis Barnum ta läbi New Englandi, püüdes müüki suurendada, väites, et Heth kasutas tuurilt saadud tulu oma lapselaste ostmiseks orjusest. Kui huvi Hethi vastu hakkas teist korda kaduma, saatis Barnum Bostoni ajakirjandusele anonüümse kirja, milles väitis, et Heth, kes oli väike eakas naine, polnud üldse inimene, vaid hoopis automaat - sõna siis mehaanilise kuju kohta - valmistatud vaalaluust, vedrudest ja kummist. Hiljem väitis Barnum, et avalikkuse lõbustusvajadus õigustas tema pettusi. Kuigi pole andmeid selle kohta, et Barnum oleks kunagi öelnud: "Igas minutis sünnib nõme," kirjutas biograaf Wallace, et saatejuht tegi öelda: "Ameerika rahvale meeldis, kui teda alandati." Kui „alandamine” ja liialdus tema publikut rõõmustas, ei näinud Barnum sellest kahju. Alates Barnumi ajast on aga mitmed teadlased pälvinud humbugsid, mis hõlmasid üksikisikute avaliku vaatemängu avaldamist nende rassi või füüsiliste omaduste alusel.

Muuseumi tema “redel ” Fortune'i

Härra ja proua Tom Thumb, kommodoor Nutt, Minnie Watson ja P.T. Barnum – Connecticuti ajalooline selts

Aastal 1841 sai Barnum teada, et müüakse Scudderi Ameerika muuseumi, mille kogumik on 50 000 dollari väärtuses „säilmeid ja haruldasi uudiseid”, mis asub New Yorgis Broadway alamjooksul. Tema ost ja atraktsiooni "Barnumi Ameerika muuseumiks" taasavamine oli see, mida ta nimetas "redeliks", mille abil ta oma varandusele tõusis.

Barnum oli järeleandmatu nii veidruste jälgimisel kui ka oma muuseumi reklaamimisel. Ta seadis oma hoone kohale võimsad prožektorid ja hiiglaslikud voolavad bännerid. Ta kuulutas tasuta katusekontserte ja pakkus seejärel halvimaid muusikuid, keda ta võis leida, lootes rahvahulgad mürast eemale viia ja muuseumi suhtelisse rahule viia. Sisse saabudes kostitati patroone vaatemänguga “hiiglased”, põlisameeriklased, koertenäitused, Niagara kose töötav koopia ja isegi kuulus Feejee merineitsi (hiljem selgus, et tegemist on ahvitüve ja kalasabaga, mis on hoolikalt ühendatud). Kolme aasta jooksul enne Barnumi ostu oli Scudderi Ameerika muuseum teeninud 34 000 dollarit. Barnumi juhtimise esimese kolme aasta jooksul teenis äsja ümbernimetatud muuseum rohkem kui 100 000 dollarit.

1842. aastal avastas showman Connecticuti osariigis Bridgeportis vahemaandumise ajal Charles Strattoni, poisi, kes tõstab Barnumi kuulsuse rahvusvahelisele tasemele. Stratton oli nende kohtumise ajal nelja -aastane, oli vaid 25 tolli pikk ja kaalus 15 naela. Mängides Ameerika vaimustust Euroopa eksootilistest vaatamisväärsustest, turustas Barnum Strattonit kui „kindral Tom Thumb, üheteistkümneaastane kääbus, saabus just Inglismaalt”. Barnum ja Stratton pakkisid Ameerikas maju ja asusid Euroopa turneele, kus kohtusid Inglismaa kuninganna Victoria, Prantsusmaa kuninga Louis-Philippe'i ja teiste monarhidega.

1897. aasta plakatireklaam Barnum & amp; Bailey suurim näitus Maa peal – Kongressi raamatukogu, trükiste ja fotode osakond

Pension ja katastroofiline raamat

Olles juhtinud 150 kontserdiga turniiri „Rootsi ööbikule” Jenny Lindile-turnee, mis tõi ta 1850. aastate alguses uutele kuulsuste tippudele-, asus Barnum elama mitmele rahutule pensionile jäämisele. Ta veetis aega koos oma naise ja kolme tütrega oma Bridgeporti häärberis, mille ta oli nimetanud “Iranistaniks”. Seal, oma keerulises mauride stiilis häärberis, kirjutas ta vastuolulise autobiograafia, milles kirjeldati üksikasjalikult seda, mil määral ta oli oma varandust kogudes publikut petnud. Tagasilöök selle avaldamisest 1855. aastal oli tõsine ning lugejad tundsid, et Barnumi petlikud tavad on petetud ja petetud. The New York Times süüdistas Barnumit edu saavutamises „süstemaatilise, osava ja püsiva plaani kaudu raha hankida laia avalikkuse valedel alustel”, nagu on tsiteeritud Barnumi autobiograafia 2000. aasta väljaande esiplaanile. Barnum kirjutas aastaid ümber ja püüdis oma raamatu ilmutustest tulenevat kahju kontrollida.

Karjäär poliitikas

Pärast mitmeid halbu finantsotsuseid, sealhulgas investeeringuid New Haveni pankrotistunud Jerome Clock Company -sse, purunes Barnum ja oli sunnitud teele tagasi minema. Aastal 1858 pidas ta Londoni ümbruses loengusarja pealkirjaga iroonia: “Raha saamise kunst ehk edu elus”, mis olid väga populaarsed. Tema loengud ja pühendumine oma New Yorgi muuseumile aitasid tema populaarsust taaselustada, mis lõpuks innustas Barnumit kandideerima avalikku ametisse.

"Mulle tundus alati," kirjutas Barnum kord (ja seda tsiteeritakse Wallace'i elulooraamatus), "et mees, kes" ei huvita poliitikat ", on kõlbmatu elama maal, kus valitsus on inimeste käes." Võttes selle filosoofia südameasjaks, võitis Barnum Fairfieldi linnast 1865. aastal Connecticuti seadusandjate valimised. Ta võitles mustanahaliste meeste ja naiste kodakondsuse eest, nagu on välja pakutud neljateistkümnendas muudatusettepanekus, ning püüdis piirata New Yorgi ja New Haveni võimu. Raudtee fuajee. Barnumi edu pani ta aasta hiljem uuesti valima. Tema kõige rahuldust pakkuvam poliitiline töö oli aastase Bridgeporti linnapea ametiaja jooksul aastal 1875. Ametis olles ristas ta risti, et alandada kommunaalkulusid, parandada veevarustust ja sulgeda linna prostitutsioonimajad.

Aastad, mis hõlmasid tema poliitilist karjääri, hõlmasid ka teist ebaõnnestunud pensionile jäämise katset, tema naise Charity surma, abiellumist Nancy Fishiga aasta hiljem ja tema kuulsaima meelelahutusettevõtte - tsirkuse - käivitamist.

Barnum & amp; Bailey Circus

1874. aasta aprillis avas P. T. Barnumi Suur Rooma hipodroom New Yorgis kogu väljaku neljanda ja Madisoni avenüü vahel. Barnum reisis ümber maailma, ostes uue hipodroomi jaoks loomi ja atraktsioone. Hoolimata veendumusest, et talle kuulus “Maailma suurim näitus”, nägi Barnum oma edu ohtu rivaalitsevas tsirkuses, mida tuntakse kui rahvusvahelisi liitlasetendusi. Ta alustas ühinemisläbirääkimisi liitlaste James A. Baileyga, pannes aluse sellele, mis lõpuks sai Barnum & amp; Bailey tsirkusest.

Iraan, härra Barnumi elukoht, ca. 1851, Bridgeport – Connecticuti ajalooline selts ja Connecticuti ajalugu illustreeritud

“härra. Barnum, Ameerika ja#8221

Hilisematel aastatel nautis Barnum lugemist ja temast sai õlimaalide koguja, kaotamata kunagi kirge hea praktilise nalja vastu. Samuti ei tundunud ta kunagi väsinud oma ikoonilisest staatusest, nautides tõsiasja, et Indiast Bombayst (nüüd Mumbai) jõudis temani kiri, mis oli adresseeritud lihtsalt „Mr. Barnum, Ameerika. "

Barnum suri unes 7. aprillil 1891 oma kodus Bridgeportis - rannaäärne häärber Marina Iranistan hävis tulekahjus 1857. aastal. Pärast tema surma meenutas teda Wallace'i elulooraamatus tsiteeritud Barnumi endine töötaja Charles Godfrey Leland. kui “väga heasüdamlik ja heatahtlik ning andekas lõbutundega, mis oli isegi tugevam kui tema soov dollarite järele”. Oma professionaalse karjääri mõõtmisel tunnustas Barnum Londoni ajad teerajajana „suurejoonelise showmehe” elukutse ja Washington Post kuulutas ta "kõige tuntumaks ameeriklaseks, kes kunagi elanud".

Gregg Mangan on kirjanik ja ajaloolane, kellel on doktorikraad avalikus ajaloos Arizona osariigi ülikoolist.


Varajane elu

Barnum sündis Connecticuti osariigis Peetelis, kõrtsipidaja, rätsep ja poepidaja Philo Barnumi (1778–1826) poeg ning tema teine ​​naine Irene Taylor. Tema emapoolne vanaisa Phineas Taylor oli Whig, seadusandja, maaomanik, rahukohtunik ja loteriiprogrammeerija, kes avaldas talle suurt mõju.

Barnumil oli aastate jooksul mitu ettevõtet, sealhulgas üldpood, raamatute oksjonimüük, kinnisvaraspekulatsioonid ja üleriigiline lotovõrk. Ta alustas 1829. aastal nädalalehe helistamist Vabaduse kuulutaja aastal Danbury, Connecticut. Tema juhtkirjad kohalike kirikute vanemate vastu tõid kaasa laimuasjad ja süüdistuse esitamise, mille tulemuseks oli kahe kuu pikkune vangistus, kuid vabanedes sai temast liberaalse liikumise meister. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] Ta müüs oma poe 1834. aastal.

Oma karjääri showmehena alustas ta 1835. aastal, kui ta oli 25 -aastane, ostes ja tutvustades pimedat ja peaaegu täielikult halvatud orjanaist nimega Joice Heth, keda tuttav George Washingtoni endise meditsiiniõena ja 161 -aastasena Philadelphias ringi trumbas. Orjus oli New Yorgis juba keelatud, kuid ta kasutas ära lünga, mis võimaldas tal aastaks 1000 dollari eest rentida, laenates müügi lõpetamiseks 500 dollarit. Heth suri 1836. aasta veebruaris, olles mitte üle 80 -aastane. Barnum oli teda 10–12 tundi päevas töötanud ja ta korraldas New Yorgi salongis tema keha otselahangu, kus pealtvaatajad maksid surnud naise lõikamise eest 50 senti, kuna ta paljastas, et ta oli tõenäoliselt poole väiksem kui tema eeldatav vanus . [8] [9]


Barnum, Phineas Taylor (1810–1891)

Kuulus tsirkusemeister oli ka üks pühendunumaid universaliste XIX sajandil. Barnum sündis 5. juulil 1810 Connecticuti osariigis Peetelis ettevõtjate peres. Tema isa oli rätsep, kes pidas ka kõrtsi, kaubaveoteenust ja lauda. Ta suri, kui “Taylor” oli alles 15-aastane, jättes perekonna maksejõuetuks, kuigi tema lapsepõlve vaesus oli aastatel 1854–1855 avaldatud autobiograafias Barnum suuresti liialdatud.Elu P.T. Barnum, ise kirjutanud). Barnum sai nime emapoolse vanaisa, praktilise naljamehe järgi, kes tutvustas poisile ka universalismi. Koguduseliikmest kasvatatud Barnumist sai universialist umbes 1824. aastal, kui naaber Danbury kutsus oma esimese asunud universaalist ministri. Ilmselt oli Barnum omal ajal seltsi sekretär.

16 -aastaselt kolis ta New Yorki ning oli kaupluse müüja ja ostuagent. Veidi rohkem kui kaks aastat hiljem abiellus ta 8. novembril 1829. Charity Halletiga. Naastes Peetelisse, hakkas ta ajalehele kirjutama toimetuse kirju kiriku ja riigi lahusoleku kohta. Kui nad ei avaldanud tema kirju, alustas Barnum konkureeriva ajalehega, Vabaduse kuulutaja. Ajaleht kandis sarja "Universalismi tõestused". Toimetamise ajal kaevati ta laimu eest kohtusse ja ta leidis, et tema enda tunnistus ei ole vastuvõetav, kuna ta on universaal ja seega ei vastuta Jumala ees. Ta mõisteti süüdi ja kandis kaks kuud vangistust.

Ta naasis New Yorki ja alustas oma karjääri showmanina, kes tuuritas koos žonglööride, minstrullide ja erinevate inimlike veidrustega. Barnum tunnistas vabalt, et suur osa tema etendusest põhines keerulistel pettustel, mida ta eristas inimestest, kes ei tahtnud oma pettust tunnistada (ta kulutas palju aega ja raha võltsitud spiritistide jälitamiseks). Üks kuulsamaid “jumalaid ” Barnumi ja#8217 show's oli Joice Heth, keda ta esindas 161-aastase George Washingtoni Aafrika-Ameerika "emana". Heth oli tegelikult kaheksakümneaastane orjastatud naine, kelle Barnum oli ostnud teiselt showmehelt, nähes välja vanem. Kunagi kiitis ta trükisena, kuidas ta avastas Hethi nõrkust viski vastu, et hambad välja tõmmata, et ta näeks välja vanem. Heth tehti vaatamisväärsuseks isegi tema surma korral. Barnum lasi ta avalikult lahata pseudoteaduslikus väljapanekus, mille eesmärk oli dramatiseerida musta keha teisiti. Teiste eksponeeritud inimeste hulka kuulusid "Aafrika hiiglane", mustad kaksikud Millie-Christine, "Borneo metsikud mehed ja#8221 ning 25-tolline kääbus, kellele meeldivad paljud Barnumi veidrused, oli näitusel sisuliselt alles laps .

Barnumi käsitlust oma inimlikest veidrustest on aastate jooksul iseloomustatud erineval viisil. 2017. aasta filmis “Suurim showmees”, mis on pärast Barnumi elu lõdvalt väljamõeldud, kujutatakse teda kui võimendavat inimest, keda ta näitas, andes neile tööd seal, kus neil muidu poleks olnud, ning kohtledes neid inimeste mitmekesisuse positiivsete eeskujudena. , filmis pole viidet Hethile). Seevastu Harriet Washington, kirjutades Meditsiiniline apartheid: mustade ameeriklaste meditsiiniliste eksperimentide tume ajalugu koloonia ajast kuni tänapäevani, märgib, et kuigi Barnumi mustanahaliste esinejate kuritarvitamine oli „igapäevane”, olid need ka „ebamoraalsed” ning et vastupidiselt tema ümber käivale kaltsukatele jutustustele, mis viitavad sellele, et ta oli täiesti isetehtud mees, kasvas Barnum oma röövimise abil tegelikult rikkaks ajastu rassilise allumise ja orjastamise kultuuri enda kasuks. ”

Barnumi enda autobiograafia maalib keerulise pildi, kuna ta kaardistab nii oma tulihingeliselt orjuse kaotamise eest seismist kui ka kirjeldab aafriklasi vähearenenud, nõudes tsiviliseeritud lääne konteksti õitsengut. Samuti väitis ta, et paljud tema rassistlikke stereotüüpe kasutavad saated olid tegelikud paroodiad frenoloogidele ja teistele, kes kasutaksid pseudoteadust, et vaielda mis tahes rassi alaväärsuse eest.

Suur pöördepunkt tema karjääris leidis aset 1841. aastal, kui Ameerika muuseum läks müüki ja Barnum sai selle osta. Muuseum oli viiekorruseline hoone, mis pakkus Barnumi vanale näitusele alalist kodu, kus oli ka pidevalt täienev loodusimede ja -huviliste kogu, sealhulgas Ameerika esimene avalik akvaarium. Barnum kasutas toimumiskohta ka Temperance'i pooldavate teatritükkide jaoks (ta hoidis isiklikult kogu elu alkoholist).

Selle aja jooksul sai Barnumist aktiivne osaleja New Yorgi neljandas Universalistide Seltsis ja eriti sõbralik selle ministri Edwin H. Chapiniga. Neid kahte meest nähti nii palju koos, et neid võrreldi kuulsate Hiina Siiami kaksikute, Changi ja Engiga, kes olid osa Barnumi näitustest. Pärast Chapini surma hakkas Barnum osalema Robert Collyeri osutatud unitaristlikel jumalateenistustel. Barnum oli kõige rohkem pühendunud Connecticuti Bridgeporti esimesele Universalistide Seltsile. Pärast 1848. aastat oli ta selle kiriku suurim rahaline panustaja ja annetas ka tohutuid summasid erinevatele ehitusprojektidele. Ta jättis kirikusse oma testamendis summa, mis sai tuntuks Barnumi fondina. Olümpia Brown oli tema minister aastatel 1869–1875. Ta toetas tema tööd väga ja tegi tema sõnul sageli komplimente tema jutlustamisele, kuid tema naiste õiguste kaitsmine tõi kaasa lõhe ja enneaegse vallandamise. Just sel ajal väljus ta pensionist, mille tõid kaasa tulekahjud Ameerika muuseumis.

Barnumi uus karjäär oli tsirkuseäri. Oma tohutu andekusega edendamiseks ja reklaamimiseks suurendas ta oluliselt tsirkuse suurust ning kasutas esimesena raudteed reisimiseks ja edasimüüjateks. Kakskümmend aastat juhtis ta "suurimat etendust maa peal".

Ta veetis kaks ametiaega ka Connecticuti seadusandlikus koosseisus, kus ta oli kõige tuntum selle poolest, et pooldas Aafrika -Ameerika valimisõigust kõigi surematute hingede võrdsuse alusel, ja#1821 ning võttis 1879. aastal vastu seaduseelnõu, mis keelas rasestumisvastased vahendid.

Teine minister, kellest sai Barnumi sõber, oli Tuftsi kolledži kolmas president Elmer Capen. Barnum oli seal hoolekogus aastatel 1851–1857 ning Capeni julgustusel andis ta välja ja ehitas Barnumi loodusloomuuseumi, mis avati 1884. aastal. Ta andis muuseumile sageli surnud tsirkuse loomade, sealhulgas elevandi Jumbo, monteeritud loomanahku. , kellest sai Tuftsi maskott. Barnum andis raha ka paljudele teistele universalistlikele koolidele ja rühmadele üle riigi. Oma elu lõpus avaldas ta enimmüüdud voldiku, Miks ma olen Universalist. Sellel oli lai lugejaskond, see jäi trükki paljudeks aastateks ja oli nii vaimustuses Jaapani misjonärist George Perinist, et sellest sai esimene jaapani keelde tõlgitud universalistlik traktaat. Barnum postuleeris selles, et surm ei lõpeta iseloomu arengut, vaid et hing areneb tulevases maailmas edasi. Tema surma ajaks oli ringluses 60 000 eksemplari.

Barnum suri 7. aprillil 1891 ja matused viisid 10. päeval läbi Collyer ja tema Universalistist pastor Bridgeportist Lewis B. Fisher.

Lugege Barnumi#8217 enimmüüdud brošüüri ja Miks ma olen universalist, ja#8221, klõpsates siin.

Lugege Barnumi ja#8217 elulooraamatut Harvardi väljaku raamatukogus, klõpsates siin


P. T. Barnum

Phineas Taylor Barnum (5. juuli 1810 –, 7. aprill 1891) oli Ameerika showmees, ärimees ja meelelahutaja, keda mäletati kuulsate kelmuste propageerimise ja ringlusringiks Ringling Bros ning Barnum & amp; Bailey Circus asutatud tsirkuse rajamise eest. Tema edu võis teha temast esimese & quotshow äri & quot; miljonäri. Kuigi Barnum oli ka kirjanik, kirjastaja, filantroop ja mõnda aega poliitik, ütles ta enda kohta: "Ma olen elukutselt showmees. ja kogu kuldamine ei tee minust muud, & quot; ja tema isiklikud eesmärgid olid & quotto, pani raha tema enda kassasse. & quot; Barnumile omistatakse laialdaselt, kuid ekslikult fraas & quot; Igas minutis sünnib imemees & quot;. (Vaadake Cardiffi hiiglase artiklit, et õigesti omistada mees, kes ütles seda vastuseks Barnumi tegevusele selles küsimuses).

Connecticuti osariigis Peetelis sündinud Barnumist sai kahekümnendate eluaastate alguses väikeettevõtte omanik ja ta asutas 1829. aastal Danburys iganädalase ajalehe The Herald of Freedom. Ta kolis 1834. aastal New Yorki ja alustas kõigepealt meelelahutuskarjääri. varietrupiga nimega & quot; Barnumi suur teadus- ja muusikateater & quot; ning varsti pärast seda, kui ta ostis Scudderi Ameerika muuseumi, mille ta enda nime ümber nimetas. Barnum kasutas muuseumi platvormina, et reklaamida pettusi ja inimeste uudishimu, nagu „Feejee“ merineitsi ja „Üldine Tom Thumb“. 1846. aasta lõpuks külastas Barnumi muuseum aastas 400 000 külastajat. Aastal 1850 reklaamis ta Ameerika lauljatar Jenny Lindi tuuri, makstes talle 150 öö eest enneolematult 1000 dollarit öö kohta.

Pärast 1850ndatel halbade investeeringute tõttu toimunud majanduslikke pöördeid alustas Barnum nelja -aastast kohtuvaidlust ja avalikku alandamist. Ta toibus, alustades loengutuuriga, enamasti karskuskõnelejana, ja 1860. aastaks väljus ta võlgadest ning ehitas mõisa "Lindencroft". Tema muuseum lisas Ameerika esimese akvaariumi ja laiendas vahakujude osakonda.

Kuigi ta väitis, et "poliitika on minu jaoks alati vastik," valiti Barnum 1865. aastal Connectfieldi seadusandjasse Fairfieldi vabariiklasena ja teenis kaks ametiaega. Ta kandideeris kaks korda ebaõnnestunult Ameerika Ühendriikide kongressile. Pärast USA põhiseaduse kolmeteistkümnenda muudatuse ratifitseerimist orjuse ja afroameerika valimisõiguse üle võttis Barnum sõna seadusandliku kogu ees ja ütles: „Inimese hingega ei tohi tühistada. See võib asuda hiinlase, türklase, araablase või hotentoti kehas - see on endiselt surematu vaim! & Quot; Aastal 1875 oli Barnum aasta Connecticuti Bridgeporti linnapea ja töötas veevarustuse parandamise, gaasivalgustuse tänavatel ning alkoholi- ja prostitutsiooniseaduste jõustamisel. Barnum aitas kaasa 1878. aastal asutatud Bridgeporti haigla asutamisele ja oli selle esimene president.

Barnum asus 61 -aastaselt tsirkuseärisse, mis oli suure osa tema püsiva kuulsuse allikas, ja pani aluse & quot. T. Barnumi suur rändmuuseum, karjala, haagissuvila ja hipodroom & quot; rändtsirkus, laudamaja ja & quot; lõbustuste muuseum & quot;, mis 1872. aastaks kuulutas end "Suurimaks näituseks maa peal". Barnum oli esimene tsirkuseomanik, kes kolis oma tsirkuse rongiga, ja esimene, kes ostis oma rongi. Arvestades asfaltkattega maanteede puudumist Ameerikas, osutus see nutikaks ettevõtluseks, mis suurendas Barnumi turgu.

Barnum suri unes kodus 7. aprillil 1891 ja maeti tema kavandatud kalmistule Mountain Grove'i kalmistule, Bridgeporti, Connecticuti osariiki.

Barnum sündis Connecticuti osariigis Peetelis, kõrtsipidaja, rätsep ja poepidaja Philo Barnumi (1778-1826) ning teise naise Irene Taylori poeg. Ta oli Barnumi perekonna esivanema Thomas Barnumi (1625–1695) kolmas lapselapselaps Põhja-Ameerikas. Tema emapoolne vanaisa Phineas Taylor oli nuhtleja, seadusandja, maaomanik, rahukohtunik ja loteriiprogrammeerija ning tal oli suur mõju oma lemmiklapselapsele. Barnum oli aritmeetikas vilunud, kuid vihkas füüsilist tööd. Barnum alustas poepidajana ja õppis kauplemist, tehingut ja petmist müügi tegemiseks. Ta oli seotud loterii maaniaga Ameerika Ühendriikides. Ta abiellus Charity Halletiga, kui ta oli 19 -aastane, oleks ta tema kaaslane järgmised 44 aastat.

Noorel mehel oli mitu ettevõtet: üldpood, raamatute oksjonite müük, kinnisvaraspekulatsioonid ja üleriigiline lotovõrk. Ta hakkas aktiivselt osalema kohalikus poliitikas ja pooldas kalvinistide välja kuulutatud siniseid seadusi, mis püüdsid hasartmänge ja reisimist piirata. Barnum alustas 1829. aastal iganädalast ajalehte The Herald of Freedom, Danburys, Connecticutis. Tema juhtkirjad kogudusevanemate vastu tõid kaasa laimuasjad ja süüdistuse esitamise, mille tulemuseks oli kahe kuu pikkune vangistus, kuid vabanedes sai temast liberaalse liikumise meister. 1834. aastal, kui Connecticutis loteriid keelati, lõigates ära tema põhitulu, müüs Barnum oma poe maha ja kolis New Yorki. Aastal 1835 alustas ta showmehena, ostes ja tutvustades pimedat ja peaaegu täielikult halvatud orjanaist Joice Hethit, kelle väitis Barnum, et ta oli George Washingtoni meditsiiniõde ja oli üle 160. Joice Heth suri 1836. aastal, ei rohkem kui 80.

Pärast aastat vahelduvat edu oma esimese estraaditrupiga "Barnumi suur teaduslik ja muusikaline teater", millele järgnes 1837. aasta paanika ja kolm aastat keerulisi olusid, ostis ta 1841. aastal New Yorgis Broadway ja Ann Streetil Scudderi Ameerika muuseumi See sai ümbernimetatud "Barnumi Ameerika muuseumiks", lisades hoonesse eksponaate ja täiustusi, ja sellest sai populaarne näitusepaik. Barnum lisas majakalambi, mis äratas tähelepanu Broadwayst üles ja alla ning lipud mööda katuse serva, mis pälvisid tähelepanu päeval. Ülemiste akende vahelt tõmbasid jalakäijate pilke hiiglaslikud loomamaalingud. Katus muudeti linna vaatega jalutavaks aiaks, kus iga päev hakati sõitma kuumaõhupalliga. Topiste staatilistele eksponaatidele lisati muutuv seeria otseülekandeid ja "uudishimu", sealhulgas albiinod, hiiglased, pisikesed, "paksud poisid", žonglöörid, mustkunstnikud ja quotexotic naised, linnade ja kuulsate lahingute üksikasjalikud mudelid ning lõpuks loomade looming.

Aastal 1842 tutvustas Barnum oma esimest suurt pettust, "Feejee" merineitsi, mille ta rentis muuseumi omanikult Mosesilt Bostoni linnalt, kellest sai tema sõber, usaldusisik ja kaastööline. see oli kala saba ja pärdiku pea. Ta põhjendas oma pettusi või & quothumbugs & quot reklaame, et tähelepanu äratada. muuseumi juurde. Ma ei usu avalikkuse petmisse, kuid ma usun, et kõigepealt meelitame neid ja siis rõõmustame neid. & Quot; Hiljem ristis ta petturite vastu (vt allpool). Barnum järgnes sellele, et Charles Strattoni näitusega sai päkapikk "Kindral Tom Thumb" (& quotthe väikseim inimene, kes kunagi kõndis), kes oli siis nelja -aastane, kuid väidetavalt 11 -aastane. jäljendada inimesi Heraklesest Napoleonini. Viiega jõi ta avalikkuse meelelahutuseks veini ja seitse sigarit. Kuigi Tom Thumb oli ärakasutatud, nautis ta oma tööd ja tal olid Barnumiga head mõrvavabad suhted.

Aastal 1843 palkas Barnum traditsioonilise põliselanike tantsija fu-Hum-Me, esimese paljudest põliselanikest, keda ta esitas. Aastatel 1844-45 tuuritas Barnum koos Tom Thummiga Euroopas ja kohtus kuninganna Victoriaga, keda väikemees lõbustas ja kurvastas ning see sündmus oli reklaamipööre. See avas ukse kuningriikide külaskäikudele üle kogu Euroopa, sealhulgas Venemaa tsaari, ning võimaldas tal hankida kümneid vaatamisväärsusi, sealhulgas automaate ja muid mehaanilisi imesid. He tried to buy the birth home of William Shakespeare and almost got away with it. Barnum was having the time of his life, and for all of the three years abroad with Thumb, except for a few months when his serious, nervous, and straitlaced wife joined him, he had piles of spending money, food and drink, and lived a carefree existence. On his return to New York, he went on a spending spree, buying other museums, including Peale's museum in Philadelphia, the nation's first major museum. By late 1846, Barnum's Museum was drawing 400,000 visitors a year.

A much-cited experience of Barnum as a legitimate impresario was his engagement of Jenny Lind, the "Swedish Nightingale", to sing in America at $1,000 a night for 150 nights, all expenses paid by the entrepreneur in advance - an unprecedented offer. "Jenny Lind mania" was sweeping Europe and she was a favorite of Queen Victoria. She was unpretentious, shy, and devout, and possessed a crystal-clear soprano voice projected with a wistful quality which audiences found touching. The offer was accepted in part to free her from opera performances which she disliked and to endow a music school for poor children. The risk for Barnum was huge. Besides never having heard her or knowing whether Americans would take to her, he had to assume all the financial risk. He borrowed heavily on his mansion and his museum. With bravado, he drummed up publicity but conceded, "'The public' is a very strange animal, and although a good knowledge of human nature will generally lead a caterer of amusement to hit the people right, they are fickle and ofttimes perverse."

As a result of months of Barnum's preparations, close to 40,000 greeted her at the docks and another 20,000 at her hotel, the press was in attendance, and "Jenny Lind items" were available. The tour began with the concert at Castle Garden on September 11, 1850 and turned out a success, recouping Barnum four times his investment. Washington Irving proclaimed "She is enough to counterbalance, of herself, all the evil that the world is threatened with by the great convention of women. So God save Jenny Lind!"

Using profits from the Lind tour, Barnum's next challenge was to change attitudes about the theater from 'dens of evil' to palaces of edification and delight, respectable middle-class entertainment. He built the largest and most modern theater and named it the "Moral Lecture Room", to avoid seedy connotation and to attract a family crowd and to get the approval of the moral crusaders of New York City. He started the nation's first theater matinພs to encourage families and to lessen the fear of crime. He opened with The Drunkard, a thinly disguised temperance lecture (he had become a teetotaler after returning from Europe with Tom Thumb). He followed that with melodramas, farces, and historical plays, put on by highly regarded actors. He watered down Shakespearean plays and others such as Uncle Tom's Cabin to make them family entertainment.

He organized flower shows, beauty contests, dog shows, poultry contests, but the most popular were the baby contests (fattest baby, handsomest twins, etc.). In 1853, he started a pictorial weekly newspaper Illustrated News and a year later he completed his autobiography, which through many revisions, sold more than one million copies. Mark Twain loved it but the British Examiner thought it "trashy" and "offensive" and "inspired. nothing but sensations of disgust. and sincere pity for the wretched man who compiled it."

In the early 1850s, Barnum began investing in real estate to develop East Bridgeport, Connecticut. He made substantial loans to the Jerome Clock Company, to get it to move to the new industrial area he was underwriting. But by 1856, the company went bankrupt, sucking Barnum's wealth with it. So began four years of court litigation and public humiliation. Ralph Waldo Emerson proclaimed that Barnum's downfall showed "the gods visible again" and other critics celebrated Barnum's moral comeuppance. But his friends pulled hard too, and Tom Thumb, now touring on his own, offered his services again to the showman and they undertook another European tour. Barnum also started a lecture tour, mostly as a temperance speaker. By 1860, he emerged from debt and built a mansion "Lindencroft" (his palace "Iranistan" had burnt down in 1857) and he resumed ownership of his museum.

Despite critics who predicted he could not revive the magic, Barnum went on to greater success. He added America's first aquarium and expanded the wax figure department. His "Seven Grand Salons" demonstrated the Seven Wonders of the World. He created a rogues gallery. The collections expanded to four buildings and he published a "Guide Book to the Museum" which claimed 850,000 'curiosities'.

Late in 1860, the Siamese Twins, Chang and Eng, came out of retirement (they needed more money to send their numerous children to college). The Twins had had a touring career on their own and went to live on a North Carolina plantation with their families and slaves, under the name of "Bunker". They appeared at Barnum's Museum for six weeks. Also in 1860, Barnum introduced the "man-monkey" William Henry Johnson, a microcephalic black dwarf who spoke a mysterious language created by Barnum. In 1862, he discovered the giantess Anna Swan and Commodore Nutt, a new Tom Thumb, who with Barnum visited President Abraham Lincoln at the White House. During the Civil War, Barnum's museum drew large audiences seeking diversion from the conflict. He added pro-Unionist exhibits, lectures, and dramas, and he demonstrated commitment to the cause. For example, in 1864, Barnum hired Pauline Cushman, an actress who had served as a spy for the Union, to lecture about her "thrilling adventures" behind Confederate lines. Barnum's Unionist sympathies incited a Confederate arsonist to start a fire in 1864. On July 13, 1865, Barnum's American Museum burned to the ground from a fire of unknown origin. Barnum re-established the Museum at another location in New York City, but this too was destroyed by fire in March 1868. This time the loss was too great, and Barnum retired from the freak business.

Barnum did not enter the circus business until late in his career (he was 61). In Delavan, Wisconsin in 1871 with William Cameron Coup, he established "P. T. Barnum's Grand Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan & Hippodrome", a traveling circus, menagerie and museum of "freaks", which by 1872 was billing itself as "The Greatest Show on Earth". It went through various names: "P.T. Barnum's Travelling World's Fair, Great Roman Hippodrome and Greatest Show On Earth", and after an 1881 merger with James Bailey and James L. Hutchinson, "P.T. Barnum's Greatest Show On Earth, And The Great London Circus, Sanger's Royal British Menagerie and The Grand International Allied Shows United", soon shortened to "Barnum & London Circus". Despite more fires, train disasters, and other setbacks, Barnum plowed ahead, aided by circus professionals who ran the daily operations. He and Bailey split up again in 1885, but came back together in 1888 with the "Barnum & Bailey Greatest Show On Earth", later "Barnum & Bailey Circus", which toured the world. The show's primary attraction was Jumbo, an African elephant he purchased in 1882 from the London Zoo and who died in a train wreck. Jumbo eventually became the mascot of Tufts University, in honor of a donation from Barnum in 1882.

Barnum was the first circus owner to move his circus by train, and the first to purchase his own train. Given the lack of paved highways in America, this turned out to be a shrewd business move that enlarged Barnum's market. Many circus historians credit Bailey with this innovation. In this new field, Barnum leaned more on the advice of Bailey and other business partners, most of whom were young enough to be his sons.

Barnum built four mansions in Bridgeport, Connecticut: Iranistan, Lindencroft, Waldemere and Marina. Iranistan was the most notable: a fanciful and opulent Moorish Revival splendor designed by Leopold Eidlitz with domes, spires and lacy fretwork, inspired by the Royal Pavilion in Brighton, England. This mansion was built 1848 but burned down in 1857.

Barnum died in his sleep at home on April 7, 1891 and was buried in Mountain Grove Cemetery, Bridgeport, Connecticut, a cemetery he designed. A statue in his honor was placed in 1893 at Seaside Park, by the water in Bridgeport. Barnum had donated the land for this park in 1865. His circus was sold to Ringling Brothers on July 8, 1907 for $400,000 (about $8.5 million in 2008 dollars). At his death, most critics had forgiven him and he was praised for good works. Barnum was hailed as an icon of American spirit and ingenuity, and was perhaps the most famous American in the world. Just before his death, he gave permission to the Evening Sun to print his obituary, so that he might read it. On April 7 he asked about the box office receipts for the day a few hours later, he was dead.

Barnum wrote several books, including Life of P.T. Barnum (1854), The Humbugs of the World (1865), Struggles and Triumphs (1869), and The Art of Money-Getting (1880).

Mass publication of his autobiography was one of Barnum's more successful methods of self-promotion. Some had every edition. Barnum eventually gave up his copyright to allow other printers to sell inexpensive editions. At the end of the 19th century the number of copies printed was second only to the New Testament printed in North America.

Often referred to as the "Prince of Humbugs", Barnum saw nothing wrong in entertainers or vendors using hype (or "humbug", as he termed it) in promotional material, as long as the public was getting value for money. However, he was contemptuous of those who made money through fraudulent deceptions, especially the spiritualist mediums popular in his day, testifying against noted spirit photographer William H. Mumler in his trial for fraud. Prefiguring illusionists Harry Houdini and James Randi, Barnum exposed "the tricks of the trade" used by mediums to cheat the bereaved. In The Humbugs of the World, he offered $500 to any medium who could prove power to communicate with the dead.

Barnum was significantly involved in the politics surrounding race, slavery, and sectionalism in the period leading up to the American Civil War. As mentioned above, he had some of his first success as an impresario through his slave Joice Heth. Around 1850, he was involved in a hoax about a weed that would turn black people white.

Barnum was a producer and promoter in blackface minstrelsy. According to Eric Lott, Barnum's minstrel shows were more double-edged in their humor than most. While still replete with racist stereotypes, Barnum's shows satirized white racial attitudes, as in a stump speech in which a black phrenologist (like all performers, a white man in blackface) made a dialect speech parodying lectures given at the time to "prove" the superiority of the white race: "You see den, dat clebber man and dam rascal means de same in Dutch, when dey boph white but when one white and de udder's black, dat's a grey hoss ob anoder color." (Lott, 1993, 78)

Promotion of minstrel shows led to his sponsorship in 1853 of H.J. Conway's politically watered-down stage version of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin the play, at Barnum's American Museum, gave the story a happy ending, with Tom and other slaves freed. The success led to a play based on Stowe's Dred: A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp. His opposition to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 led him to leave the Democratic Party to become a member of the new Republican Party. He had evolved from a man of common prejudices in the 1840s to a leader for emancipation by the Civil War.

While he claimed "politics were always distasteful to me," Barnum was elected to the Connecticut legislature in 1865 as Republican representative for Fairfield and served two terms. In the debate over slavery and African-American suffrage with the ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Barnum spoke before the legislature and said, "A human soul is not to be trifled with. It may inhabit the body of a Chinaman, a Turk, an Arab or a Hotentot - it is still an immortal spirit!" He ran for the United States Congress in 1867 and lost. In 1875, Barnum was mayor of Bridgeport, Connecticut for a year and worked to improve the water supply, bring gaslighting to streets, and enforce liquor and prostitution laws. Barnum was instrumental in starting Bridgeport Hospital, founded in 1878, and was its first president.

Barnum enjoyed what he publicly dubbed "profitable philanthropy." In Barnum's own words: "I have no desire to be considered much of a philanthropist. if by improving and beautifying our city [Bridgeport, CT], and adding to the pleasure and prosperity of my neighbors, I can do so at a profit, the incentive to 'good works' will be twice as strong as if it were otherwise." In line with this philosophy was Barnum's pursuit of major American museums and spectacles. Less known is Barnum's significant contributions to Tufts University. Barnum was appointed to the Board of Trustees prior to the University's founding and made several significant contributions to the then fledgling institution. The most noteworthy example of this was his gift in 1883 of $50,000 dollars ($1,136,269 2009 U.S. dollars) to the University, and with it was established a museum and hall for the Department of Natural History, which today is home to the department of biology. Because of the relationship between Barnum and Tufts, Jumbo the elephant is the mascot of the Tufts Athletic department, and Tufts students are known as "Jumbos."

Art of Money Getting, or, Golden Rules for Making Money. Originally published 1880. Reprint ed., Bedford, MA: Applewood, 1999. ISBN 1-55709-494-2.

Struggles and Triumphs, or Forty Years' Recollections of P.T. Barnum. Originally published 1869. Reprint ed., Whitefish, MT: Kessinger, 2003. ISBN 0-7661-5556-0 (Part 1) and ISBN 0-7661-5557-9 (Part 2).

The Colossal P.T. Barnum Reader: Nothing Else Like It in the Universe. Ed. by James W. Cook. Champaign, University of Illinois Press, 2005. ISBN 0-252-07295-2.

The Life of P.T. Barnum: Written By Himself. Originally published 1855. Reprint ed., Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2000. ISBN 0-252-06902-1.

The Wild Beasts, Birds and Reptiles of the World: The Story of their Capture. Pubi. 1888, R. S. Peale & Company, Chicago.

The Tufts University Biology Building is named in honor of Barnum.

In 1936, for the centennial of the city of Bridgeport, CT, his portrait was used for the obverse of a commemorative half dollar.


Sisu

In 1841, Barnum acquired the building and natural history collection of Scudder's American Museum [2] for less than half of its appraised value with the financial support of Francis Olmsted, by quickly purchasing it the day after the soon to be buyers, the Peale Museum Company, failed to make their payment. [3] He converted the five-story exterior into an advertisement lit with limelight. The museum opened on January 1, 1842. [4] Its attractions made it a combination zoo, museum, lecture hall, wax museum, theater and freak show, in what was, at the same time, a central site in the development of American popular culture. Barnum filled the American Museum with dioramas, panoramas, "cosmoramas", scientific instruments, modern appliances, a flea circus, a loom powered by a dog, the trunk of a tree under which Jesus’ disciples sat, an oyster bar, a rifle range, waxworks, glass blowers, taxidermists, phrenologists, pretty baby contests, Ned the learned seal, the Feejee Mermaid (a mummified monkey's torso with a fish's tail), midgets, Chang and Eng the Siamese twins, a menagerie of exotic animals that included beluga whales in an aquarium, giants, Native Americans who performed traditional songs and dances, Grizzly Adams's trained bears and performances ranging from magicians, ventriloquists and blackface minstrels to adaptations of biblical tales and Onu Tomi kajut. [3] [5] [6] [7] [8]

At its peak, the museum was open fifteen hours a day and had as many as 15,000 visitors a day. [1] Some 38 million customers paid the 25 cents admission to visit the museum between 1841 and 1865. The total population of the United States in 1860 was under 32 million.

In November 1864, the Confederate Army of Manhattan attempted and failed to burn down the museum, but on July 13, 1865 the American Museum burned to the ground in one of the most spectacular fires New York has ever seen. [9] Animals at the museum were seen jumping from the burning building, only to be shot by police. Many of the animals unable to escape the blaze burned to death in their enclosures, including the two beluga whales who boiled to death in their tanks. It was allegedly during this fire that a fireman by the name of Johnny Denham killed an escaped tiger with his ax before rushing into the burning building and carrying out a 400-pound woman on his shoulders. Barnum's New Museum opened September 6, 1865, at 539-41 Broadway, between Spring and Prince Streets, but that also burned down, on March 3, 1868. [10] It was after this that Barnum moved on to politics and the circus industry. [11] Barnum's American Museum was one of the most popular attractions of its time. [12]

The site at Ann Street was then used for a new building for the New York Herald ajaleht. [13]

In July 2000, a virtual museum version opened on the Internet, supported by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. It is hosted by CUNY and was maintained through 2015. [14]

One of the biggest attractions and advantages to the success of the American Museum was Barnum's advertising strategy. Barnum's self-professed goal was "to make the Museum the town wonder and talk of the town. [5] " To do this he was "not above exploiting his patrons' ignorance and credulity from time to time," as seen in some of his most well-known schemes: the Fejee mermaid, the Little Woolly horse, and the 'to the egress' signs. [6] Not only did Barnum capitalize on the draw of some of his most famous attractions, he would often publish articles in newspapers claiming that his exhibits were fake, which in turn caused audiences to return to see them for themselves. [3] He also printed off countless massive colored posters displaying the many exhibits within the museum. These posters often exaggerated the attractions they advertised, but this did not stop visitors from returning after finding out they had been misled. The poster for the Fejee mermaid was so massive, that it covered a majority of the front of the museum. [3]

The museum's collection included items collected throughout the world over a period of 25 years. [15] The museum offered many attractions which grew to great fame. One of the most famous was General Tom Thumb a 25-inch tall dwarf who eventually garnered so much fame and success that Queen Victoria saw his performances twice and Abraham Lincoln personally congratulated Thumb on his wedding. Thumb wasn't the only physical oddity there there was also the Fiji Mermaid and Josephine Boisdechene, who had a large beard, which had grown to the length of two inches when she was only eight years old. As if to supplement Tom Thumb, another famous attraction of the museum was William Henry Johnson (Zip the Pinhead), who was one of Barnum's longest-running attractions. Another one of the famous attractions at the museum were Chang and Eng, Siamese twins who were extremely argumentative, both with each other and Barnum himself.

The museum also boasted an elegant theatre, called the "Lecture Room," and characterized in the popular Gleason's Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion of 1853, "one of the most elegant and recherche halls of its class to be found anywhere," which would offer "every species of entertainment . 'from grave to gay, from lively to severe,' . [and] judiciously purged of every semblance of immorality." [16] Impressively, these shows "[rivaled] or even [excelled] those of the neighboring theaters." [6] It was possible for these shows to do this because: 1) these performances occurred in a space labeled a lecture hall, helping to distinguish them for those who would never have been near a theatre, and 2) "[Barnum] made the theatre into something it had rarely been before: a place of family entertainment, where men and women, adults and children, could intermingle safe in the knowledge that no indecencies would assault their senses either on stage or off." [3] Additionally, Barnum implemented several morality plays to be shown in his auditorium, many of which taught against the dangers of drinking. Werner points out the accessibility of these performances saying, "many persons who would not be seen in a theatre visited regularly the Museum Lecture Room—Barnum would never consent to calling it a theatre—where the moral dramas of 'Joseph and His Brethren,' 'Moses,' and 'The Drunkard' were performed." [7] These were especially popular with women, as alcoholism was becoming rampant among working-class men. These plays were often seen as the height of family-friendly entertainment, because they taught good lessons that were appropriate for all ages.

At one point, Barnum noticed that people were lingering too long at his exhibits. He posted signs indicating "This Way to the Egress". Not knowing that "Egress" was another word for "Exit", people followed the signs to what they assumed was a fascinating exhibit — and ended up outside. [17]

The five-story building also served great educational value. Aside from the different attractions, the Museum also promoted educational ends, including natural history in its menageries, aquarium (which featured a large white whale), and taxidermy exhibits history in its paintings, wax figures, and memorabilia and temperance reform and Shakespearean dramas in the above described "Lecture Room" or theater. [9] It was also the first museum to put human oddities on display as an organized freak show. [7] It was the American Museum that began the modern-day trend of exploiting the human body for the sake of mass entertainment. [3]

One of Barnum's most successful attractions was his large selection of living animals, which were a highlight for the visitors who had never seen exotic creatures. Sadly, the animals in Barnum's "happy family" were poorly treated at best and neglected at worst." [3] Their standard of living is exemplified in the beluga whales he kept in a tank in the basement. The whales lived in a small 576 square foot tank, and when they frequently died Barnum "promptly set about procuring additional specimens." [6]


P.T. Barnum Begins Career as Showman

Phineas Taylor (P.T.) Barnum was born on July 5, 1810. Most of us know him because of the circus, but he was actually an incredibly important figure in American history. "The Atlantic" named P.T. Barnum to its list of 100 most influential figures in American history. The list includes George Washington (#2), Ben Franklin (#23) and Sam Walton (#72, creator of Wal-Mart). Barnum comes in at #67. Obviously there was more to the man than a traveling circus.

So what did P. T. Barnum do? One way to find out is to read his autobiography, which is available online for free. It is an astonishing book, and here we learn some of the things that made P.T. Barnum so great. First, he had unbelievable perseverance. He also had a keen understanding of what would excite people's interest. But his greatest talent, perhaps, was his ability to package and promote entertainment.

Barnum's first business opened in May 1828. He ran a small store that initially sold cakes, cookies, raisins and ale. We might think of it as a version of today's convenience store. Later, he added "stuff" that he purchased in New York -- pocket knives, combs, et cetera -- as well as stewed oysters and lottery tickets. Not long afterwards, Barnum met a man named Hack Bailey, who began to frequent the store. Barnum describes him as ". a showman. He imported the first elephant that was ever brought to this country and made a fortune by exhibiting it. He was afterwards extensively engaged in traveling menageries, and subsequently was very successful running opposition steamboats upon the North River." In other words, at age 18, Barnum was exposed to a person who had made a great deal of money doing something that Barnum would eventually turn into a fine art form.

At this point, Barnum had several unsuccessful business ventures. He opened a country store, but it failed. He tried selling books, but much of his stock was stolen. He bought a press and started a weekly newspaper, but was sued for libel several times and spent time in jail. He sold lottery tickets on credit and was unable to collect.

So in 1835, Barnum moved his family to New York City to start over again. As Barnum puts it in his autobiography, "I had learned that I could make money rapidly and in large sums, whenever I set about it with a will." But he arrived in New York essentially penniless. It is from this position that P.T. Barnum began his career as a showman.

Barnum's career started with a woman named Joice Heth, an extremely old African-American woman described as the 161-year-old former slave of George Washington's father. An ad goes on the say:

Of course Joice Heth was not actually 161 years old, but she looked it. She was nearly paralyzed (having only the use of one arm), completely blind and toothless. However she could speak, sing and hold conversations with people, and she knew a great deal about Washington and his family. Since Heth was a slave, Barnum was able to purchase her for $1,000 in borrowed money. The he displayed her in New York City. From this endeavor, Barnum made about $1,500 per week. He was able to do this because of an amazing amount of advertising -- brochures, posters, booklets, newspaper ads, et cetera -- declaring her to be "the nurse of George Washington." As interest waned in New York, Barnum took her on the road to cities like Providence and Boston.

While exhibiting Heth in Albany, Barnum met a plate-spinning acrobat named Signor Antonio, and offered to pay him $20 per week to do shows. Barnum changed his name to the more exotic-sounding "Signor Vivalla," promoted him extensively, and was soon making $50 a night for his performances in theaters.

Barnum learned about the power of advertising and the value of traveling shows from these experiences. For example, in April 1836, while arranging performances for Antonio, Barnum had his first encounter with a traveling circus, complete with tents and animals.

Barnum's next endeavor was a museum in New York. According to Ringling.com:

This museum, renamed Barnum's American Museum, was successful for many years. Barnum added several now-legendary attractions over the next few years, including General Tom Thumb (a little person whose real name was Charles Stratton) and the "Fejee Mermaid" (which was actually the top half of a monkey body sewn to the body of a fish).

In 1850, Barnum brought the celebrated opera singer Jenny Lind, known as the "Swedish Nightingale," to the United States. Although she was popular in Europe, Lind was virtually unknown in the U.S., and Barnum had never actually heard her sing. But he had no doubt that she would be successful, and he was right -- Lind was well-received and performed 95 concerts with Barnum as her manager.

It was not until 1871 that Barnum started his circus, calling it "P.T. Barnum's Grand Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan and Circus." In 1872 he gave it the name "The Greatest Show on Earth." In 1881 Barnum hooked up with James Bailey, creating what eventually became "Barnum and Bailey's Greatest Show on Earth."

P.T. Barnum died in 1891, having read his own obituary. Ringling.com tells the story this way:

Several weeks before he died in his sleep, on April 7, 1891, Barnum read his own obituary: The New York Sun newspaper, responding to Barnum's comment that the press says nice things about people after they die, ran his obituary on the front page with the headline, "Great And Only Barnum -- He Wanted To Read His Obituary -- Here It Is."


--> Barnum, P.T. (Phineas Taylor), 1810-1891

Phineas Taylor ("P.T.") Barnum (1810-1891) was a celebrated showman.

From the description of Papers, n.d. 1854-1879. (American Antiquarian Society). WorldCat record id: 191285307

American showman and entrepreneur.

From the description of P. T. Barnum letters, 1854-1888. (Cornell University Library). WorldCat record id: 63936489

Phineas Taylor Barnum (1810-1891) was an American showman. He originated the traveling circus, and in 1881 with his leading rival, James Bailey, formed the Barnum and Bailey Circus. Barnum also was active in Connecticut politics and served as mayor of Bridgeport from 1867 to 1869.

From the guide to the P.T. Barnum papers, 1843-1890, (The New York Public Library. Manuscripts and Archives Division.)

Showman and proprietor of the American Museum in New York. Kimball was proprietor of he Boston Museum.

From the description of Letter : New York, to Moses Kimball, Boston, 1849. (Boston Athenaeum). WorldCat record id: 613962417

From the description of P.T. Barnum papers, 1851-1865. (Tundmatu). WorldCat record id: 79450143

From the description of Autograph inscription signed, dated : [n.p.], 3 July 1890, 1890 July 3. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270957633

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Bridgeport, to Mr. Greeley, 1868 July 23. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270622090

From the description of Autograph letter signed : [New York], to Harper & Brothers, 1858 Apr. 21. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270623263

From the description of Autograph letter signed : Bridgeport, to the editors of the Tribune, 1875 Mar. 5. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270622095

From the description of Autograph letter signed : New York, to an unidentified correspondent, 1864 Apr. 28. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 270623412

Showman and proprietor of the American Museum in New York. Kimball was proprietor of the Boston Museum.

From the description of Letters : New York, to Moses Kimball, Boston, 1843 Nov. 17-Dec. 18. (Boston Athenaeum). WorldCat record id: 613970796

Showman extraordinaire. B. July 5, 1810 Bethel, Conn. d. Apr. 7, 1891 Bridgeport, Conn. Visited Colorado 1870s and invested in Colorado real estate in Greeley, Denver, and Pueblo areas. Villa Park property became part of the Barnum addition to Denver. Owned Huerfano Cattle Company near Pueblo (Colo.). Daughter Helen married Denver physician William H. Buchtel.

From the description of Papers, 1877-1886 [microform]. (Denver Public Library). WorldCat record id: 55984815

From the description of P.T. Barnum (Phineas Taylor) papers, 1877-1981 [manuscript]. (Denver Public Library). WorldCat record id: 13175812

In 1881 Barnum and competitor James Anthony Bailey joined forces and formed the Barnum & Bailey Circus.

From the description of Letter : Victoria Hotel, Southport [Eng.?], to Dr. Jones, 1881 June 22. (Boston Athenaeum). WorldCat record id: 173262276

Showman and circus operator.

From the description of Autograph: 1870 Jan. 31. (Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library). WorldCat record id: 26962188

Phineas Taylor Barnum (1810-1891) was an American showman.

He originated the traveling circus, and in 1881 with his leading rival, James Bailey, formed the Barnum and Bailey Circus. Barnum also was active in Connecticut politics and served as mayor of Bridgeport from 1867 to 1869.


Vaata videot: The Greatest Showman. From Now On with Hugh Jackman. 20th Century FOX (Mai 2022).


Kommentaarid:

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