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Yakama India rahvas

Yakama India rahvas


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Yakama Nationi Konföderatsiooni hõimud ja ansamblid on 14 hõimu ja ansambli järeltulijad, kes tunnustati föderaalselt 1855. aasta Yakama lepingu alusel. 1 377 034 aakri suurune reservatsioon asub Washingtoni lõunaosas, piki Cascade'i mäestiku idanõlvu. "Yakama" õigekirja tutvustas hõim uuesti 1994. aastal, et naasta algse õigekirja juurde. Yakama oli üks paljudest põliselanike rühmitustest, kes elasid sarnaselt tänapäeva Idaho, Oregoni ja Washingtoni Columbia platool. Nende majandus põhines kalapüügil, jahipidamisel, kogumisel ja selliste asjade nagu kalatoodete, korvide, koerte ja hobuste vahelisel kauplemisel*. Aastaajad tõmbasid nad platoo eri osadesse. Sügisel läksid nad Kaskaadi mägedesse, et korjata marju ja jahti, kuivatades samal ajal oma toiduaineid talveks. Vastavalt sügavale seotusele, mida Yakama oma keskkonnaga tundis, tänasid nad oma toitude eest vaimsete tseremooniate kaudu. 19. sajandil tutvustas katoliiklik misjonär Charles Pandosy neid kristlusega. Yakama kohtus Lewise ja Clarki ekspeditsiooniga 1805. aastal Yakima ja Columbia jõgede ühinemiskoha lähedal. Talumajapidamisi, kaevureid jt järgneks üha rohkem. valge nõudluse maa ja ressursside järele sõlmisid Washingtoni territoriaalne kuberner ja India agent Isaac Stevens 9. juunil 1855. aastal Yakama lepingu ja veel 13 hõimu ja bändi. Hõimud ja bändid nõustusid ka uue reservatsiooniga liikuma ja saama föderaalseid hüvesid. . Lepingus oli ette nähtud kaks aastat, et hõimud ja bändid saaksid uuele reservatsioonile ümber asuda, kuid kuberner Stevens viskas valgete asunike jaoks India maad lahti vähem kui kaks nädalat pärast lepingu allkirjastamist. Septembris 1858, nelja järve lahingus Spokane lähedal, said indiaanlased otsustavalt lüüa. Kamiakan põgenes Kanadasse, kuid kaks tosinat liidrit peeti kinni ja hukati. Enamik jamalasi ja teisi hõime liikusid seejärel reservatsiooni, kus läksid kokku paljud sahaptini murded, chinookan, salish ja inglise keel. Reservatsiooni piiramine aitas kaasa sotsiaalsele lagunemisele, halvale tervisele, alkoholismile ja muudele probleemidele, nagu imikute kõrge suremus. Agendid sundisid ka indiaanlasi reservatsioonis põllukultuure kasvatama, kuid nad talusid ilma entusiasmita. Niisutusprojektid hävitasid Yakima jõe lõhejooksud ja kündsid hävinud taimede ja loomade elupaiku. Vastavalt uuele föderaalsele poliitikale 1800. aastate lõpus hakkasid valitsuse esindajad eraldama reservatsiooni 80 aakri suurusteks üksikute indiaanlaste jaoks, et julgustada mullaharimist. 1914. aastaks oli 4 506 hõimuliikmel 440 000 eraldatud aakrit, jättes hõimule tervikuna 780 000 aakrit. Hiljem 1900. aastatel osteti aga peaaegu kogu põllupind India käest. Valged püüdsid ametlike kanalite kaudu piirata Yakama inimeste liikumist Columbia platool. 1933. aastal korraldas Yakama Yakama Nationi Konföderatsiooni hõimud. Yakama on alates II maailmasõjast keskendunud isemajandamisele ja majanduslikule sõltumatusele. Juriidiliste lahingute tulemusena, mis kulmineerusid ajaloolise Boldti 1974. aasta otsusega, kinnitas föderaalvalitsus Yakama kalapüügiõigused ja tegi hõimust Washingtoni osariigiga kalavarude kaashalduri.


*Pärast 1750.
Vaata India sõdade ajatabelit.
Vaata ka Ameerika põliselanike kultuuripiirkondade kaarti.


Yakama hõim

See artikkel sisaldab huvitavaid fakte, pilte ja teavet Yakama põliselanike indiaanihõimu ehk Yakima elu kohta Columbia jõe platoo piirkonnas.

Fakte Yakama indiaanihõimust
See artikkel sisaldab kiireid, lõbusaid fakte ja huvitavat teavet Yakama indiaanlaste hõimu kohta.

Otsige vastuseid sellistele küsimustele nagu kus Yakama hõim elas, milliseid riideid kandis, mida sõi ja kes olid nende kuulsaimate juhtide nimed? Avastage, mis juhtus Yakama hõimuga faktidega nende sõdade ja ajaloo kohta.

Mis keelt Yakama hõim rääkis?
Yakama hõim rääkis penuudi keele sahaptia murdes ja nimetas end Pakintlemaks, mis tähendab "lõhe inimesi" või "Waptailmim", mis tähendab "kitsamaid inimesi", peegeldades nende külade asukohta Union Gapi lähedal Yakima jõel. Pärast hobuse tutvustamist jahtisid Yakama inimesed Suurel tasandikul pühvleid ja võtsid omaks mõned selle kultuurirühma elustiili elemendid. Yakama Nationi konföderatiivsed hõimud ja bändid või lihtsalt Yakama Nation (endine Yakima) oli 14 bändi ehk hõimu koondumine.

Kus elas Yakama hõim?
Yakama on platoo põliselanike kultuurirühma inimesed. Nende hõimude kodumaa asukoht on kaardil näidatud tänapäeva Washingtoni osariigis. Piirkonna geograafia, kus nad elasid, dikteeris Yakama hõimu elustiili ja kultuuri.

Milline oli Yakama hõimu elustiil ja kultuur?
Yakama hõim elas poolrändavat elustiili, püüdes jahti või kogudes toiduks metsikuid taimi. Yakama hõim elas talvel kaevumajades ja suvel tule-mati öömajades või tepeesides. Lewise ja Clarki ekspeditsioon kohtas oma uurimistööde käigus 1806. aastal Plateau Yakama hõimu. Yakama võttis omaks paljud Great Plains indiaanlaste ideed, sealhulgas teepuu kasutamise, mis oli kaetud pühvlinahkadega ja mõned riietusesemed, mis olid valmistatud ka pühvlinahkadest .

Yakama hõim ning Lewise ja Clarki ekspeditsioon
Lewis ja Clark kohtusid Yakama hõimuga oktoobris 1805 ning kohtusid Yakama rahvuse sõjajuhi pealiku Kamiakiniga.

Millest elas Yakama hõim?
Yakama olid poolrändajad ja vajasid varjupaiku, mida oli lihtne üles seada ja maha võtta. Sõltuvalt aastaajast elasid nad ühes kolmest varjupaigast. Varjupaikade tüübid olid pool-maa-alune kaevumaja, tepee või tule-mati öömaja.

  • Kaevumajad olid talvevarjualused, mis ehitati palkidest ja suleti maa (mätta) ja kõrrelistega soojustamiseks. Need ehitati maa alla, mille ülaosas oli sissepääs ja redel
  • Suvised varjupaigad olid tepee ja tule-mat Lodge, mõlemad maa kohal.
  • Tepeed olid kaetud loomanahkadega, kuid tule-mati öömaja oli kaetud tugevate ja vastupidavate tuleroostike (hõõgpõõsaste) mattidega.

Millist transpordivahendit Yakama kasutas? Dugouti kanuud
Kui hõim asustas platoo piirkonda, ehitasid nad suurte puude õõnestatud palkidest kaevatud kanuusid. Mehed lõid palgid kontrollitud tulega, mis pehmendas puitu, et nad saaksid oma kanuu nikerdada ja vormida sirgete külgedega lameda põhja. Kanuu oli ideaalne transpordivahend reisimiseks mööda kiireid ojasid ja madalaid Columbia, Wenatchee ja Yakima jõgede vetes.

Millist toitu Yakama hõim sõi?
Yakama hõimu toit sisaldas lõhet ja forelli ning erinevat liha nende küttitud loomadelt ja lindudelt. Nad täiendasid oma valgusisaldusega dieeti seemnete, juurte, pähklite ja puuviljadega.

Milliseid riideid Yakama kandis?
Hõimu yakama meeste ja naiste riided olid sarnased Nez Perce'i riietega - üksikasju leiate sellest artiklist.

Milliseid relvi Yakama kasutas?
Relvadeks olid odad, lõngad, kepid, noad ning vibud ja nooled. Yakama kasutas kaitsmiseks ka kilpe.

Kes olid Yakama hõimu liitlased ja vaenlased?
Yakama hõimu liitlased olid paljud teised indiaanlased, kes asustasid Plateau piirkonda, sealhulgas Cayuse, Walla Walla, Spokane, Coeur D'Alene, Payuse ja Nez Perce. Yakama hõimu peamised vaenlased olid lõunapoolsed Suurbasseini rühmitused, sealhulgas shoshone, põhjapaiut ja bannockide hõimud.

Kes olid Yakama hõimu kuulsad pealikud?
Yakama hõimu kuulsamate juhtide ja pealikute hulka kuulusid nisqually indiaanlaste hõimu pealik Kamiakin, ülem Qualchan ja ülem Leschi.

Mis juhtus Yakama hõimuga?
Järgmine Yakama ajaloo ajaskaala kirjeldab fakte, kuupäevi ja kuulsaid vaatamisväärsusi ning lahinguid, mida Yakama rahvas pidas. Yakama ajaloo ajaskaala selgitab, mis juhtus nende hõimu inimestega.


Täna põlisloos: metsamaa naasis Yakama rahvasse

20. mail 1972 allkirjastas president Richard Nixon täidesaatva korralduse 21 000 aakri metsamaa tagastamiseks Washingtoni Yakama rahvale ja lahendas sajandipikkuse vaidluse reservatsioonipiiride üle.

Käsk naasis hõimude territooriumile Adamsi mäe idaküljele, mis on peaaegu 10 000 jala pikkune lumega kaetud tipp, mis on üks Yakama rahvuse ja#x2019 püha mägi. 1855. aasta Yakama leping, millega loodi reservatsioon, jättis mäe ekslikult välja.

“Lepingu üle läbirääkimiste pidamisel pidasid meie vanemad kindlasti Adamsi mäe reserveerimispiiridesse, ” ütles Yakama Nation Fisheriesi pressiesindaja Emily Washines. Leping tõi kaasa Yakama lahingud, mis toimusid aastatel 1855–1859 ja lõpuks leping ratifitseeriti, kuid sel hetkel tegid nad maamõõtmisvea, mis lõi Adamsi mäe reservatsioonipiiridest välja. ”

Aastal 1897 lõi ​​president Grover Cleveland Yakama kaitseala läänepiiri lähedale Mount Rainieri metsakaitseala. Kümme aastat hiljem laiendas president Theodore Roosevelt metsa piiri, hõlmates 21 000 aakri suuruse maa -ala, mida arvati siis olevat avalik maa.

1942. aastal määrati osa traktist Mount Adamsi looduskaitsealaks ja aastatel 1964–1972 peeti seda kõrbeseaduse alusel avalikuks maaks. Kui Nixon tagastas maa Yakamale, oli see osa suuremast traktist, mida tunti Gifford Pinchoti rahvusmetsa nime all.

“See tegevus annab õiguse 65 aastat tagasi, ” ütles Nixon täidesaatvale korraldusele alla kirjutades. “ USA valitsus kaotas lepingu kaardi oma failides ja selle leidmise ajaks oli võetud meetmeid, mis olid indiaanlased ekslikult siit maalt välja tõrjunud. ”

Täidesaatev korraldus oli võit Yakama Nationile, Washingtoni lõuna keskosas asuvast 14 hõimust ja bändist koosnevale konföderatsioonile, kes austas Adamsi mäge kui olulist ja legendaarset maamärki. Mägi, tuntud ka kui Pahto, on üks viiest õest, kes moodustavad Yakama Nation ’s viis püha mäge.

Pahto kadestas Washximi ehk Simcoe mäge, sest ta oli esimene, kes igal hommikul päikest tervitas. Nii lõikas Pahto Waxshimi pea maha, jättes mäe lameda tipuga. Karistuseks pani Looja Pahto üle kotka. Vaatamata Pahto agressiivsele tegevusele pakub mägi siiski selget allikavett ja palju toiduallikaid.

“Mount Adams on vaimselt oluline, kuid see on ka palju ressursse, ” Washines. “Kreed tulevad alla, seal elavad loomad ja koristatakse marju. Samuti oleme sinna traditsiooniliselt kogunenud perekondadena. ”

Kohe pärast Adamsi mäe kaotamist hakkas hõim selle taastamiseks tööd tegema. Enne edu saavutamist pidi see aga üles kasvatama osavate juhtide põlvkonna.

𠇊 Iga põlvkond kasvas üles, üks asi, mida vanemad kordaksid, oli see, et see oli USA viga ja me pidime selle parandama, ” Washines. ȁMeie lapsed kasvasid seda teades, seda kuuldes. Lõpuks oli meil põlvkond, kes mõistis seadusi ja rääkis inglise keelt ning võis juhtumi valitsusele edasi anda. ”

Esimene võit tuli 1966. aastal, kui India kahjunõuete komisjon leidis, et maa kuulub õigustatult Yakama reservatsiooni. Kuid komisjonil oli volitusi hõimule vaid kaotatud maade hüvitamiseks, mitte viga parandada.

Seejärel hõim tegi sarnastes tingimustes koostööd teiste põlisrahvastega ja#x2014 ning tõmbas riikliku meedia tähelepanu, ütles Yakama rahvuskultuuri ressursiprogrammi juht Johnson Meninick. Meninick oli hõimunõukogu liige, kui Nixon maa tagasi andis.

President Richard Nixon surus 1972. aastal esimees Robert Jimiga kätt.

𠇊lgsed maamõõtjad olid kõik segamini, ” ütles ta. “Teadsime alati, et trakt on lepingust välja jäetud, kuid pidime aastaid tagasi kurtma, enne kui selle tagasi saime. Meie esivanemad võitlesid selle eest 50 aastat, enne kui see lõpuks läbi läks. ”


Religioon

Guardian Spirits

Yakama käis lapsena nägemisretkedel, et saada eestkostja vaimu. Lapsed läksid üksi kaugesse kohta ja jäid ööseks või mitmeks päevaks, kuni nad nägid. Need, kes said vaimu, ei rääkinud sellest kunagi, kuid kogesid hiljem „vaimuhaigust”, siis selgitasid kaks (meditsiiniarst, vt „Tervendavad tavad”), kuidas jõudu kasutada.

Yakama, kellel olid kaitsevaimud, osales talvistel vaimutantsudel või wáanpsha ("Ravim laulab"). Neid sponsoreeris terve inimese perekond. Wáanpsha kestis viis päeva ning eestkostetava vaimuga inimesed laulsid ja tantsisid, kaasas trummarid, kes pulgakeste või keppidega plankudele koputasid.

Longhouse religioon

Traditsioonilisel Yakama religioonil oli mitu erinevat nime: Wáashat, longhouse või seitsme trummi religioon või põliselanike jumalateenistus. Wáashat tuli Sahaptini sõnast "tants". Varaste põliselanike prohvetite ideedest tuletatuna keskendus see iidsetele rituaalidele, nagu esimene toidupidu (vt „Festivalid”).

Jumalateenistused peeti pikas majas, kus osalejad olid soo järgi eraldatud. Isased seisid piki põhjapoolseid emasloomi, lõunapoolseid. Kõik riietusid ja värvisid oma näo punaseks ja kollaseks. Trummarid eesotsas kellamängijaga istusid või seisid läänepoolsel küljel.

Osalejad laulsid ja tantsisid seitsmes komplektis (püha number) kõvasti pakitud savipõrandal. Iga laulu lõpus pöördusid kõik oma kohale, et oma hädadest lahti saada. Laulusarjade vahel rääkisid vanemad noortega, et meenutada neile nende vanavanemate õpetusi. Lapsed esinesid mõnikord kiirete, hüppavate sammudega.

Vesi oli tseremoonial oluline. Enne rituaalset pidu helises kell ja kõik laulsid palve. Teine kord helises, ütlesid nad kõik chiish (“Vesi”), siis rüüpasid nende tassidest. Nad kordasid seda söögi lõpus.

Välised mõjud

1847. aastal asutasid Pascal Richard ja Eugene Casimir Chirouse esimese kristliku missiooni, kuid loobusid sellest samal aastal Cayuse sõja ajal (1848–55 konflikt Cayuse hõimu ja USA valitsuse vahel). Teised konfessioonid asutasid lähiaastatel missioone. Kahekümne esimese sajandi alguses pakuvad paljud katoliku ja protestantlikud kirikud reserveeringut.

India Shakeri kirik mõjutab tugevalt ka Yakama usuelu. John Slocumi poolt 1881. aastal asutatud kristlaste ja põliselanike uskumuste kombinatsioon tutvustati hõimule aastal 1890. Osalejad kasutavad Jumalaga suhtlemiseks ja haiguste ravimiseks kellamängu, jalgade tallamist, raputamist ja põliselanike palveid.

Yakama prohvetid

1850ndatel kutsus Wanapumi prohvet Smohalla (u. 1815–1895) naasma põliselanike teedele. Ta käskis oma järgijatel vältida valgeid ideid ja kaupu, mitte kunagi oma punutisi lõigata, süüa traditsioonilisi toite ja minna visioonireisidele. Samuti kutsus ta inimesi üles mitte kolima reservatsioonidesse ega saama põllumeesteks. Kuigi ta kuulutas vägivallatust ja rahumeelset kooseksisteerimist valgetega, olid tema õpetused Yakima sõdade vastu võidelnud hõimude konföderatsiooni korraldamisel mõjukad.

Jake Hunt, Klikitat, alustas Waptashi ehk sulgede religiooni umbes aastal 1904. Kui traditsioonilised religioonid austasid Jumalat ja Ema Maad, siis Waptashi arvas, et Kotkas on kõrgeim olend. Sõnumid tulid Kotkast Jake Hunti kaudu. Kuigi teda oli Washani moodi üles kasvatatud, lõikas Hunt juukseid ja kandis valgeid riideid.

Kaasaegsed usulised tõekspidamised

Tänapäeval kummardavad Yakama mitmel viisil. Reservatsiooni kolm pikihoonet on traditsioonilised jumalateenistused. Mõned hõimu liikmed osalevad washani või sulgede religioonides. Teised käivad kristlikes kirikutes või India Shakeri kirikus. Paljud Yakama aga ei näe konflikti nii kohalike kui ka kristlike tavade ühendamisel.


Yakama India rahvas - ajalugu

Yakama rahvas on Vaikse ookeani loodeosa põlisrahvaste hõim, kes elab Washingtoni osariigis. Siin on lühike ajakava nende ajaloost eurooplastega alates 1750. aastatest kuni tänapäevani.

1750 ’: Yakama omandas hobuse ja nende elustiil muutus, kuna nad said reisida Suurele tasandikule pühvleid jahtima.

1805: Yakama hõimu ning Lewise ja Clarki ekspeditsiooni vahel võeti ühendust oktoobris 1805 Yakima ja Columbia jõgede liitumiskoha lähedal

1812: Spokane'i maja nime all asuv kaubanduspost ehitati Spokane'i ja Väikese Spokane'i jõgede liitumiskoha lähedale

1825: Hudsoni lahe ettevõte asutas Fort Vancouveri kaubanduspostiks

1836: Henry Marcus Whitman asutas Waiilatpu linnas presbüterlaste missiooni ja võttis ühendust hõimuga

1840 ’s: USA valitsus saatis leitnant Charles Wilkesi Vaikse ookeani rannikut uurima.

1843: toimus esimene suurem ränne mööda Oregoni rada, mis tõi lõpuks kaasa vägivaldsed konfliktid valgete asunikega, kes sõitsid vagunirongides mööda Oregoni rada

1845: valged asunikud tõid Oregoni raja ümbritsevatel aladel elanud indiaanlastele mitmesuguseid haigusi

1847: Paljud Yakama hõimud hävitatakse laastava leetrite ja rõugeepideemiatega

1847: Whitmani veresaun viis Cayuse sõja puhkemiseni

1847: Yakama hõim võitles Cayuse sõjas (1847-1855) koos oma põliselanike India liitlastega

1855: Isaac Stevens (25. märts 1818 - 1. september 1862), Washingtoni territooriumi kuberner, pidas Yakamaga lepingu üle läbirääkimisi.

1855: Yakima leping allkirjastati 9. juulil 1855

1855: kuberner Stevens avas vähem kui kaks nädalat pärast lepingu allkirjastamist põliselanike maid valgete asunike jaoks. Yakama ülem, pealik Kamiakin kutsus hõime üles avaldusele vastu astuma.

1855: puhkes Yakima sõda (1855-1858)

1855: Toppenish Creeki lahing Yakima orus peeti 5. oktoobril 1855 ning see oli pealik Kamiakini ja Yakama hõimu suur võit

1855: lahing Union Gapis peeti 9. ja 10. novembril 1855.

1857: Fraseri kanjoni kullapalavik

1858: Yakima sõda eskaleerus teistele indiaanlaste hõimudele

1858: Nelja järve lahing 1. septembril 1858 lõpetas Yakima sõja

1858: Sündmused hobuste tapmislaagris ja#8221 lõpetasid Coeur d ’Alene'i ja Yakima sõja.

1859: Leping rikkus, USA andis jaakama rahvale lubatust vaid poole

1860: Washingtoni territooriumil Yakima reservaadis asutati esimene Ameerika indiaanlaste valitsuskool

1887: Kongress võttis vastu Dawesi üldise eraldamise seaduse, mis põhjustas suurte India reservatsioonide lagunemise ja India maade müümise valgetele asunikele

1933: Yakama hõim organiseeriti Yakama Nationi Konföderatsiooni hõimudena.

1994: Yakima rahvas võttis oma nime kirjapildiks “Yakama ”, mis nende arvates on nende nime õigem ajalooline õigekiri.


HistoryLink.org

Yakima on Washingtoni pindalalt suuruselt teine ​​maakond, mis hõlmab 4296 ruut miili (2,7 miljonit aakrit) ja on 2000. aasta USA rahvaloendusel loetud 222 581 elanikuga rahvaarvult seitsmes. Yakima linn on maakonna asukoht. Yakima maakond hõlmab enamikku Yakama India kaitsealast ning föderaal-, osariigi- või hõimuvalitsustele kuulub maakonnas ligi 200 miljonit aakrit maad. Paljude Yakima maakonna linnade asukoha määras suuresti Vaikse ookeani põhjaosa raudtee, mille marsruudil saidid valiti, nimetati, plakeeriti ja lõpuks müüdi asunikele. Yakima maakonna peamine tööstusharu on põllumajandus, mida toetab keskmiselt 300 päeva päikesepaistet ja toitaineterikas vulkaaniline pinnas ning mida võimaldavad Yakima jõe niisutusprojektid.

Poliitiline geograafia

Yakima maakond piirneb läänest kõrbealadega: loodes põhjapoolne kõrb ja Pierce'i maakond, loodes William O. Douglase kõrb/Snoqualmie rahvusmets/kitsekivide kõrb ja Lewise maakond ning Kaskaadi mäeahelik. Mt. Adams Wilderness ja Skamania maakond edelas. Kittitase maakond piirneb põhja pool Yakimaga ja kahel maakonnal on 260 000 aakri suurune Yakima laskekeskus Ameerika Ühendriikide sõjaline reserv. Bentoni maakond piirneb idas Yakima ja lõunas Klickitati maakonnaga. Yakama India kaitseala hõlmab 1 271 918 aakrit (1573 ruut miili) Yakima maakonna lõunaosas ja ulatub Klickitati maakonda. Reservatsioon hõlmab mitmeid linnu, sealhulgas Parker, Wapato, Toppenish, Vessey Springs ja White Swan, samuti osa Simcoe mäestikust.

Aktiivse andesiitse kihistiku vulkaan Adams (12 276 jalga) ida pool ulatub Yakima maakonna edelanurka. Mount Adams on Cascade Range'i kõrguselt kolmas tipp ja teine ​​kõrgeim tipp Washingtonis (pärast Rainieri mäge). Osa mäest ulatub Gifford Pinchoti rahvusmetsa Skamania maakonnas. Gifford Pinchoti rahvusmets asutati 1908. aastal Columbia rahvusmetsaks ja nimetati ümber riikliku metsateenistuse esimese juhi Gifford Pinchoti (1865–1946) auks 1949. aastal.

Yakima maakonna mägine läänepoolne topograafia annab teed poolkuivadele jalamitele ja maakonna keskosas asuvale võssa. Yakima jõgi, Columbia lisajõgi, voolab läbi Yakima oru ning koos oma lisajõgedega toidavad Nachesi ja Tietoni jõed umbes 2100 miili ulatuses niisutuskanaleid kogu Yakima orus.

Nimi Yakima on tõlgitud tähendama musta karu (yah-kah, mis tähendab musta karu ja mitmuse lõppu ma) või põgenenud, viidates kas Yakima jõe tormavatele vetele või hõimulegendile põgenenud või küüditatud kohta Yakama pealiku tütar.

Piirkonna esimesed elanikud olid Yakama indiaanlaste rahvusrühmad ja hõimud, kes kogusid koomasid, kibedaid juuri ja marju, küttisid hirvi ja koristasid lõhe Yakima ja Columbia jõgedest. Need bändid olid rändavad, eriti pärast seda, kui nad hakkasid hobuseid omandama Põhja -Suure basseini hõimudest millalgi aastatel 1730–1760.

Euro-Ameerika asula

Varasemad Euroopa asunikud olid katoliikliku oblaadi misjonäride Mary Immaculate liikmed. Yakama pealikute Ow-hi (surn. 1858) ja Kamiakini (u. 1800–1877) kutsel asutasid oblaadid Yakima orus alates 1848. aastast mitu väikest missiooni ja suurema missiooni-Püha Joosepi missioon Ahtanumil, aastal 1852. Selle missiooni alusel kaevati sama aasta jooksul esimene niisutuskraav tulevases Yakima maakonnas.

Washingtoni territoorium loodi 2. märtsil 1853 ja äsja ametisse nimetatud territoriaalne kuberner Isaac Stevens asus kiiresti kustutama India nõuded maale ja soodustama valgete asustamist. 9. juunil 1855 allkirjastasid 14 hõimujuhti Yakima lepingu, loovutades USA valitsusele 10 828 800 aakrit oma esivanemate maad.

Yakama rahvas

Yakama hõimujuht Kamiakin oli vastumeelne allakirjutanu. Stevensi peaaegu kohesel ebaõnnestumisel jõustati mõningaid Yakama õigusi kaitsvaid kokkuleppe osi, mistõttu Kamiakin võttis lepinguga nõustumise tagasi. 5. oktoobril 1855 puhkes Kamiakini meeste ja major Granville Halleri vägede vahel Toppenish Creekis tulirelvad, mis tähistas Yakama India sõdade algust.

Ameerika Ühendriikide valitsus asutas 1856. aastal Fort Simcoe ja 1858. aastaks oli ülestõus kustutatud paljude hõimu liikmete tapmise ja näljutamisega. Paljud ülejäänud liikmed asusid reservmaale, elades üle keerulised üleminekuaastad ja jätkates võitlust oma maaõiguste eest.

1994. aastal muutis hõim oma nime õigekirjaks Yakama. Yakama rahvas kontrollib ligi 1,3 miljonit aakrit, mis on suurim maismaa, mida kontrollib osariigi 29 föderaalselt tunnustatud hõimu. Hõimul on 9600 hõimu liiget, rohkem kui ühelgi teisel Washingtoni hõimul. Yakama rahvuse 14 bändi ja hõimu põliselanikud olid kolm keeleperet: Sahaptian, Salishan ja Chinookan. 14 ansamblit ja hõimu on Palouse, Pisquouse, Yakama, Wenatchapam, Klinquit, Oche Chotes, Kow was wayee, Sk'in-pah, Kah-miltpah, Klickitat, Wish sink, See ap Cat, Li ay was ja Shyiks.

Veised Yakima orus

Indiaanlased olid talvitanud karja Yakima orus pärast seda, kui Kamiakin 1840. aastal piirkonnale esimese karja tõi. 1859. aastal sõitis legendaarne karjapoiss Ben Snipes (1835–1906) oma esimese veise karja läbi Yakima oru Fraseri jõgi Kanadas. Järgnesid John Jeffries, major John Thorp ja paljud teised karjaomanikud. Osa laosid saadeti ka aurulaevaga Portlandi või Kalama ja seejärel raudteega Puget Soundi. Piirkonnast läbi sõitmine oli tavaline kuni Vaikse ookeani põhjaosa raudtee saabumiseni, misjärel veised veeti raudteejaamadesse ja saadeti raudteel turule.

Mortimer Thorp (1822-1893) ja Margaret Bounds Thorp (1822-1888) oma üheksa lapsega olid esimesed mitte-indialased, mitte-misjonärid, kes asusid Yakima orgu, saabudes 1861. aastal Moxee tulevasse kohta, et liituda 250 peaga veiseid, kelle Thorp oli eelmisel aastal sinna karjatama sõitnud. Alfred Hensoni perekond ja lesk Nancy McHaney Splawn Bond (1812-1905) koos oma viie poja Charles, William, George, Moses ja Andrew J. kolisid peagi Yakima orgu. Other settlers followed, many of them young men associated with the area's increasing cattle culture. W. D. Lyman's History of the Yakima Valley Washington (Vol. 1), published in 1919, quotes Leonard Thorp's description of what he called a cattleman's paradise:

Present-day Yakima County was briefly (from January 1863 to January 1865) part of a large county called Ferguson County. When Ferguson was dissolved after only two years, the County of Yakima, including more or less present-day Yakima and Kittitas Counties, was established on January 21, 1865. On November 24, 1883, Kittitas County was divided from Yakima, leaving the county boundaries approximately as they remain.

Towns and Trains

The first town in the county was Yakima City, established in 1861 and incorporated in 1883. In 1884 the Northern Pacific Railroad located its station four miles north of Yakima City and the townspeople moved most of the town's buildings north to the station. Incorporated in 1886 and initially called North Yakima, in 1918 the new town became simply Yakima. The old town was then renamed Union Gap.

Moxee was founded in 1867. Over the next four decades other Yakima County towns were established, although some were little more than names for their first few years and were not officially incorporated for many more: Mabton (incorporated 1905), Toppenish (incorporated 1907), and Wapato (incorporated 1908) were founded in 1885. Zillah was established in 1892 and incorporated in 1911, Sunnyside was established in 1893 and incorporated in 1902. Granger, established in 1902, and Grandview, established in 1906, both incorporated in 1909. Selah was founded in 1907 and incorporated in 1919, Naches was established in 1908 and incorporated in 1921. Tieton incorporated in 1942 and Harrah in 1946.

The River and the Railroad

Two overwhelming forces shaped Yakima County's development: the Northern Pacific Railroad and the Yakima River. Snaking through the Yakima Valley, the Northern Pacific tracks linked the valley with Puget Sound through the Stampede Pass Tunnel. The first train rolled through Stampede Pass on May 27, 1888, replacing a slightly earlier series of track switchbacks that had been the only way across the Cascades.

The Northern Pacific owned a vast tract of land along the railroad right-of-way between Lake Superior and Puget Sound, courtesy of the May 23, 1864, Northern Pacific Land Grant. This grant deeded to the railroad alternating square miles of public land adjacent to the track right-of-way in a band 40 miles wide in states and 80 miles wide in territories in exchange for construction of a northern transcontinental line. The Northern Pacific was able to sell irrigated land for as much as $40 to $50 per acre as compared with $2.60 per acre for dry land, a powerful inducement for the railroad to fund irrigation. The Yakima River was the means to irrigate, populate, and make this land productive.

Walter Granger (1855-1930) was an irrigation engineer without whose diligence and determination Yakima County might not have attained its global reputation as an agricultural cornucopia and the fruit basket of the nation. Hired by Northern Pacific president Thomas Oakes (1843-1919) in 1889, Granger organized and managed the Yakima Canal and Land Company (in partnership with the Northern Pacific Railroad under the name Northern Pacific, Yakima, and Kittitas Irrigation Project) and the Washington Irrigation Company.

Charged with building irrigation systems and deciding where town sites and stations would be established along the railroad's Yakima Valley route, Granger and Northern Pacific employees took frequent scouting trips, often accompanied by the press or railroad VIPs. Granger determined the locations and names of Zillah, Granger, Sunnyside, and possibly other towns in the county and built the Sunnyside Canal, the largest irrigation canal in the Northwest at the time.

Irrigating the Valley

Most of Yakima County's population is centered along the Yakima River. Irrigation for farming was crucial to the success of these communities, and individual farmers had created small canals from the time of non-Indian settlement. The Sunnyside Canal began operation in 1892 and other private irrigation canals followed. These unregulated projects over-appropriated Yakima River supplies.

The United States Congress passed the Reclamation Act on June 17, 1902, paving the way for federally funded dam and irrigation construction projects throughout the arid West. The Act required that water users repay construction costs of the irrigation projects from which they received benefits. The Yakima Project, authorized on December 12, 1905, was one of the first and largest efforts of the Federal Bureau of Reclamation, and has irrigated the Yakima Valley since 1910. The government purchased many of the earlier canals and incorporated them into the Yakima Project. Water from the Keechulus, Kachess, and Lake Cle Elum reservoirs feed the Yakima River, while the Tieton and Bumping Lake Reservoirs feed the Yakima's tributaries, the Naches and Tieton Rivers. These rivers in turn supply the Yakima Valley's nearly 2,100 miles of irrigation canals.

Planting and Growing

On March 15, 1893 the Washington State Legislature passed the State Fair Act designating North Yakima in Yakima County the site for an annual State Agricultural Fair. Yakima got the event as a consolation prize after losing (to Olympia) the race to have Yakima City proclaimed state capital. With the exception of 1895, the Washington State Fair was held annually from 1894 until 1930, when the state legislature declined to fund a budget. From 1932 to 1936, scaled down versions of the fair occurred but were not considered successful. In 1939 the Central Washington State Fair was founded, using the old State Fairgrounds. The Central Washington State Fair is held annually in September.

The first wine grapes in the Yakima Valley were planted in 1869, the first hops in 1872, and the first commercial fruit orchard in 1887. All of these crops would eventually become major parts of Yakima County's primary industry, agriculture. Once the land was pegged for commercial fruit production, the transformation from sagebrush to cultivated acreage was accomplished briskly. In the Selah Valley, for example, 36,000 fruit trees were reportedly set out in one year alone. The Northern Pacific Railroad provided a ready way for farmers to ship their produce to market, and processing plants and fruit storage facilities soon flourished near railroad stations.

Migrant Labor in the Valley

Commercial farming was dependant on migratory harvesters. Indian pickers harvested hops each fall. During the Great Depression of the 1930s Yakima County's laden trees and fields provided much-needed employment for the thousands of families from across the country seeking work, and migrant campsites dotted the region. Conditions at these migrant camps varied, but many lacked basic sanitary facilities. By the early 1940s many families of Japanese origin were farming in Yakima County. These families, more than 1,000 individuals, were forced to abandon their farms and enter internment camps under Executive Order 9066.

Increased farm production to aid the war effort and labor shortages caused by internment and the exodus of men into the military during World War II led to the creation of the Bracero Program, a federal program that brought Mexican and Mexican American migrant workers into Washington and other states to harvest crops. After the Bracero Program was discontinued in 1964 Mexican and Mexican American workers continued to provide a substantial portion of the farm labor in Yakima County. In recent years a federal guest worker program has brought Thais to Yakima County to harvest field and tree fruit crops.

Today (2006) 558,000 acres of private land in Yakima County are used for agriculture. Manufacturing (especially of food-related products) and fruit warehousing are other major industries in the county. Forestry and livestock are significant industries. Yakima County is a leading global producer of apples, hops, mint, and asparagus, and the county's wine industry continues to expand and flourish.

The State of Washington
Washington State Department of Archeology and Historic Preservation


HistoryLink.org

The Treaty with the Yakama was signed on June 9, 1855, by Isaac Stevens (1818-1862), Governor of Washington Territory, and by Chief Kamiakin (spelled "Kamaiakun" in the treaty) and other tribal leaders and delegates. (Note that while the Tribe's name is spelled "Yakama" in the treaty, the spelling "Yakima" later became common, and is still used in the names of the river, county, and city derived from the tribal name, but in 1994 the Yakima Tribe changed the spelling of its name back to the original Yakama Tribe.) The complete text of the treaty follows.

The Yakama Treaty

Articles of agreement and convention made and concluded at the treaty-ground, Camp Stevens, Walla-Walla Valley, this ninth day of June, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, by and between Isaac I. Stevens, governor and superintendent of Indian affairs for the Territory of Washington, on the part of the United States, and the undersigned head chiefs, chiefs,. head-men, and delegates of the Yakama, Palouse, Pisquouse, Wenatshapam,, Klikatat, Klinquit, Kaw-was-say-ee, Li-ay-was, Skin-pah,, Wish-ham, Shyiks, Ochechotes, Kah-milt-pah,, and Se-ap-cat, confederated tribes and bands of Indians, occupying lands hereinafter bounded and described and lying in Washington Territory, who for the purposes of this treaty are to be considered as one nation, under the name of "Yakama," with Kamaiakun as its head chief, on behalf of and acting for said tribes and bands, and being duly authorized thereto by them.

ARTICLE 1. The aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians hereby cede, relinquish, and convey to the United States all their right, title, and interest in and to the lands and country occupied and claimed by them, and bounded and described as follows, to wit:

Commencing at Mount Ranier, thence northerly along the main ridge of the Cascade Mountains to the point, where the northern tributaries of Lake Che-lan and the southern tributaries of the Methow River have their rise thence southeasterly on the divide between the waters of Lake Che-lan and the Methow River to the Columbia River thence, crossing the Columbia on a true east course, toil, point whose longitude is one hundred and nineteen degrees and ten minutes, (119° 10',) which two latter lines separate the above confederated tribes and bands from the Oakinakane tribe of Indians thence in a true south course to the forty-seventh (47°) parallel of latitude thence east on said parallel to the main Palouse River, which two latter lines of boundary separate the above confederated tribes and hands from the Spokanes thence down the Palouse River to its junction with the Moh-hah-ne-she, or southern tributary of the same thence in a southesterly[sic] direction, to the Snake River, at the mouth of the Tucannon River, separating the above confederated tribes from the Nez Percé tribe of Indians thence down the Snake River to its junction with the Columbia River thence up the Columbia River to the "White Banks" below the Priest's Rapids thence westerly to a lake called "La Lac" thence southerly to a point on the Yakama River called Toh-mah-luke thence, in a southwesterly direction, to the Columbia River, at the western extremity of the "Big Island," between the mouths of the Umatilla River and Butler Creek all which latter boundaries separate the above confederated tribes and bands from the Walla-Walla, Cayuse, and Umatilla tribes and bands of Indians thence down the Columbia River to midway between the mouths Of White Salmon and Wind Rivers thence along the divide between said rivers to the main ridge of the Cascade Mountains and thence along said ridge to the place of beginning.

ARTICLE 2. There is, however, reserved, from the lands above ceded for the use and occupation of the aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians, the tract of land included within the following boundaries, to wit: Commencing on the Yakama River, at the mouth of the Attah-nam River thence westerly along said Attah-nam River to the forks thence along the southern tributary to the Cascade Mountains thence southerly along the main ridge of said mountains, passing south and east of Mount Adams, to the spur whence flows the waters of the Klickatat and Pisco Rivers thence down said spur to the divide 'between the waters of said rivers thence along said aivide to the divide separating the waters of the Satass River from those flowing into the Columbia River thence along said divide to the main Yakama, eight miles below the mouth of the Satass River and thence up the Yakama River to the place of beginning.

All which tract shall be set apart and, so far as necessary, surveyed and marked out, for the exclusive use and benefit of said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, as an Indian reservation nor shall any white man, excepting those in the employment of the Indian Department, be permitted to reside upon the said reservation without permission of the tribe and the superintendent and agent. And the said confederated tribes and bands agree to remove to, and settle upon, the same, within one year after the ratification of this treaty. In the mean time it shall be lawful for them to reside upon any ground not in the actual claim and occupation of citizens of the United States and upon any ground claimed or occupied, if with the permission of the owner or claimant.

Guaranteeing, however, the right to all citizens of the United States to enter upon and occupy as settlers any lands not actually occupied and cultivated by said Indians at this time, and not included in the reservation above named.

And provided, That any substantial improvements heretofore made by any Indian, such as fields enclosed and cultivated, and houses erected upon the lands hereby ceded, and which he may be compelled to abandon in consequence of this treaty, shall be valued, under the direction of the President of the United States, and payment made therefore[sic] in money or improvements of an equal value made for said Indian upon the reservation. And no Indian will be required to abandon the improvements aforesaid, now occupied by him, until their value in money, or improvements of an equal value shall be furnished him as aforesaid.

ARTICLE 3. And provided, That, if necessary for the public convenience, roads may be run through the said reservation and on the other hand, the right of way, with free access from the same to the nearest public highway, is secured to them as "also the right, in common with citizens of the United States, to travel upon all public highways.

The exclusive right of taking fish in all the streams, where running through or bordering said reservation, is further secured to said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, as also the right of taking fish at all usual and accustomed places, in common with the citizens of the Territory, and of erecting temporary buildings for curing them:

ARTICLE 4. In consideration of the above cession, the United States agree to pay to the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, in addition to the goods and provisions distributed to them at the time of signing this treaty, the sum of two hundred thousand dollars, in the following manner, that is to say: Sixty thousand dollars, to be expended under the direction of the President of the United States, the first year after the ratification of this treaty, in providing for their removal to the reservation, breaking up and fencing farms, building houses for them, supplying 'them with provisions and a suitable outfit, and for such other objects as he may deem necessary, and the remainder in annuities, as follows: For the first five years after the ratification of the treaty, ten thousand-dollars each year, commencing September first, 1856 for the next five years, eight thousand dollars each year for the next five years, Six thousand dollars per year and for the next five years, four thousand dollars per year.

All which sums of money shall be applied to the use and benefit of said Indians, under the direction of the President of the United States, who may from time to time determine, at his discretion, upon what beneficial objects to expend the same for them. And the superintendent of Indian affairs, or other proper officer, shall each year inform the President of the wishes of the Indians in relation thereto.

ARTICLE 5. The United States further agree to establish at suitable points within said reservation, within one year after the ratification hereof, two schools, erecting the necessary buildings, keeping them in repair, and providing them with furniture, books, and stationery, one of which shall be an agricultural and industrial school, to be located at the agency, and to be free to the children of the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, and to employ one superintendent of teaching and two teachers to build two blacksmiths' shops, to one of which shall be attached a tin-shop, and to the other a gunsmith's shop one carpenter's shop, one wagon and plough maker's shop, and to keep the same in repair and furnished with the necessary tools to employ one superintendent of farming and two farmers, two blacksmiths, one tinner, one gunsmith, one carpenter, one wagon and plough maker, for the instruction of the Indians in trades and to assist them in the same to erect one saw-mill and one flouring-Mill, keeping the same in repair and furnished with the necessary tools and fixtures to erect a hospital, keeping the same in repair and provided with the necessary medicines and furniture, and to employ a physician and to erect, keep in repair, and provided with the necessary furniture, the building required for the accommodation of the said employees. The said buildings and establishments to be maintained and kept in repair as aforesaid, and the employees to be kept in service for the period of twenty years.

And in view of the fact that the head chief of the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians is expected, and will be called upon to perform many services of a public character, occupying much of his time, the United States further agree to pay to the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians five hundred dollars per year, for the term of twenty years after the ratification hereof, as a salary for such person as the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians may select to be their head chief, to build for him at a suitable point on the reservation a comfortable house, and properly furnish the same, and to plough and fence ten acres of land. The said salary to be paid to, and the said house to be occupied by, such head chief so long as he may continue to hold that office.

And it is distinctly understood and agreed that at the time of the conclusion of this treaty Kamaiakun is the duly elected and authorized head chief of the confederated tribes and bands aforesaid, styled the Yakama Nation, and is recognized as such by them and by the commissioners on the part of the United States holding this treaty and all the expenditures and expenses contemplated in this article of this treaty shall be defrayed by the United States, and shall not be deducted from the annuities agreed to be paid to said confederated tribes and band of Indians. Nor shall the cost of transporting the goods for the annuity payments be a charge upon the annuities, but shall be defrayed by the United States.

ARTICLE 6. The President may, from time to time, at his discretion, cause the whole or such portions of such reservation as he may think proper, to be surveyed into lots, and assign the same to such individuals or families of the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians as are willing to avail themselves of the privilege, and will locate on the same as a permanent home, on the same terms and subject to the same regulations as are provided in the sixth article of the treaty with the Omahas, so far as the same may be applicable.

ARTICLE 7. The annuities of the aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians shall not be taken to pay the debts of individuals.

ARTICLE 8. The aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians acknowledge their dependence upon the Government of the United States, and promise to be friendly with all citizens thereof, and pledge themselves to commit no depredations upon the property of such citizens.

And should any one or more of them violate this pledge, and the fact be satisfactorily proved before the agent, the property taken shall be returned,'or in default thereof, or if injured or destroyed, compensation may be made by the Government out of the annuities.

Nor will they make war upon any other tribe, except in self-defence, but will submit all matters of difference between them and other Indians to the Government of the United States or its agent for decision, and abide thereby. And if any of the said Indians commit depredations on any other Indians within the Territory of Washington or Oregon, the same rule shall prevail as that provided in this article in case of depredations against citizens. And the said confederated tribes and bands of Indians agree not to shelter or conceal offenders against the laws of the United States, but to deliver them up to the authorities for trial.

ARTICLE 9. The said confederated tribes and bands of Indians desire to exclude from their reservation the use of ardent spirits, and to prevent their people from drinking the same, and, therefore, it is provided that any Indian belonging to said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, who is guilty of bringing liquor into said reservation, or who drinks liquor, may have his or her annuities withheld from him or her for such time as the President may determine.

ARTICLE 10. And provided, That there is also reserved and set apart from the lands ceded by this treaty, for the use and benefit of the aforesaid confederated tribes and bands, a tract of land not exceeding in quantity one township of six miles square, situated at the forks of the Pisquouse or Wenatshapam River, and known as the " Wenatshapam Fishery," which said reservation shall be surveyed and marked out whenever the President may direct, and be subject to the same provisions and restrictions as other Indian reservations.

ARTICLE 11. This treaty shall be obligatory upon the contracting parties as soon as the same shall be ratified by the President and Senate of the United States.

In testimony whereof, the said Isaac I. Stevens, governor and superintendent of Indian affairs for the Territory, of Washington, and the undersigned head chief, chiefs, headmen, and delegates-of the aforesaid confederated tribes and bands of Indians, have hereunto set their hands and seals, at the place and on the day and year herein before written.


Yakama Tribe

This article contains interesting facts, pictures and information about the life of the Yakama Native American Indian Tribe, aka Yakima, of the Columbia River Plateau region.

Facts about the Yakama Native Indian Tribe
This article contains fast, fun facts and interesting information about the Yakama Native American Indian tribe.

Find answers to questions like where did the Yakama tribe live, what clothes did they wear, what did they eat and who were the names of their most famous leaders? Discover what happened to the Yakama tribe with facts about their wars and history.

What language did the Yakama tribe speak?
The Yakama tribe spoke in a Sahaptian dialect of the Penutian language and called themselves Pakintlema meaning "people of the gap," or Waptailmim meaning "people-of-the-narrows," reflecting the location of their villages near Union Gap on the Yakima River. After the introduction of the horse the Yakama people hunted buffalo on the Great Plains and adopted the some of the lifestyle elements of this cultural group. The Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, or simply the Yakama Nation (formerly Yakima), was a consolidation of 14 bands, or tribes.

Where did the Yakama tribe live?
The Yakama are people of the Plateau Native American cultural group. The location of their tribal homelands are shown on the map in the modern day state of Washington. The geography of the region in which they lived dictated the lifestyle and culture of the Yakama tribe.

What was the lifestyle and culture of the Yakama tribe?
The Yakama tribe lived a semi-nomadic lifestyle fishing, hunting, or gathering wild plants for food. The Yakama tribe lived in pit houses in the winter and tule-mat lodges or tepees in the summer. The Lewis and Clark expedition encountered the Plateau Yakama tribe during their explorations in 1806. The Yakama adopted many of the ideas of the Great Plains Indians including the use of the tepee which were covered with buffalo hides and some items of clothing also made from buffalo hides.

The Yakama tribe and the Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark encountered the Yakama tribe in October 1805 and met Chief Kamiakin, the war leader of the Yakama Nation.

What did the Yakama tribe live in?
The Yakama were semi-nomadic and needed shelters that were easy to set up and take down. They lived in one of three shelters, depending on the season. The types of shelters were a semi-subterranean pit house, a tepee or a tule-mat lodge.

  • Pit houses were winter shelters that were built with logs and sealed for insulation with earth (sod) and grasses. They were built below ground with an entrance and ladder at the top
  • The summer shelters were the tepee and tule-mat lodge, both above ground.
  • Tepees were covered with animal skins but the tule-mat lodge was covered with mats of strong, durable, tule reeds (bulrushes).

What transportation did the Yakama use? Dugout Canoes
When the tribe inhabited the Plateau region they built dugout canoes made from the hollowed-out logs of large trees. The men hollowed logs with controlled fire that softened the timber so they could carve and shape their canoe to have a flat bottom with straight sides. The canoe was perfect means of transportation for travel along fast streams and shallow waters of the Columbia, Wenatchee and Yakima Rivers.

What food did the Yakama tribe eat?
The food of the Yakama tribe included salmon and trout and a variety of meats from the animals and birds they hunted. They supplemented their protein diet with seeds, roots, nuts and fruits.

What clothes did the Yakama wear?
The clothes worn by the Yakama men and women of the tribe were similar to the clothing of the Nez Perce - please refer to this article for details.

What weapons did the Yakama use?
The weapons used were spears, lances, clubs, knives and bows and arrows. The Yakama also used shields for defensive purposes.

Who were the allies and enemies of the Yakama tribe?
The allies of the Yakama tribe were many of the other Native American Indians who inhabited the Plateau region including the Cayuse, Walla Walla, Spokane, Coeur D'Alene, Payuse and the Nez Perce. The main enemies of the Yakama tribe were the Great Basin groups to the south, including the Shoshone, Northern Paiute, and the Bannock tribes.

Who were the famous chiefs of the Yakama tribe?
The most famous leaders and chiefs of the Yakama tribe included Chief Kamiakin, Chief Qualchan and Chief Leschi of the Nisqually Native American tribe.

What happened to the Yakama tribe?
The following Yakama history timeline details facts, dates and famous landmarks and battles fought by the Yakama Nation. The Yakama history timeline explains what happened to the people of their tribe.


Yakama

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Yakama, formerly spelled Yakima, self-name Waptailmim (“People of the Narrow River”), in full Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, North American Indian tribe that lived along the Columbia, Yakima, and Wenatchee rivers in what is now the south-central region of the U.S. state of Washington. As with many other Sahaptin-speaking Plateau Indians, the Yakama were primarily salmon fishers before colonization. In the early 21st century they continued to be involved in wildlife management and fisheries.

The Yakama acquired historical distinction in the Yakama Indian Wars (1855–58), an attempt by the tribe to resist U.S. forces intent upon clearing the Washington Territory for prospectors and settlers. The conflict stemmed from a treaty that had been negotiated in 1855, according to which the Yakama and 13 other tribes (identified in the treaty as Kah-milt-pah, Klikatat, Klinquit, Kow-was-say-ee, Li-ay-was, Oche-chotes, Palouse, Pisquose, Se-ap-cat, Shyiks, Skin-pah, Wenatshapam, and Wish-ham) were to be placed on a reservation and confederated as the Yakama Nation. Before the treaty could be ratified, however, a force united under the leadership of Yakama chief Kamaiakan, who declared his intention to drive all nonnatives from the region. After initial Yakama successes, the uprising spread to other tribes in Washington and Oregon. Three years of raids, ambushes, and engagements followed until September 1858, when the Native American forces were decisively defeated at the Battle of Four Lakes on a tributary of the Spokane River.

In 1859 the treaty of 1855 was effected, with the Yakama and most of the other tribes confined to reservations and their fertile ancestral lands opened to colonial appropriation. Since that time, all the residents of the Yakama Reservation have been considered members of the Yakama Nation. Several tribes in the region, notably the Palouse, refused to acknowledge the treaty and would not enter the reservation.

Early 21st-century population estimates indicated some 11,000 individuals of Yakama Nation ancestry.


Video

On January 2019, there was an MMIW event.

I spoke along with Yakama Nation Elected Officials, a Washington State Elected Official, and the Yakima County Sheriff. This Presentation was hosted by CWU Department of Law and Justice & Museum of Culture and Environment.

About Native Friends

Native Friends was founded by Emily Washines, MPA and scholar. She is an enrolled Yakama Nation tribal member with Cree and Skokomish lineage. This company is a Native lifestyle empowerment brand with a focus on history and culture. Building understanding and support for Native Americans is evident in her films, writing, speaking, and exhibits. Emily speaks Ichiskiin (Yakama language) and other Native languages. Yakima Herald-Republic lists her as Top 39 under 39. She lives on the Yakama reservation with her husband and three children.


Vaata videot: Drum and song from the Yakama Nations arrival to Standing Rock (Mai 2022).


Kommentaarid:

  1. Tavish

    Ma arvan, et teete vea. Arutame seda. Kirjuta mulle PM, räägime.

  2. Kazrataur

    super, pole ammu niimoodi naernud

  3. Jarron

    Unity is the touchstone of truth. S. Vivekananda

  4. Zifa

    See on lihtsalt tähelepanuväärne vastus

  5. Lapidos

    Uskumatu. Tundub võimatu.

  6. Tekazahn

    Ja kas saate teada, kas teie ajaveebi kujundus on mall? Soovin ka endale...

  7. Talib

    Mulle tundub, et sa eksid



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