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Betty Ford meenutab sekkumist

Betty Ford meenutab sekkumist


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Mälestades ema ja isa

Kui president Gerald Ford, endine koja vähemuste juht ja mees, kes andis armu president Richard Nixonile pärast Watergate'i, oleks täna elus, siis tema tütre sõnul ütleks ta tõenäoliselt ameeriklastele: „Inimesed peavad õppima hakkama saama ja töötama meie riigi parima heaks . Kahepoolsus on olemas ja võib toimida. ”

Susan Ford Bales ütleb, et tema isa ametiajal Washingtonis oli suhteid kogu vahekäigus.

"Inimesed peavad õppima mitte nõustuma, ilma et nad oleksid ebameeldivad," ütleb Bales. "Võite vaadata mu isa suhteid Tip O'Neilliga (maja kõneleja aastatel 1977-87). Carl Albert [koja spiiker aastatel 1971–1977] oli üks neist, kes ütles president Nixonile: „Gerry Ford on see inimene, kelle saate parlamendi ja senati kaudu asepresidendiks.” President Nixonil oli teisigi inimesi silmas pidades. Carl oli teiselt poolt aeda, kuid ta töötas minu isaga aastaid. ” Fordist sai asepresident pärast Spiro Agnewi tagasiastumist pärast Watergate'i uurimist.

59 -aastane Bales oli jaanuari lõpus kõrbes, et rääkida oma vanematest Rancho Mirage'i kirjanike festivalil. Fordid muutsid Rancho Mirage'i oma koduks Valge Maja -järgse elu jooksul ja Bales mõtiskleb nende aegade üle teisel ettekandel „President Gerald ja Betty Ford: nende elu ja pärandid”, 6. märtsil Annenbergi tervisekeskuses. Teadused Eisenhoweri meditsiinikeskuses Rancho Mirage'is. Tema jutt on osa JFS of the Desert sarjast Desert Icons, mida juhib Patrick Evans CBS Local 2 -st pärast kella 18.00. VIP vastuvõtt.

FOTOKOHUSUS SUSAN FORD BALESEST
Susan Ford Bales ütleb, et tema ema oleks jaanuaris Washingtonis toimunud naiste marssi toetanud: “ Ta oleks naistele meelde tuletanud, miks nad peaksid tundma, et neil on õigus oma seisukohti väljendada, olenemata sellest, milline on poliitiline tee.

Bales ütleb, et Rancho Mirage oli ideaalne koht isale golfi nautimiseks ja emale artriidivalu leevendamiseks. Tema vanemad jäid siia kuni surmani vastavalt 2006. ja 2011. aastal.

"Mu vanemad olid käinud palju aastaid kõrbes puhkusel, enne kui nad seal elasid," ütleb Bales. “Ema võiks poes käia ja inimesed ei häiri. Nad said restoranides käia ja inimesed lasid neil rahus süüa. Nad olid kõrbes paljude asjade toetajad: Betty Fordi keskus, Rancho Mirage'i raamatukogu, McCallumi teater ja paljud üritused. ” Fordidel oli ka kodu Colorados.

Endine presidendiproua asutas koos tütre perekonna sekkumisega Betty Fordi keskuse narko- ja alkoholisõltuvuse raviks. Bales meenutab, et ema pillid ja alkoholiprobleemid olid suurenenud, kui tema isa oli pensionil olles kõnerajal linnast väljas. Mittetulundusühing on sellest ajast alates ühinenud teise riikliku teedrajava organisatsiooniga, et saada Hazeldeni Betty Fordi sihtasutuseks, mille juhatuse liige Bales on.

Betty Ford inspireeris naisterahvast, kui ta pärast rinnavähi üleelamist avalikkuse ette jõudis, üksikasjalikult oma sõltuvuse ja taastumise kohta. Tema ja Gerald Ford aitasid 1984. aastal käivitada riikliku rinnavähi teadvustamise nädala. Bales ütleb, et tema enda eelseisev kõne räägib vanemate teekonna „tipphetkedest ja miinustest”. Tema ema oli võrdsete õiguste muutmise ja abordiõiguste otsene pooldaja. Kui Betty Ford oleks täna siin, julgustaks ta naisi jätkama võrdõiguslikkuse poole püüdlemist, ütleb Bales, märkides, et üks tema tütardest osales nädalavahetusel pärast president Trumpi ametisseastumist meeleavaldusel.

"Ema oleks naisi rõõmustanud, eriti kui nad olid rahumeelselt," ütleb ta. "Ta oleks naistele meelde tuletanud, miks nad peaksid tundma end volitatud oma seisukohti väljendama, olenemata sellest, milline on poliitiline tee, vabariiklane, demokraat või sõltumatu või mis iganes. Kui vaatate näiteks tervishoidu, siis on see jagatud kaheks erinevaks asjaks - enne Betty ja pärast Betty - tänu sellele, mida tema ja Rosalynn Carter tervishoiu heaks tegid. Nad läksid mäele, et teha lobitööd [seadusandluse jaoks], et depressioon ja alkoholism oleksid kindlustatud. ”

Bales ütleb, et Cartersid olid mõned tema vanemate parimad sõbrad koos president George'i ja Barbara Bushiga, keda nad tundsid juba aastaid enne Fordi presidendiks saamist 1974. aastal.

Pärast Nixoni tagasiastumist ütles Ford oma presidendi ametisseastumisel: "See on ajalootund, mis häirib meie meelt ja valutab südant." President Carter austas Fordi oma avamiskõnes 1977. aastal, tänades teda „meie maa tervendamise” eest. Bales ütleb, et isa hellitas seda hetke kogu oma elu. Ta ütleb, et Carteri mainimine oma isast oma avasõnades "on särav näide sellest, mida paljud tänapäeva poliitikud peaksid vaatama ... vaadake seda suhet."

Bales, endine autor ja fotoajakirjanik, ütles, et presidendi tütreks olemine pani ta „vihkama poliitikat. … Mul pole mingit soovi kandideerida, ”ütleb ta. "Ma tunnen vastutust hääletada, kuid poliitika ise pole minu tass teed."

Selle asemel on ta keskendunud 13 miljardi dollari suuruse superauto USS Gerald R. Ford tellimisele sel aastal. Bales ütleb, et laev oli minu isale tõesti oluline projekt. Ta sai sellest teada kuus nädalat enne surma. Ta oli väga rõõmus. Ta oli alandlik mees ega oodanud kunagi selliseid asju, seega tähendas see palju. Ma olen väga uhke, et saan ta laevastikku, aidates Ameerikat toetada. Siis jätkan Betty Fordi keskuse ja Hazeldeniga ning toetan teadlikkust rinnavähist. ”


Professor Bettye Caldwell suri lastehoiu meistriks

Laste- ja pereuuringute eriprofessor Bettye Caldwell suri 17. aprillil. Tema töö 1960. aastatel Siracusa lastekeskuses andis aluse sellele, mis sai üheks suureks ühiskonnaprogrammiks, mida tänapäeval tuntakse kui Head Starti.

Laste- ja pereuuringute osakonda juhtinud professor Caldwell töötas rohkem kui viis aastakümmet igakülgse varajase lapsepõlve arenguprogrammeerimises, teenindades peamiselt madala sissetulekuga koolieelseid lapsi ja nende perekondi. Selle aja jooksul tegi ta tihedat koostööd Julius Richmondiga, kes oli Upstate'i ülikooli pediaatria esimees. 1967. aastal asutasid nad Siracusas lastekeskuse, mis oli esimene varajase sekkumise programm riigis. Tol ajal oli New Yorgi osariigis keelatud väikelaste eest hoolitsemine rühmades. Caldwelli propageerimise tulemuseks oli eriline loobumine, mis sillutas teed lastekeskuse loomisele.

Keskust - mis oli pärit Ida -Adamsi tänava vanast majast - külastas tohutut riiklikku huvi ning esimesel aastal külastas seda rohkem kui 1000 külastajat, sealhulgas Eunice Shriver. Caldwell tunnustas neid rahvuslikke tegelasi sellega, et nad juhtisid programmile tähelepanu ja aitasid sellel algusaastatel ellu jääda.

"Dr. Bettye Caldwell oli oma valdkonnas tõeline pioneer. Syracuse'i ülikool on väga uhke oma eluaegse pühendumise üle, mis keskendus laste huvide esikohale seadmisele ning lugematule hulgale üksikisikutele ja peredele vahendite pakkumiseks, mida nad vajavad, ”ütleb Diane Lyden Murphy, Falki kolledži dekaan. "Oleme igavesti tänulikud, et tema pühendumus puudutas meie ülikoolilinnakut ja kogukonda nii sügavalt ajal, mil ta ja tema pere Siracusas veetsid."

1969. aastal kolis Caldwell koos perega ümber ja töötas aastaid Arkansase-Little Rocki ülikooli teaduskonnas. Little Rockis asutas ta Krameri kooli algharidusprojekti väikelastele kuni 12. eluaastani. „Bettye lõi mõtlikult ja tahtlikult kooli väikelastekeskuse, et eri klasside ja klasside noored õpilased saaksid koos imikutega külastada ja õppida hästi koolitatud hooldajad, kes olid kättesaadavad otse oma koolimajas, ”kajastab professor Caldwelli endine aspirant ja nüüd Falki kolledži laste- ja pereuuringute professor emerita Alice Sterling Honig.

2014. aastal antud intervjuus märkis professor Caldwell: „Kohtusin Alice Honigiga professionaalselt 1963. aastal, kui mul oli esimene suur uurimistoetus„ Imikuõpe ja perehooldusmustrid. ” ja palkasin Alice'i. Suure õnne ja uhkusega väidan, et tema kogemus selle varase uurimisprojektiga aitas teda järgnevatel aastatel ette valmistada iseseisvaks ja omaalgatuslikuks uurimistööks. ”

Kuigi nad töötasid Syracuse'i ülikoolis koos, leidsid Caldwell ja Honig, et õppekava koostamiseks on vähe dokumente, mis aitaksid lastel areneda. "Bettye ja mina ja teised kohtume öösel kesklinnas, pärast laste magama panemist (ja lapsehoidjate saamist), et teha kindlaks, mida me arvasime, et teoreetikud tahaksid, et me teeksime, et aidata kõige väiksematel õitseda," meenutab Honig. „Küsime endalt, kuidas saaksid Eriksoni ja Piaget teoreetilised kirjutised praktikasse ja programmilisse suhtlusse jõuda? Tundsime end tõeliselt pioneeridena. ”

Caldwell juhtis psühholoogide ja psühhiaatrite meeskonna Hiinasse, kuhu kuulus ka Honig, mis oli esimene selline rühmitus pärast kultuurirevolutsiooni, mille Mao Tse Tung lubas külastada lasteasutusi ja lastehaiglaid. Ülemaailmse maine ja mõjualaga Caldwell sai oma karjääri jooksul mitmeid auhindu, sealhulgas 1978. aasta Ladies Home Journal aasta naine, mille eest teda austati tseremoonial, millega ühinesid Betty Furness, Maya Angelou, Kate Smith ja Betty Ford .

2014. aasta septembris lõi professor Caldwelli helde kingitus dr Alice Sterling Honigi stipendiumifondi, et saada kasu Siracusa ülikooli laste- ja pereuuringute eriala üliõpilastele. "Tänu oma visioonilisele suuremeelsusele on tulevikuõpilastel võimalus tugineda dr Caldwelli uuenduslikule tööle, mis on nii Falk College'i ajaloo kui ka riiklike sotsiaalprogrammide kriitiline osa varases lapsepõlves," lisab Dean Murphy. Professor Caldwelli loodud stipendiumile kingituse tegemise kohta lisateabe saamiseks võtke ühendust Falki kolledži edendamisbürooga aadressil 315-443-8989.


Hoiatusmärgid: kuidas tuvastada kõrge funktsionaalsusega alkohoolik

See, et keegi suudab hoolimata alkoholisõltuvusest tööl või elus hakkama saada, ei tähenda, et ta on selle mõju suhtes immuunne. Siin on mõned märgid, mis võivad viidata sellele, et keegi on hästi toimiv alkohoolik:

Nad vajavad alkoholi, et end kindlalt tunda.

Sageli tunnevad kõrge funktsionaalsusega alkohoolikud end joomisega „lukus”, sest nad muretsevad, et kui alkohol peatub, siis ka nende edu.

„Ma arvasin varem, et joomine aitab mu häbelikkusele kaasa, kuid kõik, mis see tegi, oli kõigi negatiivsete omaduste liialdamine. Joomine ja pillid vähendasid minu loomulikku entusiasmi. ” - Elizabeth Taylor

Nad teevad nalja, et neil on alkoholiprobleem.

Nad ei võta oma alkoholisõltuvust tõsiselt ega usu, et neil on selle üle täielik kontroll.

"Kas sa jood?" "Muidugi ma lihtsalt ütlesin, et olen kirjanik." - Stephen King

Tundub, et neil pole enam pohmelli.

Alkoholitaluvuse arendamine võib omakorda veenda neid, et nende joomine pole probleem, sest nad ei tunne selle mõju.

"Kuna ma sain oma joomisega hakkama - või nii ma arvasin - ja võisin tarbida palju alkoholi, ilma et oleksin saanud kontrollimatult joobnuks, keeldusin sellest probleemi pidamast." - Buzz Aldrin

Nad joovad üksi.

Joomine pole nende jaoks sotsiaalne tegevus, vaid üksildane ajaviide.

"Mulle meeldib üksi juua. Ma ei muutu kunagi inetuks, kui ma joon liiga palju, ma ei tüdinenud end palju igava vestlusega ega ole ma veel kunagi õue astuma kutsunud. ” - Stephen King

Nad asendavad toidud alkoholiga.

Söögiajad on sageli vabanduseks suure funktsionaalsusega alkohoolikule, kes hakkab jooma. Nad võivad isegi toidust üldse loobuda.

"Ma ei sööks niipea öösel, kui mul poleks punast veini ja vett." - Ernest Hemingway

Nad muutuvad joomise ajal teistsuguseks inimeseks.

Sotsiaalsed joojad ei muuda joomise ajal dramaatiliselt oma isiksust. Alkohoolikud käituvad aga üsna ebatavaliselt.

"Hetkel, kui lõpetasime viimase lasu, võtsin ma joogi. Siis sai sellest tasapisi jookide sari. Enne kui ma arugi sain, jõin ma üha rohkem, sest minu sõltuvust tekitav isiksus võttis võimust. ” - Leonard Nimoy

Nad muutuvad vaenulikuks või vaidlevaks, kui nad ei saa juua.

Alkohoolikud kannatavad sageli võõrutussümptomite all, kui nad on sunnitud kaineks jääma või on nad alkoholitarbimisest ära lõigatud.

"Ma teadsin, et olen alkohoolik, sest olin mures, kas alkoholi serveeritakse või mitte." - Betty Ford

Nad ei saa peatuda ühe joogi juures.

Neil on raske lasta alkoholil "raisku minna" ja nad võivad sõprade joogid nende eest lõpetada. Neil on probleeme joomise piiramisega.

"Ma pole selline tüüp, kes saab ühe joogi juua. Ma ei saanud kunagi. Seda pean ma meeles pidama. Ma pole elu jooksul ühtegi jooki joonud. ” - Samuel L. Jackson

Nad peidavad oma alkoholi.

Nad hoiavad oma alkoholi salajas kohas, kus nende sõbrad ja pereliikmed seda ei leia, näiteks laua taga või autos.

“Ma lahkusin tema kontorist, läksin ümber nurga ja esimesest viinapoest, mille leidsin, ostsin pudeli šoti. Ma ei suutnud isegi oodata, kuni koju jõudsin. Enne parkimisplatsilt väljatulekut tegin mitu näppu. ” - Buzz Aldrin

Nad tumenevad regulaarselt.

Pole ebatavaline, et nad ei suuda joomise ajal juhtunut meenutada.

“Pöördepunkt saabus siis, kui mu perekond leidis mu köögipõrandalt minestades. Tahtsin vist vahele jääda. ” - Samuel L. Jackson

Kas tunnete endas või lähedases need hoiatusmärgid ära? Pöörduge abi saamiseks. Pole liiga hilja.

Chris Clancy on JourneyPure'i digitaalturunduse meeskonna sisesisuhaldur, kus ta saab uurida mitmesuguseid ainete kuritarvitamise ja vaimse tervisega seotud teemasid. Tal on rohkem kui 20 -aastane ajakirjaniku- ja teadurikogemus ning tal on head töökogemused haiglasüsteemide, ravikindlustuse, sisustrateegia ja avalike suhete alal. Ta elab koos naise ja kahe lapsega Nashville'is.

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Mida "sekkumine" õpetas Ameerikale sõltuvuse kohta

Minusuguse taastuva narkomaani jaoks on kõige lõbusamate karantiinijookide hulgas olnud 20-aastase hooaega valgete nööpidega Sekkumine , pikaajaline A & ampE tõsielusaade sõltlastest, kelle pereliikmed seavad ultimaatumi ravi saamiseks-või muidu kaotavad kõik.

Aga joomine Sekkumine need päevad on pannud mind mõtisklema ka selle üle, kui ameeriklane oli 2005. aastal, sarja debüüdi ajal, sõltuvusest sõltuv. Võtame näiteks filmi „Dana” (13. hooaeg, teine ​​jagu), mille fännid on kuulutanud kõigi aegade kõige kurvemaks episoodiks (korteripõleng oli tapnud kolm tema last). Mulle on praegu selge-olles veetnud viimased kaheksa aastat 12-astmelistel koosolekutel, kuulates inimesi, kes püüavad mõista nende sõltuvust, aga ka seda, et tänapäeval mõistetakse traumat laialdaselt sõltuvuse peamise põhjusena-miks Dana oli haakus koheselt tema enda kolmanda astme põletushaavade raviks määratud Vicodiniga. "Ma vajasin midagi, mis mind tulekahju hirmutavate tagasilöökide eest rahustaks," ütleb ta mulle nüüd, selgitades, et Vicodin eemaldas "raskuse mu rinnal ja õlgadel".

Kuid kui Dana episood esimest korda eetris oli, pidi sekkumisspetsialist Candy Finnigan noomima Dana venda, et ta liigitas oma sõltuvuse moraalseks läbikukkumiseks. "Kui me traumat ei ravi, ei saa me teda kunagi terveks," selgitab Finnigan lasteaiaõpetaja kaastundega.

Ja just nii pakuti Ameerikale meistriklassi kaastunde väärilisuse kohta sõltuvuse ravimisel, hoolimata selle seosest traumaga, mida pole veel seitse aastat teaduslikult tunnustatud.

Sel ajal jäid ameeriklased häbiväärselt naiivseks sõltuvuse tõelise olemuse suhtes, mis oli 200 aasta haiguse vääritimõistmise tagajärg (või et see oli isegi üks). 1800ndatel opiaadisõltlasi iseloomustati ajakirjanduses peaaegu eranditult värvilistena, kuigi ka suur osa valgeid inimesi oli sõltuvuses. 1960ndateks sundisid narkootikumide kuritarvitamise ravikeskused sageli taotlejaid tundide kaupa vaikselt istuma enne tarbimisvestlusi, kus nad pidid tunnistama, et nad on “rumalad”. Ning pärast nulltolerantsi kampaaniaid 1970ndatel ja 1980ndatel (“Sõda narkootikumide vastu”, “Lihtsalt ütle ei” jne), keskendus “lahendus” keemilisele sõltuvusele ravilt kriminaliseerimisele. Kogu selle aluseks oli mitte eriti peen religioosne ettepanek, et sõltuvus on moraalne ebaõnnestumine ja väike patt.

See tähendab, et enamik ameeriklasi tundis sekkumisi varajastel aegadel ainult neljandal hooajal Sopranod , milles perekond soovitab Christopheril heroiinisõltuvuse ravi saada (ja läheb neile üle, pekses hoopis jama). "Inimesed uskusid, et sekkumine oli suur kallim teie kallimale," Sekkumine looja Sam Mettler ütleb mulle. "Ei, see on ravipakkumine ja kui keegi keeldub, siis otsus, kas perekond soovib olla osa haigusest või mitte."

Sekkumiste kasutamine sai alguse kuuekümnendatel aastatel, kui piiskopiminister Vernon Johnson kutsus sõltlaste pereliikmeid üles nende elu päästmiseks „põhja tooma”. Need, kes istuksid matuse kahes esimeses pingis, peaksid sekkumist juhtima, selgitas Johnson.

Seega on üllatav, et sellise telesaate selline tume kontseptsioon oli Mettleri, algkoosseisu alguse komöödiakirjaniku idee, kelle krediitide hulka kuulus ka ABC situatsioonikomitee „Maintenance Guy” Norm . Ta ütleb, et oli sekkumistest varem teadlik, kuid see mõiste tuli tal 2001. aastal tõepoolest naljana tema isa kohta. "Mu isa kannaks tee liiga palju odekolonni, ”ütleb Mettler. „Ta korjaks mu pisipoja ja koju tulles peame talle vanni andma, sest ta lõhnas nagu mu isa. Helistasin oma õele ja ütlesin: „Peame isale Kölniga sekkuma. See läheb naeruväärseks. ”Nii jõudis see sõna minu ajju.”

Sel ajal töötas Mettler MTV jaoks dokumentaalsarjade kontseptsiooni kallal, mis ei viinud kuhugi. Nii et ta pöördus selle idee poole Sekkumine selle asemel. „Tahtsin leida huvitavaid inimesi, kellel oli juba dramaatiline elu kõrgete panustega, ja lasta neil meid läbi viia, ilma et nad neid segaks. Ma teadsin laias laastus, mis on sekkumine, kuid minu eelarvamus oli, et see on palju kõrgem konfliktide läbirääkimine kui kingitus, mis see tegelikult on - elu kingitus, ravi kingitus, vastuse kingitus. ”

Ta esitas kontseptsiooni MTV -le 2001. aastal ja pidi lendama New Yorki, et alustada saate arendamist 12. septembril 2001. Loomulikult ei läinud ta kunagi. Tehti kindlaks, et riik oli 11. septembril kannatanud piisavalt südamevalu ja ei olnud veel valmis näituseks ainete kuritarvitamisest. Idee istus Mettleri arvutis veel kolm aastat, enne kui ta lõpuks selle otse A & ampE -le esitas, kes seda kontseptsiooni armastas.

2004. aasta sügisel värbas ta Orange'i maakonnas asuva Jeff VanVondereni, endise pastori, toibuva alkohooliku ja sekkumisspetsialisti, kes oli koolitatud vastasseisu stiilis rehabilitatsioonistiilis, tegema kaameras auditi. VanVonderen ütleb mulle, et ta arvas, et saade ei tööta kunagi, sest ta töötas aastaid sõltlastega ega teadnud kedagi, kes tahaks, et nende elu kõige pimedamatel hetkedel kaameraid jälgiks.

Sellegipoolest palus Mettler tal rollimängu sekkuda. VanVonderen käskis PA -l (kes mängis sõltlase rolli) ruumist lahkuda, et ta saaks perekonna poole pöörduda. Ta läks valge tahvli juurde ja hakkas toas “perekonnale” sekkumiskoolitust läbi viima. "Ma tahtsin, et A & ampE näeks selgelt," selgitab ta. "Sest inimestel polnud aimugi, mis sekkumine üldse oli. Nad lihtsalt mõtlesid, et Sopranod peksid Christopheri või Cartman, kes oli sunnitud edasi rasvalaagrisse minema South Park . Nad lihtsalt ei saanud sellest aru. "

A & ampE tellis piloodi nii kaua, kui VanVonderen selles osaleb. Ja kuigi Wisconsini väikelinna pastor ei soovinud kunagi televisioonis olla, ütles ta igatahes jah. „Kujutasin ette, kuidas diivanil istunud ema ja isa olid oma metamfetamiinisõltlase poja või tütrega kriisi läbi elanud, lootes, et saavad enne nende tapmist nende tähelepanu. Siis aga komistavad nad edasi Sekkumine ja mõista, et on veel üks asi, mida nad proovida saavad.

Pärast etenduse valimist 2005. aastal hakkas Mettler otsima VanVonderenile naissoost kolleegi, kes etenduse lõpetaks. "Betty Fordil oli nende eelistatud sekkumiste nimekiri ja ma hakkasin neile lihtsalt helistama," selgitab ta. Finnigan, Kansas Cityst toibuv alkohoolik, oli nimekirja tipus, kuid tootjad muretsesid, et ta näeb välja "liiga vana". "Mulle helistati päev pärast pilkavat sekkumist," räägib Finnigan mulle. "Nad ütlesid:" Me ei saanud aru, et sa oled seda vana. ’Ütlesin, et sa ei saa olla 17 ja bluusi laulda. Kui sa tahad kedagi, kellel on 5 jalga 10 jalga, suured tissid ja blondid juuksed, siis ma pole seda. "

Dramaatilised stseenid sõltlasest, kes sekkumiseni kontrolli alt väljuvad, tulistasid käsikaameratesse sellised põllutootjad nagu Jeffrey Weaver, kes oli hiljem saates tegevprodutsent. Sekkumine Weaver selgitab, et eesmärk oli algusest peale esmalt inimestega suhelda: „Tundsime, et on oluline näha asju hädasolija poolelt.” Sellisena sukeldus Weaver nädalate kaupa teemadesse, magades sageli nende diivanitel või põrandal. Pidev dokumentatsioon tähendas, et ta ei tundnud mitte ainult vastutust oma loo rääkimise eest, vaid ka nende heaolu tagamise eest.

Selleks meenutab ta, et seisis vannitoas äsja tulistanud heroiinisõltlasega, ühes käes kaamera ja teises telefon. "Ma valiksin 911 ja hoiaksin pöialt saatmisnupul, juhuks kui inimene peaks üledoseerima," ütleb ta mulle. „Olime väga pühendunud sellele, et dokumenteerida, milline oli meie subjektide elu tegelikult, mitte neid fabritseerida, mitte muuta, mitte üritada luua nende kogemustest mingit hüperboolset versiooni. Need olid lood, mis polnud populaarses kultuuris esile kerkinud, ja me olime pühendunud ideele, et kui saaksime neid lugusid jagada sellisel olulisel platvormil nagu A & ampE, oleks see sõltuvuse avalikus vestluses mängumuutja. ”

Sellegipoolest on mõned kriitikud leidnud iga hinna eest läbipaistvuse eelduse Sekkumine olla problemaatiline, eriti kuna sõltlane ei näe kunagi vastasseisu tulekut. 20. hooaeg keskendus Philadelphia opioidikriisile, kuid seda panustasid sellised sõltuvuse pooldajad nagu Brooke Feldman, kelle arvates oli saade "sensatsiooniline, mis tegelikult on tervislik seisund". Weaver lükkab aga selle kriitika tagasi: "Meie tähelepanu keskmes oli alati veendumine, et sõltlastel oleks tee tervenemiseks, ja kõik, mida me selle teekonna dokumenteerimiseks tegime, oli suunatud sellele, et anda subjektidele juurdepääs sellele abile."

Enamjaolt kahtlevad inimesed sekkumiste tõhususes üldse, soovitades selle asemel, et motiveeriv intervjueerimine, kognitiivne käitumisteraapia, mille eesmärk on tugevdada muutuste motivatsiooni, oleks vähem võitluslik ja tõhusam.

Siiski, 22. hooaeg Sekkumine on esietenduseks sel kevadel, kuigi A & ampE ei ole veel avaldanud teavet selle avaldamise kohta ega seda, kas seda domineerib jätkuvalt üks sõltuvus. Peaaegu kõik viimased episoodid on keskendunud opiaatide kriisile ja viimane mitte-ainest sõltuvus-nt treening, buliimia, hasartmängud, ostlemine-oli 2013. aastal.

Mõlemal juhul olen saate eest igavesti tänulik. Nagu ma vaataja ilmselgelt, aga ennekõike taastuva sõltlasena aitasin Ameerikal oma narkoprobleemiga toime tulla.

C. Brian Smith

C. Brian Smith kirjutab MEL-i jaoks tabavaid gonzo-funktsioone, olgu selleks siis koolitus koos masturbatsioonitreeneriga, psühho-füüsilise ravi saamine löögiterapeudilt või nädal aega kestvale lõbusõidureisile 75 jõuluvanadega pärast nende kiiret hooaega.


Betty Fordi sekkumine

Sel kevadhommikul oma elutoas ringi vaadates ei saanud endine presidendiproua Betty Ford, nagu enamik alkoholi tarvitavaid narkomaane, sellest aru.

& ldquoMinu meik ei olnud & rsquot määrdunud, ma ei olnud rikutud, ma käitusin viisakalt ja ma ei lõpetanud kunagi pudelit, nii et kuidas ma võiksin olla alkohoolik? & rdquo meenutas ta aastaid hiljem. & ldquoJa ma ei saanud heroiini ega kokaiini. Arstid olid välja kirjutanud ravimid, mida ma võtsin, unerohud, valuvaigistid, lõõgastustabletid, pillid teiste pillide kõrvalmõjude kõrvaldamiseks ja mdash, nii et kuidas ma saaksin olla narkomaan? & Rdquo sel päeval meenub, et Ford ja ldquolooked väike, peaaegu nagu nukk, kadusid [diivanipatjadesse] ja kui tema abikaasa avasõnad tegi, võis ta näol segadust näha. & rdquo

Ford oli endiselt hommikumantlis, sest ükshaaval rääkisid abikaasa ja lapsed talle tõtt. Endine president Gerald R. Ford kahetses oma kõne ähmastamist. Poeg Mike ja tema naine Gayle tõstatasid võimaluse, et ta ei elaks piisavalt kaua, et kunagi teada saada lapsi, keda nad kavatsesid saada. Poeg Steve jutustas päevast, mil ta koos oma tüdruksõbraga naisele keeruka õhtusöögi valmistas, kuid lasi tal ignoreerida nende pingutusi, kui ta televiisorit vaatas ja alkohoolsesse udusse libises. Poeg Jack ütles, et ta piilub alati nurga tagant peretuppa, et näha, millises vormis ema oli. tema ema ja rsquos armus Martha Grahami koolitatud tantsijana ja ei suutnud teda näha & langeda ja kohmakas. & rdquo

Fordi pere sekkumine ei võtnud 1. aprilli 1978. aasta hommikul kaua aega, kuid see alustas sündmuste jada, mis muutis põhjalikult Betty Fordi ja rsquose elu ja palju muud. Ta nõustus läbima nädalase meditsiinilise järelevalve all võõrutusravi ja võõrutusravi, mille jooksul võõrutati alkoholist, Libriumist ja sellest, mida ta hiljem kirjeldas kui & ldquogourmet ravimid & rdquo & mdash oma uhiuues Rancho Mirage'i kodus. Siis, päev pärast 60. sünnipäeva, sõidutati Ford kaks tundi Long Beachi mereväe haiglasse, et õppida anonüümsete alkohoolikute 12 sammu. Järsku omandas mõiste & avalik joobumine & rdquo täiesti uue tähenduse.

Pärast kolme toakaaslasega standardtuppa elama asumist avaldas Ford avalduse, milles kirjeldati ilma vabandusteta tema kavatsust ületada oma & ldquoinsidious & rdquo sõltuvused.

Tehes oma avaliku, mitte eraviisilise võitluse, muutis sirgjooneline Betty Ford narkootikumide kuritarvitanud alkohooliku kuvandi nimetust näota luuserist üllaseks ja sümpaatseks ellujääjaks. Ta aitas vähendada sõltuvuse ja raviga seotud häbimärgistamist, eriti naiste puhul.

Sünge üllatuspidu, mis teda sellel teel käivitas, tõi kaasa ka taastumisliikumise, mida Ford poleks kunagi osanud ette kujutada, rahvusliku vestluse, kus murelikud hinged tundusid olevat valmis, isegi innukad, avalikult ülestunnistama või kahetsema. Järgnevatel aastakümnetel oli raske televisiooni jutusaadet sisse lülitada, ilma et oleksin kuulnud ellujäänuid ja rsquo-lugusid kõige ületamisest, alates verepilastusest, soolisest segadusest, kompulsiivsest söömishäirest ja buliimiast kuni seksuaalse sõltuvuse, kaassõltuvuse, vägistamise, isegi tulnukate röövimiseni ja saatanlikuni. valdus.

Et mõista, miks Betty Fordi ja rsquose sekkumisel selline mõju oli, on oluline mõista tema ootamatut rolli selles, mida ja mida nimetatakse nn kaasaegse alkoholismi liikumiseks, ning mis algas 1935. aastal, kui kaks meest ja New Yorgi börsimaakler (Bill W.) ja Akron, Ohio , kirurg (dr. Bob S.) ja mdash panid aluse meetodile, kuidas sõltuvusega vaikselt ja anonüümselt tegeleda, luues anonüümseid alkohoolikuid ja kuulutades 12-astmelist evangeeliumi, mis on muutnud lugematuid apostleid. Siis ja 1960ndatel ei teadnud keegi, mida joodikute ja narkomaanidega peale hakata. Mõni juhtis nad vastastikuse abi ühiskondadesse, nagu A.A., või lihtsalt vaatas, kuidas nad end surnuks ravivad. Teised saatsid oma ainete kuritarvitajad võõrutusringideks sanatooriumidesse. Veel mõned allutasid ainete kuritarvitajatele eksperimentaalse käitumise muutmise ravi, sealhulgas hüpnoosi, elektrišokiravi ja metadooniravi.

1970. aastal tunnustas föderaalne Hughesi seadus ametlikult narkomaaniat ja alkoholisõltuvust kui haigust, pannes aluse sellele, mis lõpuks kujunes mitme miljardi dollari suuruseks eriarstikeskuste tööstusharuks, kohtu poolt määratud nõuete järgimiseks ja keerukaks turundamiseks. Sellegipoolest jäi sotsiaalne häbimärgistamine.

Betty Ford 1978. aastal ei sobinud kenasti ühegi avaliku & rsquos stereotüübiga purjuspäi või narkomaanist. Ta oli väga puhas, väga viisakas, väga edukas ainete kuritarvitaja ja mdash, keda keegi pigem imetles kui sõimas.

Tõepoolest, ta lahkus Valgest Majast jaanuaris 1977 kui kõige populaarsem esimene leedi pärast Jackie Kennedyt. Ta oli sattunud rahvusvahelisse tähelepanu keskpunkti nööpidega ajastul, kui vabariiklasest abikaasa prototüüp oli lakkjuukseline kurttumm, akolüüdi jumaldavate silmadega. (Kas saate kirjeldada Pat Nixoni ja rsquose häält? Kas ma ei arvanud nii.) Chicagos sündinud ja Grand Rapidsis, Michiganis üles kasvanud Ford tõi Washingtoni Midwesterneri ja rsquose kalduvuse vastata igale küsimusele ausalt. See ei ole Washingtonis kombeks, kus üks Fordi ja rsquose varajastest vahetustest Valge Maja pressikorpusega andis märku ajastust, mil rahvas ja rsquos capitol sageli värskendavat ausust ajastule tõid.

& ldquoMiks sa meile ei rääkinud? & rdquo üks ajakirjanik sõimas kord, kui sai teada, et proua Gerald Ford oli kunagi proua Bill Warren.

& ldquoSa pole kunagi küsinud, & rdquo vastas ta.

Üks Fordi ja esimese presidendiproua mitteametlikke tegevusi oli avalikult teatada oma kavatsusest magada mitte ainult oma mehega samas Valge Maja magamistoas, vaid samas voodis, suurendades seeläbi tehniliselt võimalust, et seks võib tekkida.

Ta avaldas uhkusega oma entusiastlikku toetust naiste võrdõiguslikkuse muudatusele ja positsiooni, mida tema abikaasa või tema partei ei jaga, ja kui tema abikaasa oli Richard Nixoni juhtimisel asepresident, rääkis ta Barbara Waltersile, kui hea meel tal ülemkohtu üle on olnud. Rsquos 1972 Roe vs Wade otsus, mis legaliseerib abordi. President Fordi ja rsquose pressisekretär avaldas avalduse, milles kuulutas, et Gerald Ford ja ldquolong [tagasi] ei ole enam häiritud oma naise ja rsquose märkustest. & Rdquo

Ford oli ka teadlik positiivsest avalikust mõjust, mida tema isiklik käitumine võib avaldada. Kuu aega pärast Valgesse Majja kolimist olid tema arstid leidnud pahaloomulise tüki ja olid sunnitud eemaldama tema parema rinna. Ford immediately went public with the news and began a course of chemo-therapy in the public spotlight. Supportive mail poured in, and the American Cancer Society saw a spike in donations. &ldquoEven before I was able to get up, I lay in bed and watched television and saw on the news shows lines of women queued up to go in for breast examinations because of what had happened to me,&rdquo she later recalled. One of those women was Happy Rockefeller, wife of then-Vice President Nelson Rockefeller. Turns out she had a lump, too, and had a similar operation a month after Ford&rsquos mastectomy. Her husband credited Ford&rsquos frank public disclosure with saving his wife&rsquos life.

A fter leaving the White House, Betty Ford hired ghostwriter Chris Chase and set to work on her autobiography, The Times of My Life. She and Jerry eventually retreated to Rancho Mirage, and by the spring of 1978, she was polishing the final chapters. Ford devoted early chapters to her unlikely rise to the pinnacle of power. In later chapters, she recounted the many moments when her candor had caught official Washington and much of the nation off-guard.

But nothing in Ford&rsquos nearly finished manuscript hinted at the most startling truth of all, one that not only would require a rushed final chapter for that book &mdash subtly titled &ldquoLong Beach&rdquo &mdash but an entirely new autobiography less than a decade later that dealt entirely with her battle against addiction. She had completely ignored her slide into a haze of cocktails and pain pills &mdash apparently the only Ford family member able to do so.

The intervention, back then, had not yet become one of the most controversial features of the recovery culture. The idea is based on the theory that the most effective way to compel someone with a problem to seek treatment is for the people closest to them, family and friends, to confront them with the truth about how the problem has affected their lives. Interventions represent a significant departure from the methods established by the founders of A.A., who favored a volunteer, rather than a confrontational, approach. This also was long before the horror stories of abuse in which well-intentioned parents essentially had their troubled children kidnapped and hauled off to tough-love treatment facilities.

Ford was no less skeptical that morning as her family gathered from around the country to confront her in a home still filled with moving boxes. But a week later, the former First Lady of the United States of America was taking meals in a basement cafeteria at the Navy base and sharing a room with three other women. One was an admiral&rsquos wife with a taste for Valium the other two were young, regular Navy. As word spread about Ford&rsquos treatment, the media began to portray addiction as a disease with no discernible demographic: the great equalizer.

&ldquoAfter I came into the hospital, it was as though a dam had burst,&rdquo Ford later recalled. &ldquoNewspapers and magazines poured in, filled with articles about women and drugs and alcohol. Bags of mail followed, and flowers, and messages sent by well-wishers.&rdquo

Two years after her intervention and public disclosure, on Oct. 9, 1981, Betty Ford helped break ground for an addiction treatment center at Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage. She committed her fund- and consciousness-raising efforts to the cause and, reluctantly, lent her name and face to what has become the best-known facility of its kind in the world. The Betty Ford Center was dedicated one year later. One of the earliest to step forward for treatment was another of America&rsquos most influential women, actress Elizabeth Taylor. Her decision to disclose her struggle had nearly as much impact as Ford&rsquos in terms of destigmatizing alcohol and drug rehabilitation.

Taylor&rsquos treatment also added a touch of glamour to the Betty Ford Center and to treatment in general, paving the way for other celebrity substance abusers to talk about their addictions and treatment. A curious snowballing began. At the time, insurance laws made rehab centers a potential profit center for hospitals, and facilities began cropping up fast.

The language began to soften. &ldquoDrunks&rdquo and &ldquodrug fiends&rdquo became &ldquoalcoholics&rdquo and &ldquosubstance abusers.&rdquo The people around them became &ldquoenablers&rdquo and &ldquoco-dependents.&rdquo The culture began suspending harsh judgments and began looking to family histories and childhood traumas as a way to explain someone&rsquos addiction. Ford&rsquos treatment also was followed by what one addiction specialist calls a &ldquonew temperance movement.&rdquo Mothers Against Drunk Driving was founded in 1980, the same year First Lady Nancy Reagan&rsquos &ldquoJust Say No!&rdquo slogan became the most memorable &mdash and ridiculed &mdash catchphrases of that decade. Warnings began to appear on beer, wine, and liquor labels, and anti-alcohol and drug programs became a staple of secondary and even elementary education.

More than 53,000 patients have sought help at Betty Ford Center since it opened. They have included homemakers, truck drivers, doctors, lawyers, athletes &mdash some nearly as famous as Ford and Taylor: baseball legends Mickey Mantle and Darryl Strawberry, football player Todd Marinovich, country music singer Tanya Tucker. The list reads like a Who&rsquos Who of the entertainment and sports worlds even though celebrities represent only a fraction of the center&rsquos clients.

But after all the talk, after decades of often dramatic self-exposure, there remains a bottom line: A government report suggests that of the estimated 13 million to 16 million Americans who need treatment for alcohol or drug problems in any given year, only 3 million actually receive it. And something else is happening that Ford could not have foreseen that day in 1978. While recovery has changed lives for the better, and while Ford&rsquos public struggle coaxed thousands of closeted addicts into the open and diminished the stigma of treatment, the lasting impact of all those public acts of contrition is hard to pin down. The snowball began to melt.

T he Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, an arm of the federal Department of Health and Human Services, has designated September as National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month partly because of a &ldquorestigmatization&rdquo of substance abuse and addiction in recent years. That same agency notes the impact of critics who have raised concerns about whether substance abuse is a medical or a behavioral problem. The backlash is obvious from a search of the Amazon.com online book catalog, which contains titles such as Peele&rsquos Diseasing of America: How We Allowed Recovery Zealots and the Treatment Industry to Convince Us We Are Out of Control ja I&rsquom Dysfunctional, You&rsquore Dysfunctional: The Recovery Movement and Other Self-Help Fashions by Wendy Kaminer.

Spending on substance abuse treatment between 1987 and 1997 shifted heavily from private to public, meaning that fewer alcoholics and drug addicts in this age of managed care can count on insurance companies and other private payers to cover the cost of treatment.

&ldquoThree trends are evident since 1990,&rdquo wrote William L. White, author of Slaying the Dragon: The History of Addiction Treatment and Recovery in America. &ldquoThe first is the restigmatization of severe and persistent alcohol and other drug problems. The images of First Ladies, next-door neighbors, and our own family members are being replaced with more demonized images that elicit fear and anger rather than compassion.&rdquo White said that trend, combined with the &ldquodemedicalization&rdquo of treatment and the &ldquorecriminalization&rdquo of addiction, now finds people like Betty Ford portrayed as &ldquoinfectious agent[s] of evil&rdquo and recovery as an exception rather than a rule.

White has called for a &ldquoNew Recovery Movement&rdquo in which &ldquoa vanguard of recovering people&hellipstep forward to offer themselves as living proof of the hope for sustained recovery from addiction&rdquo &mdash a seemingly radical departure from the A.A. philosophy. During a speech to a New Jersey recovery group several years ago, White wistfully recalled Ford&rsquos long-ago public confession as perhaps the best moment in the country&rsquos history to be an alcoholic.

From the book Poplorica: A Popular History of the Fads, Mavericks, Inventions, and Lore that Shaped Modern America by Martin J. Smith and Patrick J. Kiger.
Published by arrangement with HarperCollins Publishers. Kõik õigused kaitstud.


The Revolutionary Moment of First Lady Betty Ford: Her October 1975 Speech Still Makes History

With news of former First Lady Betty Ford's death at age 93, it is easy to simply recall her as the leader of the national movement for substance abuse recovery because of the famous southern California treatment center which bears her name. In fact, that was but one in a number of issues on behalf of which Mrs. Ford became a world-recognized trailblazer by simply being herself -- which is to say, speaking out honestly and rationally.

Although she was only in the White House from August 1974 to January of 1977, she made extraordinary good use of her time in that most visible of symbolic roles.

As First Lady, she broke the national taboo on discussing breast cancer, the need to seek professional services of a therapist for emotional issues, support of a woman's right to decisions about her own body including support of the Supreme Court's Roe vs Wade decision, and even an effort to mainstream the modern dance movement into the traditional forms.

At the core of her conscience was an ironclad belief in the equality of women and men. Like her role in the public issues of breast cancer, the value of therapy and substance abuse recovery, the issue of women's right to full legal equality emerged from her own personal life. When her first husband had fallen ill with what threatened to be a lifelong illness, she realized that her ability to financially support him was compromised by the lack of equal pay for equal work among the genders. Thus, when she became First Lady she quickly rose as the national leader of the fight for the Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In that role, she delivered the opening speech at the October 1974 Conference on Women in Cleveland.

In this excerpt of that now largely-forgotten speech, Mrs. Ford delivered her crisp yet eloquent case for equal rights. As an example of the increasingly political and social importance of First Ladies to the nation, it ranks with two other revolutionary speeches -- those of Eleanor Roosevelt at the United Nations in outlining the Declaration of Human Rights, a document she helped draft, and of Hillary Clinton in Beijing at the U.N. Conference on Women.

In many respects, this speech is still ahead of its time. It isn't hard to imagine how the media and activists of all political stripes might respond if an incumbent First Lady in the 2010s were to say the words that Mrs. Ford did over a quarter of a century ago.


Donald Rumsfeld Recalls One of the Darkest Days of the Gerald Ford Administration

In any presidency there is an inherent tension between the requirement to do everything reasonable to protect a President’s safety and a President’s understandable desire to meet and shake hands with fellow Americans. In September 1975, one year into the Ford presidency, two events brought that tension front and center in dramatic fashion.

Only a few weeks earlier, David Packard, a senior advisor who had been a founder of the Hewlett-Packard company and had served as the Deputy Secretary of Defense in the Nixon administration under Secretary of Defense Mel Laird, had come to the White House to discuss with the President a challenging but important issue. Given the unique circumstances resulting from the resignation of both a Vice President and a President in recent years, the issue he wanted to discuss was what would take place in the event President Ford did not survive his presidency. This was a critically important and a historically unique question. In our lifetimes, President John F. Kennedy had been assassinated, and there had been concerns about President Nixon’s health during the long Watergate crisis. David Packard and I agreed it was important to raise these issues with the President: questions of command and control of America’s nuclear arsenal and what actions might have to be taken in the event of still another assassination or the incapacity of the President and the Vice President. Ford asked for a briefing on the matter and I had suggested that the Vice President have a separate briefing as well.

But these thoughts were not at the front of our minds, at least not then. The summer of 1975 had been filled with other issues and concerns. Betty Ford, for example, had appeared on 60 Minutes, talking openly about things most other First Ladies had avoided—such as her outspoken support for an Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution. She also got quite personal, telling interviewer Morley Safer she would probably try marijuana if she were a teenager, that she’d seen a psychiatrist, and that “I wouldn’t be surprised” if her daughter told her she had had an affair. The unusually forthcoming First Lady sparked a sensation across the country and led a fair number of Ford aides to raise questions about her effect on the Republican Party’s conservative base. I, for one, believed you’d be howling into the wind by trying to tell Betty Ford what she could or could not say. Over time, as it became clear Americans across the spectrum admired Betty’s outspokenness and general zest for life, the worries eased.

The summer of 1975 also featured a continuation of some hardly unprecedented differences between various officials—Bob Hart- mann was suspected of leaking stories to the media against Henry Kissinger, which Kissinger, understandably, was not happy about. He was determined to identify the leaker. “He may have a legitimate gripe,” I advised the President in August, “but you do not want to have your administration get like Nixon’s did about that problem of leaks.”4 Vice President Rockefeller was trying to persuade people into backing various policy proposals he’d developed, which concerned key Presidential aides, including Alan Greenspan. Based on feedback I’d received from a number of quarters, I raised a caution flag to the President. The Vice President is enthusiastic and many key staff members were reluctant to disagree with the positions he takes, I said. “That is not a criticism of the Vice President, it is a criticism of the circumstance that you deal with as President because those people are afraid to deal with him—they are afraid to speak up when he is present, they are afraid to speak up even when he is not present and you just ought to be aware of it.”

There were lingering discussions and differing views concerning America’s intelligence-gathering activities, further reports of Governor Reagan’s political activities, and the advent of new crises. Added to those immediate tasks were: a looming financial crisis in New York City and a search for a new Supreme Court Justice to replace the retiring William O. Douglas. The President outlined his criteria for the post: quality, confirmability, age—so that the nominee could be there for a while—breadth on the Court so the Court did not have eight people of any one category, some diversity, and finally that the individual should be moderate to moderate conservative. (Ultimately, he nominated John Paul Stevens.)

These controversies and issues—important, to be sure—were promptly put on pause when we were quite suddenly faced with a considerably more pressing concern: President Ford’s mortality.

On Friday, September 5, 1975, President Ford was in the historic Senator Hotel in Sacramento, across from the California State Capitol building where he was scheduled to meet with the state’s new Governor, Jerry Brown. At approximately 10:00 a.m., he left the hotel with his Secret Service detail. He moved toward a sizable gathering of people, several rows deep, who had come out to greet the President. They were lined along the side of a path through the large park in front of the state Capitol. As Ford crossed L Street onto the Capitol grounds, he deviated from the plan—but in a way that hardly surprised anyone who worked with him. He moved immediately to- ward the many well-wishers who had gathered to see him and started shaking hands left and right.

The President was pulling—as he had on his trip to Japan—what is often called an unscheduled “grip and grin” session. This understandably raised the pulse of the Secret Service agents—as well as the concern of those whose task it was to keep the President on schedule—but it was certainly not a surprise. Gerald Ford was a man of the people. He had concluded it was worth the risks given the challenges the country and he had faced together—and overcome—to meet and engage personally with his fellow Americans. Further, very simply, he liked people and, given his midwestern friendliness, he truly appreciated their coming out to meet him.

As the President approached a stand of trees on the left, a woman in the second row of the crowd caught his eye. She was wearing, Ford later recalled, “an unusual red or orange dress.” The woman, he re- counted, “had gray-brown hair and a weathered complexion.” Ford assumed she was going to shake his hand, but he hesitated to greet her. His sensitivity and awareness was understandable. As a member of the Warren Commission, which had been assigned the responsibility to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, Ford was fully aware of the dangers that lurked for prominent public figures surrounded by crowds. While he felt it was important to greet as many people as he could, he was still sensitive to the reality of the potential threats a President faces. Apparently something about this woman—perhaps her “unusual” brightly colored dress—stood out for him. Suddenly, when he was just a few feet away from her, he noticed she was gripping an object. It was a .45 caliber pistol, which she began to raise in the direction of the President.

The threat that September morning in California was thwarted quickly. An alert Secret Service agent beside the President had also seen the pistol. True to his training, he did not hesitate before pouncing on the would-be assassin. The quick-thinking team of agents then grabbed the President by his shoulders and moved him down and out of the possible line of fire. As he was being rapidly moved away toward the state Capitol building to safety, Ford turned and looked back just long enough to see a flash of red as several officers wrestled to the ground the armed woman who had set out that morning to assassinate the President of the United States.

From WHEN THE CENTER HELD: Gerald Ford and the Rescue of the American Presidency by Donald Rumsfeld. Copyright © 2018 by Donald Rumsfeld. Reprinted by permission of Free Press, a Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.


Betty Ford

A groundbreaking First Lady, Betty Ford is often remembered for her candor in addressing the controversial issues of her time.

Elizabeth Anne “Betty” Bloomer was born in Chicago and raised in Grand Rapids, Michigan. After graduating from Central High School, she went on to study modern dance at Bennington School of the Dance. While a student at Bennington, she met renowned choreographer Martha Graham and became a member of her Auxiliary Performance Troupe in New York City.

Bloomer returned to Michigan in 1941 and became a fashion coordinator for a department store. During this time, she continued to pursue her love of dance by starting her own performance group and teaching dance to handicapped children.

Shortly after her marriage to Gerald Ford, the Fords moved to Washington, DC, where Mr. Ford served as a member of the House of Representatives and Mrs. Ford assumed the duties of a congressional spouse.

In 1973, Mr. Ford was appointed Vice President of the United States. One year later, in a dramatic turn of political events, upon the resignation of President Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38 th President of the United States and Mrs. Ford became the First Lady. A few months later, Mrs. Ford was diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent a radical mastectomy. Rather than suppressing the diagnosis, she courageously shared her story and inspired countless women across the nation to get breast examinations. During her tenure as First Lady, Mrs. Ford continued to be an outspoken advocate of women’s rights, addressing public issues like the Equal Rights Amendment and increasing the number of women appointed to senior government posts.

The Fords left politics in 1976 and moved to Rancho Mirage, California. In 1978, following a family intervention, Mrs. Ford underwent successful treatment for addiction to alcohol and prescription drugs. She again used her personal story to raise public awareness of addiction, and in 1982, she co-founded the Betty Ford Center to treat victims of alcohol and chemical dependency.

Mrs. Ford was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1991 and the Congressional Gold Medal, with President Gerald R. Ford, in 1999.

Year Honored: 2013

Birth: 1918 - 2011

Born In: Illinois

Achievements: Humanitaarteadused

Educated In: Michigan, Vermont

Schools Attended: Central High School, Bennington School of the Dance


Betty Ford dies at 93 former first lady

Former First Lady Betty Ford, who captivated the nation with her unabashed candor and forthright discussion of her personal battles with breast cancer, prescription drug addiction and alcoholism, has died. She was 93.

Ford died Friday at the Eisenhower Medical Center in Rancho Mirage, according to Barbara Lewandrowski, a family representative. The cause was not given.

As wife of Gerald R. Ford, the 38th president of the United States and the only person to hold that office without first being elected vice president or president, she spent a brief, yet remarkable time as the nation’s first lady. But after he left office and even after his death in 2006 at 93, she had considerable influence as founder of the widely emulated Betty Ford Center in Rancho Mirage for the treatment of chemical dependencies.

“Throughout her long and active life, Elizabeth Anne Ford distinguished herself through her courage and compassion,” President Obama said Friday in a statement. “As our nation’s First Lady, she was a powerful advocate for women’s health and women’s rights. After leaving the White House, Mrs. Ford helped reduce the social stigma surrounding addiction and inspired thousands to seek much-needed treatment. While her death is a cause for sadness, we know that organizations such as the Betty Ford Center will honor her legacy by giving countless Americans a new lease on life.”

Former First Lady Nancy Reagan also offered a tribute in her statement: “She has been an inspiration to so many through her efforts to educate women about breast cancer and her wonderful work at the Betty Ford Center. She was Jerry Ford’s strength through some very difficult days in our country’s history, and I admired her courage in facing and sharing her personal struggles with all of us.”

Former President George H.W. Bush added, “No one confronted life’s struggles with more fortitude or honesty, and as a result, we all learned from the challenges she faced.”

Ford was an accidental first lady who had looked forward to her husband’s retirement from political life until Richard Nixon chose him to replace Vice President Spiro Agnew, who had resigned amid allegations of corruption. When turmoil engulfed Nixon during the Watergate scandal, she told anyone who asked that she did not want to be first lady, but the job became hers when the president resigned on Aug. 9, 1974.

The groundbreaking role she would play as first lady may have been foreshadowed in President Ford’s inaugural address.

“I am indebted to no man and only to one woman — my dear wife, Betty,” he told the nation. Over the next 800 days of his tenure, she would outshine him in the polls, and when he ran for election in 1976, one of the most popular campaign buttons read “Betty’s Husband for President.”

Her taboo-busting honesty — about abortion, sex, gay rights, marijuana and the Equal Rights Amendment — was a bracing antidote to the secrecy and deceptions of the Watergate era. Although her opinions may have cost him some votes, historians and other observers would argue later that Gerald Ford could not have ended “our long national nightmare” without Betty leading the way.

“I was terrified at first,” she once said about her sudden elevation to first lady. “I had worked before. I had raised a family — and I was ready to get back to work again. Then, just at that time, this thing happened. And I didn’t have the vaguest idea what being a first lady was and what was demanded of me.”

Lahendus? “I just decided to be myself,” she said.

Ford caught the attention of a scandal-weary America with her opinions on her children’s dating habits and their possible marijuana use, and on her and her husband’s decision not to follow the White House tradition of separate bedrooms.

She enthusiastically campaigned for feminist causes that she believed in — the Equal Rights Amendment, for example, and the nomination of a woman to the Supreme Court. Her vigorous support of the women’s movement inspired leading feminist Gloria Steinem to remark that she “felt better knowing that Betty Ford was sleeping with the president.”

Two months after Ford moved into the White House, a malignancy was discovered in her right breast. She underwent a radical mastectomy, followed by chemotherapy.

At that time, breast cancer was a taboo subject, so it was remarkable news that she not only disclosed the illness but openly talked about it and her treatment. “It’s hard for anyone born perhaps after 1980 or even in 1970 to understand that these things were not talked about,” Dr. Patricia Ganz, director of cancer prevention and control research at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, told The Times in 2006.

“They were very stigmatizing. A woman didn’t dare mention to her friends, employer, extended family that she had breast cancer,” Ganz said. Ford’s belief that if it could happen to her, “it could happen to anyone,” heightened public awareness of the disease. The American Cancer Society reported a 400% increase in requests about breast cancer screenings, and tens of thousands of women sought mammograms. Among those helped by her frank attitude was Happy Rockefeller, the wife of Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, who discovered she had breast cancer and subsequently underwent a mastectomy.

The public outpouring led Ford to realize that when she spoke, people listened. For the rest of her White House days, she would use her position as a bully pulpit to advance the causes and issues she believed in.

She “made the personal political, creating new options for women and for political wives,” historian Mary Linehan wrote in an essay for the book “The Presidential Companion: Readings on the First Ladies.” In so doing, Ford redefined the role of the first lady for herself and those who followed.

During the ratification process for the Equal Rights Amendment, which ultimately failed to win approval, she wrote letters and telephoned state lawmakers in an attempt to enlist their support. Her outspoken advocacy alienated ERA foes, who at one point organized an angry picket line in front of the White House.

She startled a nationwide television audience one Sunday evening shortly after becoming first lady, telling CBS “60 Minutes” interviewer Morley Safer that she wouldn’t be surprised if her daughter Susan, then 18, decided to have an affair. Ford said that she would “certainly counsel her and advise her on the subject, and I’d want to know pretty much about the young man that she was planning to have the affair with.”

She went on to say that she assumed her children had tried marijuana and called the Supreme Court decision supporting a woman’s right to have an abortion “the best thing in the world … a great, great decision.”

The interview unleashed a torrent of negative mail to the White House. Some constituents said her comments reflected a breakdown of American morality and that they would not vote for her husband when he ran for election.

In 1976, President Ford lost to Jimmy Carter by fewer than 2 million votes but not because of his wife’s outspokenness analysts attributed his loss largely to his pardon of Nixon. National pre-election polls showed that almost three-quarters of Americans thought Betty Ford was an excellent first lady, and solid majorities agreed with her stands on controversial subjects, including whether she was right to talk about what she would do if Susan Ford was having an affair.

Although she was often counseled to temper her public remarks, Ford remained true to herself and held little back. The world found out that Gerald Ford was her second husband she divorced the first, a furniture company representative named William Warren, on grounds of incompatibility after five years of marriage.

She offered information, even when she wasn’t asked. Reporters “asked me everything but how often I sleep with my husband,” she once said. “If they’d asked me that I would have told them: ‘As often as possible.’ ”

Her husband had been minority leader of the House when he was selected by Nixon in 1973 to replace Agnew, who had resigned after pleading no contest to federal charges of income tax evasion. Ford served as vice president for only eight months, before Nixon himself resigned in the face of impeachment and certain conviction in the Senate for his role in the Watergate scandal.

At the start of her husband’s abbreviated White House term, Ford indicated that she would prefer that her husband not run for the presidency in 1976. She later changed her mind, and campaigned for him enthusiastically. When it was all over, because Ford’s voice had been reduced to a whisper by campaign speeches, he had his wife read to the press the telegram he had written conceding to Carter.

She was born Elizabeth Ann Bloomer in Chicago on April 8, 1918, and moved with her family to Grand Rapids, Mich., when she was 3. She was a vivacious child — her mother liked to say that Betty “popped out of a bottle of champagne.” Although her father, a traveling salesman, was often away from home, she had a sunny childhood with few clouds until she was 16, when her father died of carbon monoxide poisoning while working on the family car.

At the age of 8, she began studying dance, which developed into a lifelong interest. After graduating from Grand Rapids’ Central High School in 1936, she attended two summer sessions of the Bennington School of Dance in Vermont, where she met Martha Graham. She continued her dance career, studying with Graham for two years in New York, eventually as a member of the Martha Graham Concert Group. She also modeled part-time with the John Powers Agency.

She returned to Grand Rapids in 1941 and became a fashion coordinator for a department store. She also formed her own dance group and taught dance to disabled children. She decided to remain in Michigan. She continued to dance until she pinched a nerve in 1964 while trying to raise a window. The injury led her to begin taking prescription painkillers.

Not long after she divorced her first husband, she met Gerald Ford, who had recently returned to Grand Rapids after serving in the Navy in World War II. Their marriage was delayed for several months because Ford, a lawyer, was running for U.S. representative from Michigan’s 5th Congressional District.

Ford was immediately caught up in his new work, and Betty Ford was determined to keep up with him. But soon she had other things to do: the Fords had four children within seven years.

“That was perhaps more than I expected,” Mrs. Ford told Steinem in 1984.

In her 1973 interview with The Times, shortly after Ford was appointed vice president, she described the tensions and loneliness she suffered as a congressman’s wife, problems that she said were compounded by the constant discomfort of the pinched nerve. In 1972, she began to see a psychiatrist, who also asked to see her husband.

“He saw him a couple of times,” she said. “But it had nothing to do with Jerry. It was just his dumb wife.”

She added: “It was helpful talking over the problems of being here alone quite a bit of the time and having to make decisions about the children at a crucial stage in their growing up. I had been assuming the role of both mother and father.”

The pressures escalated in the White House, however, and Ford began to rely on tranquilizers and alcohol to cope. She later told Barbara Walters that she was taking 20 to 30 pills a day.

Her addictions, she said some years after leaving Washington, was “an escapism from all that living in a fishbowl to a certain extent and the pressure of always having to be ‘on’ when perhaps you feel very ‘un-on’ or very down inside.”

A year after her husband’s loss to Carter, Ford’s problems worsened. She was dependent on “sleeping pills, pain pills, relaxer pills and the pills to counteract the side effects of other pills,” she wrote in her 1987 book “Betty: A Glad Awakening.” She had a glass of vodka or bourbon before dinner and another after dinner. She canceled or missed dates, shuffled around the house in her bathrobe, forgot important conversations with her children and spoke in a slur she was groggy most of the time, walked unsteadily and cracked a rib in a fall. “I was dying,” she said, “and everybody knew it but me.”

Their daughter Susan was so alarmed by her mother’s condition that, one week before her mother’s 60th birthday — on April Fool’s Day, 1978 — she arranged an intervention. Family members, accompanied by a medical team, gathered unannounced at the house in California and one by one told her how her addictions were hurting them and destroying her.

Their remarks cut her to the core she was angry and resentful. “You hit the wall,” she told Life magazine years later, recalling that day. “When you hit the wall, you better find a way to either go around it or over it. The disease (of addiction) is the wall.”

When the emotionally grueling session was over, she decided to scale the wall. She publicly announced that she had an addiction problem and checked into the Long Beach Naval Hospital for a month of detox and therapy.

When she was well on the road to recovery, she had a facelift “to go with my beautiful new life.” Of course, she told everyone about that too.

Ford figured if addiction could happen to her, it could happen to anyone, and she turned her energies toward helping others. With her neighbor, tire magnate Leonard Firestone, she raised $5 million to build an 80-bed facility in Rancho Mirage. Since its opening in October 1982, it has treated more than 75,000 people, including such well-known personalities as Peter Lawford, Liza Minnelli, Johnny Cash and Mary Tyler Moore, and it remains the most prestigious name in the drug and alcohol rehabilitation field.

“Rarely does anyone’s name become a noun. Everyone knows what you’re talking about if you say, ‘I’m going to Betty Ford,’ ” John Robert Greene, a historian and Ford biographer, told the Baltimore Sun in 2006.

In her 80s, Betty Ford remained actively involved as chairwoman of the board and regularly welcomed new residents. Once a month, she started a meeting with patients by saying: “Hello, I’m Betty Ford, I’m an alcoholic and an addict.”

“She speaks as one recovering alcoholic to another,” the late actress Elizabeth Taylor, one of the facility’s most celebrated residents, told People magazine of Ford. “There are no airs about her being first lady.”

Ford, who lived in Rancho Mirage, is survived by her sons Michael Ford, John “Jack” Ford and Steven Ford daughter Susan Ford Bales grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

A service is planned in the Coachella Valley. The former first lady will be buried next to her husband at the presidential library in Grand Rapids.

Cimons is a former Los Angeles Times staff writer.

Los Angeles Times staff writer Elaine Woo and former staff writer Claudia Luther contributed to this report.



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