Ajalugu Podcastid

Albert David - ajalugu

Albert David - ajalugu

Albert David

(DE-1050: dp. 3426 (f); 1,414'6 "; b. 44'1"; dr. 24'6 "; s. 27+ k.
cpl. Z20; a. 2 5 ", ASROC, 6 15,5" tt; cl. Garcia)

Albert David (DE-1050) lasti maha 2X Apri1 1964 Seattle'is, Washingtonis, Lockheed Shipbuilding and Construction Co .; käivitatud 19. detsembril 1964, sponsoriks proua Lvnda Mae David ja tellitud 19. oktoobril 1968 Puget Soundi merelaevatehases, Comdr. Juhib Roy S. Reynolds.

Ülejäänud 1968. aastaks lõpetas Albert David varustuse Bremertonis, Washingtonis, ning viis läbi kasutuselevõtujärgseid katseid ja katseid. Need eksamid jätkusid aastani 1969. Märtsis järgnes reis Hawaiile. Aprilli alguses alustas ookeanisaatja viis nädalat täienduskoolitust San Diegost. 1. mail 1969 määrati ta kodusadamaks Californias Long Beachil. Ta lõpetas täienduskoolituse kaheksa päeva hiljem ja jõudis Long Beachile 10. 12. päeval suundus Albert David aga tagasi Bremertoni, et saada Puget Soundi mereväe laevatehases kaheksa nädalat pärast raputamist. Sõjalaev naasis merele 7. juulil, suundudes Lõuna -California rannikule ja mitu päeva kestnud operatsioonidele San Diegost välja. Ta naasis Long Beachile 18.

Albert David viis tavapäraseid toiminguid Long Beachi baasist kuni oktoobri teise nädala alguseni. 8. oktoobril paistis ta Long Beachilt välja esimesel lähetusel Vaikse ookeani lääneosas. Pärast aurutamist Pearl Harbori ja Midway saare kaudu jõudis sõjalaev Jaapanisse Yokosukale 31. oktoobril. Seejärel teenis Albert David kaks nädalat Taiwani väina patrullis ja külastas Filipiinidel Subic Bay lahte, enne kui teatas 24. novembril Lõuna -Vietnamis Danangis, et alustada tulistamist. See ülesanne kestis kuni 10. detsembrini, kui pärast lühikest peatust Danangis suundus ookeanisaatja Tonkini lahe poole. 11. kuni 18. kuupäevani tegutses ta lahe lõunaosas (mere-õhu pääste) jaamas. 16. detsembril liitus Albert David seltskonnaga Hancockiga (CVA-19) kaheks päevaks lennuki valvuriks. Sõjalaev lahkus Tonkini lahe jaamast 18. detsembril ja suundus Tai Bangkoki, kus tema meeskond nautis viiepäevast sadamakülastust. 30. detsembril,

ta kohtus Korallimerega (CVA - 3) ja alustas viis nädalat lennuvalveteenistust koos töörühma (TF) 77 vedajatega.

Veebruari alguses 1970 lahkus ta Tonkini lahest, et teha sadamakülastusi Subici lahes ja Hongkongis. Tagasiteel Vietnami vetesse külastas Albert David Okinawat ja viis selle visiidi ajal merele, et uurida piirkonnas lebavat Nõukogude traalerit. Ta naasis 27. veebruaril Danangis Vietnami, et jätkata tulistamist toetavaid missioone kaldale võitlevatele vägedele. Märtsi teise nädala alguses lahkus ookeanisaatja püstoliliinilt, et uuesti liituda TF 77 kandjatega Tonkini lahes. Kaheksa päeva hiljem tõmbus ta Subic Baysse, et teha ettevalmistusi teekonnaks tagasi Ameerika Ühendriikidesse. 21. märtsil jäi Albert David Subic Bayst koju sõites silma.

Sõjalaev peatus Guamis, Midwayl ja Pearl Harboris enne saabumist Californias Long Beachile 9. aprillil. Pärast kasutuselevõtujärgset seisakut sättis Albert David tavapärase ajakavaga väljaõppeoperatsioonideks, mida viisid sõjalaevad läbi välismaale lähetuste vahel. Need arengud hõivasid tema aja novembri alguseni, kui ta sisenes Long Beachi mereväe laevatehasesse. Albert Davidi esimene korraline kapitaalremont kestis üle kaheksa kuu. 1. juulil 1971 laskis ta merele kapitaalremondi järgseteks katseteks ja õppusteks ning jäi ülejäänud kuuks nii hõivatud. August tõi San Diegost välja täiendkoolituse ja septembris nägi ta Long Beachilt tavapärast esimese laevastiku tegevust.

12. novembril 1971 lahkus Albert David Long Beachilt teist korda Kaug -Idasse. Teel viibis ta rohkem kui nädala Hawaii saartel, enne kui jätkas sõitu Filipiinidele. Ookeanisaatja saabus Subici lahte 9. detsembril ja jäi sinna peaaegu nädalaks. 15. päeval läks ta Tonkini lahe äärde, jõudes jaama kaks päeva hiljem. Albert David veetis järgmised kuus nädalat tulistamise tugijaamas Vietnami ranniku lähedal. Jaanuari lõpus 1972 suundus ta tagasi Subici lahte, et puhata, ümber relvastada ja taastada. Sõjalaev naasis 6. veebruaril lahingutsooni - seekord Siiami lahe ääres Lõuna -Vietnami sõjaväepiirkonna IV kaldal - ja asus uuesti tööle merel asuva raskekahuripatareina, mis toetas maismaavägesid.

Albert David lahkus Siiami lahest 24. veebruaril Tonkini lahe poole. Ta kohtus 29. veebruaril Constellatioriga (CVA-64) ja oli vedaja saatjaks kahepäevasele operatsioonile Tonkini lahes, samuti reisi ajal Subici lahte. Pärast 10 -päevast hooldust ja remonti Subie lahel lahkus ookeanisaatja 14. märtsil Filipiinidelt Hongkongi. Sadamakülastus Hongkongis kestis 16. – 22. Viimasel päeval asus sõjalaev kursile, mis viis ta Okinawa kaudu Jaapani merele. Ta viis 26. – 29. Märtsil läbi allveelaevadevastase sõja (ASW) õppusi ja tegi 30. märtsist kuni 5. aprillini sadamakõne Jaapanis Yokosukal.

Pärast valesti koju minekut 5. päeval ja naasmist Jaapanisse vajaliku varustuse uuesti laadimiseks suundus Albert David samal päeval tagasi Vietnami vetesse. 10. aprillil Põhja -Vietnami ja Lõuna -Vietnami vahel DMZ -st tulirelva toetamise eest aru andes täitis ta ka mitmeid muid ülesandeid. Pärast neli päeva kestnud tulistamismissioone liitus sõjalaev Long Beachiga (CGN-9) 10 päeva piketisaatja saateteenistuseks. Alates 28. aprillist kuni 12. maini pakkus ta taas tulistamist. Albert David jõudis järeldusele, et ringreis lahingutsoonis koos neljapäevase teenistusega Denveriga (LPD-9) teavitusliinil, mis on loodud kaubalaevade hoiatamiseks Põhja-Vietnami sadamate miinide eest.

17. mail asus ookeanisaatja koos Constellationiga seltskonda Subic Bay poole. Kaks sõjalaeva külastasid Subic Bayd 19. – 22. Maini ja said seejärel Singapuri poole teele. Pärast neljapäevast sadamakülastust Singapuris naasid nad 30. mail merele, minnes tagasi Vietnami ümbritsevatesse vetesse. Albert David läks 2. juunil ettevõttest Constellationiga lahku, et toetada Lõuna -Vietnami I ja II sõjaväepiirkonna vägesid. Püstolil olnud 10 päeva lõpus moodustas ta Constellationiga uuesti 12. Kaks sõjalaeva peatusid 15. päeval Subici lahe ääres ja naasid peaaegu kohe merele. 20. juunil saabusid nad Yokosukale kahepäevasele sadamakülastusele, enne kui alustasid reisi üle Vaikse ookeani. Albert David ja Constellation vabastasid Yokosuka 22. juunil Ameerika Ühendriikide suunas. Albert David saatis vedajat kuni 30. juunini, mil ta sai käsu iseseisvalt jätkata. Ookeanisaatja sisenes Long Beachile järgmisel hommikul.

Pärast kuu aega kestnud lähetusjärgset puhkust ja hooldusperioodi alustas ookeanisaatja 3. augustil tavapäraseid 1. laevastiku operatsioone Lõuna-California operatsioonipiirkonnas Rangeri (CVA41) lennukivalveteenustega. 26. augustil laskis ta Long Beachilt merele, et osaleda operatsioonil "RimPac-72", mis viidi läbi Hawaii saartel koos Austraalia, Kanada ja Uus-Meremaa mereväe üksustega. Albert David naasis sellest õppusest Long Beachile 19. septembril ja jäi sadamasse kolmeks nädalaks. Sel ajal jätkas ta tavapärast tegevust California rannikul.

Sõjalaev täitis Long Beachilt väljaõppetööd jaanuari 1973. aasta esimese nädala lõpuni. Viiendal päeval paistis ta merelt tagasi tõrva poole. Steaming koos Constellation Albert Davidiga viis 22. jaanuaril Subici lahe ääres läbi Vaikse ookeani transiidi. ringreisi päevi hiljem alustas ta reisi Tonkini lahele, saates jälle Constellationi. Järgmise kolme nädala jooksul osutas ta TF 77 lennuettevõtjatele lennukivalveteenust ja kaitse allveelaevade eest ajal, mil see osutus tema viimaseks turismireisiks enne seda, kui Ühendriigid Vietnami konfliktist lahkusid. Albert David naasis Subic Baysse 14. veebruaril ning veetis järgmised kolm nädalat väiksemaid remonditöid ja viis läbi koolitusi Filipiinidel.

6. märtsil lahkus Albert David Panay saarelt Iloilost, et naasta Vietnami vetesse. Seekord oli tema missioon aga rahulik. Ta oli osa operatsioonist "Endsweep", miiniväljade eemaldamine Põhja -Vietnami külgnevatest vetest. Tema osalemine selles jõupingutuses - mida katkestasid Jaapani Sasebo sadamakülastused, Filipiinidel Subic Bay ja Hvng Kong - kestis kuni juuni teise nädalani. Sõjalaev puhastas Vietnami vetes 9. juunil, külastas 12. ja 13. päeval Taiwani Keelungit ning jõudis Yokosukale 17. kuupäeval. Kaks päeva hiljem naasis ookeanisaatja merele tagasi Ameerika Ühendriikidesse. Enne 3. juulil Long Beachile jõudmist tegi ta lühikesed kütusepeatused Midway saarel ja Pearl Harboris.

Pärast kasutuselevõttu seisak, millele järgnes pikk piiratud juurdepääs San Pedro Toddi laevatehases, võttis ta aega kuni novembri lõpuni. Ta naasis Long Beachile 21. novembril, kuid jäi sinna vaid piisavalt kauaks, et teha ettevalmistusi kolimiseks San Diegosse, uude kodusadamasse, kuhu ta oli määratud 20. augustil. Albert David tegi 1. detsembril kodusadama vahetuse ja alustas kuus päeva hiljem kohalikke operatsioone San Diegost. Sõjalaev jätkas seda töösuhet

1973. aasta lõpus ja 1974. aasta esimese nelja kuu jooksul. 23. aprillil 1974 lahkus ta San Diegost koos Leonard F. Masoniga (DD-852) ja Waddelliga (DDG-24) Vaikse ookeani lääne poole. Albert David ja tema reisikaaslased tegid enne 14. mail Yokosukale jõudmist kütusepeatused Pearl Harboris ja Midway saarel. 25. mail pani ookeanisaatja merele Midway (CVA - 1) ümber üles ehitatud töörühma, et viia läbi operatsioone Honshu saare lähedal. Nii alustas ta oma esimest teenistusperioodi seitsmenda laevastikuga, kus lahingukohustus Vietnami ranniku lähedal ei mänginud mingit rolli. Sõjalaev vahetas vaheldumisi väljaõppeperioode merel ja sadamakõnesid sellistes kohtades nagu Yokosuka Hongkong, Guam ja Subic Bay.

22. oktoobril 1974 San Diegosse naastes alustas Albert David peaaegu 42 -kuulist perioodi ilma Kaug -Idasse lähetamata. Ta veetis suurema osa ülejäänud 1974. aastast sadamas, tegeledes esialgu kasutuselevõtujärgse seisakuga ja hiljem puhkusega. Ookeanisaatja viis 1975. aastal läbi mitmeid õppusi. Märtsi lõpus ja aprilli alguses tõi reis Hawaiile operatsiooni "RIMPAC" 1-75, mis on koostöös Austraalia Uus-Meremaa ja Kanada merevägedega. Aprilli keskel naasis ta läänerannikule ja jätkas kohalikku tegevust. 30. juunil 1975 klassifitseeriti Albert David fregatiks ja määrati ümber FF-; 050. Septembris tegi ta veel ühe kruiisi Hawaii saartele, kus veetis neli nädalat harjutusi, enne kui naasis novembri alguses San F [) iegosse. Kohalikud operatsioonid hõivasid taas tema aja kuni 1976. aasta kevadeni. 1976. aasta aprilli lõpus sõitis fregatt Long Beachile, kus ta alustas 22-kuulist 11-kuulist korrapärast remonti. Albert David lõpetas oma remondi Long Beachi mereväe laevatehases 1977. aasta Püha Patricku päeval ja naasis San Diegosse üheksa päeva hiljem. Ta tegutses tavapärase treeninggraafikuga oma kodusadamast välja kuni augusti alguseni, kui sõitis uuesti treeningutel Hawaiile. 29. augustil San Diegosse naastes asus fregatt taas tavalisse lääneranniku trammigraafikusse.

Vaheaeg Kaug -Ida lähetustes lõppes kevadel 1978. Albert David paistis 4. aprillil San Diegost välja ja seadis kursi Hawaiile. Teel sinna osales ta programmis "RIMPAC" 1-78. Pärast peatust Pearl Harboris 23. ja 24. päeval jätkas fregatt oma reisi läände 25. kuupäeval. Ta saabus Subic Baysse 16. mail. Järgneva viie kuu jooksul viis Albert David läbi harjutusi 7. laevastiku üksustega ja] osales binatsionaalsel õppusel "Sharkhunt XXVII" koos Taiwani mereväe elementidega. Ta külastas ka Jaapani, Korea ja Taiwani sadamaid. Fregatt jõudis järeldusele, et see on ekskursioon Kaug -Idas koos valmisolekuharjutuste ja mitmete erioperatsioonidega. Pärast visiiti Guamisse 11. -14. Oktoobril alustas Albert David teekonda tagasi Ameerika Ühendriikidesse. Ta naasis San Diegosse 29. oktoobril ja veetis ülejäänud 1978. aasta sadamas, välja arvatud kohapeal käimasolev kahepäevane periood.

Kaksteist päeva 1979. aastal alustas sõjalaev tavapärast väljaõppetegevuse, katsete ja kontrollide ajakava. See töö hõivas tema aja esimese kümne kuu jooksul. 13. novembril 1979 lahkus ta San Diegost, et naasta Vaikse ookeani lääneossa. Albert David tegi 21. novembril Pearl Harboris väga lühikese peatuse, jätkates samal päeval oma reisi läände. Ta saabus Subici lahte 9. detsembril ja veetis ülejäänud aasta sadamas. Fregatt tegutses kohapeal Luzoni sadamatest kuni 1980. aasta veebruari teise nädalani, kui ta alustas reisi Singapuri koos Long Beachi (CGN-9) Wordeni (CG-18) ja Bromsteiniga (FF-1037). Maunimootori õnnetus sundis teda aga Long Beachi ja hiljem USNS Ute (T-ATF-76) alluvuses Subic Baysse naasma. Ta jäi Subici lahte 12. veebruarist kuni kuu lõpuni. Sõjalaev naasis 1. märtsil merele kahe nädala õppustele, millele järgnes sadamakülastus Buckneri lahes, Okinawas.

Pärast allveelaevadevastast sõjapidamist ja järjekordset peatust Buckneri lahel seadis Albert David 23. märtsil kursi Koreasse Pusani. Sõjalaev veetis kuu viimase nädala Pusanis vabadust nautides. Sealt siirdus ta edasi Jaapanisse Sasebosse USAsse naasmist ettevalmistava remondi- ja hooldusperioodi jaoks. 9. aprillil 1980 lahkus fregatt Sasebost ja alustas teekonda Guami, Kwajaleini ja Pearl Harbori kaudu. Ta naasis San Diegosse 2. mail. Pärast maikuu lõppu oli kasutuselevõtujärgne seisak, samal ajal kui juuni ja juuli tõid kaasa kohalike jõgede taastamise. Augusti alguses külastas ta Alaska vetes, enne kui hakkas kuu keskel Puget Soundi laevatehases regulaarselt kapitaalremonti tegema.

Need remondid hõivasid fregati ülejäänud 1980. aastaks ja 1981. aasta üheksa kuuks. 1981. aasta oktoobri alguses jätkas Albert David San Diego kohalikku tegevust. See kohustus hoidis teda hõivatud kuni 1982. aasta mai lõpuni. 29. päeval asus ta Pearl Harbori kaudu Vaikse ookeani lääne poole teele. Fregatt saabus Subici lahte 2. juulil. Pärast peaaegu kolme nädalat selles baasis Filipiinidel kolis Albert David põhja poole Jaapanisse Sasebo, kus ta viibis 26. juulist kuni 12. augustini. Sõjalaev saabus tagasi Subie lahte 17. augustil, kuid sõitis neli päeva hiljem, 21. päeval, koos John Youngi (DD-973) ja San Jose (AFS-7) seltskonnaga Araabia merele ja tuuri Lähis -Ida jõud. Ta tegi 7. septembrist 18. oktoobrini Araabia meres ülevaatustöid. 19. oktoobril alustas Albert David pikka reisi Ameerika Ühendriikidesse. Ta sisenes San Diegosse 30. novembril ning ülejäänud 1982. aasta kulus lähetusjärgsele puhkusele ja hooldusele.

Seisund kandus üle 1983. aasta kolmandasse nädalasse. 20. jaanuaril alustas Albert David kolmepäevase valmisolekuharjutusega San Diegos kohalikke operatsioone. Üheksa kuud ajavahemikus 1983. aasta jaanuarist oktoobrini hõivasid tema aja Lõuna -California ranniku lähedal asuvates vetes läbi viidud erinevad koolitused. 4. oktoobril paistis fregatt siiski kaugele teele Kaug -Idasse. Ta tegi viiepäevase peatuse Pearl Harboris ja tegeles lahinguprobleemiga Mariana saartel, enne kui aurutas Subie lahte novembri teise nädala alguses. Kuu keskel heitis Albert David uuesti merele, et osaleda kahepoolsetel õppustel Malaisia ​​kuningliku mereväe, Kuningliku Smgapore'i mereväe ja Korea Vabariigi mereväe üksustega. Nende õppuste vahele jäid hea tahte ja vabaduse nõudmised Malaisias Lumutis, Singapuris, Chinhaes Koreas ja Hongkongis. 28. detsembril naasis ta Manilasse Filipiinidele, kus juhatas sisse uue aasta.

Albert Davidi paigutamine Vaikse ookeani lääneosas jätkus kuni 1984. aasta aprilli alguseni. Jaanuar tõi visiidi Filipiinidel asuvasse Cebu linna, tagasitulek Subie lahe äärde ja veel ühe kahepoolse õppuse, seekord Tai kuningliku mereväega. Järgnesid õppused teiste 7. laevastiku üksustega. Jaanuari lõpus sõitis fregatt Yokosuka hooldamiseks ja parandamiseks põhja poole Jaapanisse. Eelmise nädala alguses veebruaris lõpetas sõjalaev remondi ja viis merele, et korraldada allveelaevade vastaseid sõjaõppusi Jaapani merekaitse enesekaitse elementidega. Veebruari lõpp ja märtsi algus tõid visiidid Jaapanisse Sasebo ja Fukuoka. Märtsi keskel tegutses ta uuesti Lõuna -Korea mereväe üksustega ning külastas seejärel sadamat Korea Chinhaes ja Pusanis ning Jaapanis Sasebos. Albert David lahkus Sasebost 3. aprillil tagasiteel Ameerika Ühendriikidesse. Teel viibis ta Marianas, et osaleda teises lahinguprobleemis ja peatus 21. ja 22. aprillil Pearl Harboris. Sõjalaev tõmbas San Diegosse 30. aprillil. Juurdepääsujärgne seisak võeti kasutusele mais ja operatsioonid California rannikul ootasid 1984. aasta suve ja varasügist. Novembri alguses alustas Albert David Long Beachi mereväe laevatehases piiratud kättesaadavust.

See remondiperiood viis ta aastasse 1985. Tagasi San Diegosse 5. jaanuariks jätkas ta kuu lõpuks kohalikku tegevust. Fregatt pani paika läänerannikul treeningute ajakava, mida rõhutasid Kanada ja Ameerika Ühendriikide linnade sadamakülastused, mis hoidsid teda hõivatud kogu 1985. aasta ja peaaegu aastani 1986. 29. septembril 1986 sisenes Albert David National Steel & & # 39; Laevaehitusettevõte San Diegos alustab regulaarset kapitaalremonti.

Albert David teenis Vietnami konfliktis teenimise eest kolm lahingutähte.


Baumhart sündis Ohio osariigis Vermilionis. [1] Ta õppis Ohio ülikoolis Ateenas Ohios, saades oma A.B. ja M.A. aastal 1931. [1]

Aastatel 1932–1939 oli ta kirjastuse esindaja Ohio osariigis Vermilionis. [1] Ta oli aastatel 1937–1940 Ohio osariigi senati liige. [1]

Baumhart valiti seitsmekümne seitsmendale kongressile vabariiklasena. [1] Kogu 1940. aasta ja suurema osa 1941. aastast oli ta tuntud kui "sekkumisvabariiklane", kes pooldas, et Ameerika läheks Euroopas sõtta Natsi -Saksamaa vastu, et aidata Ühendkuningriiki. Ta astus tagasi Ameerika Ühendriikide mereväes komisjoni vastuvõtmiseks 2. septembril 1942. [1] 17. jaanuaril 1946. aastal vabastati ta ülemjuhataja leitnandist. Ta oli Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corp. avalike suhete personali liige, 1946–1953 Ohio osariigis Toledos. [1] Aastatel 1953 ja 1954 oli ta Vabariikliku Rahvuskomitee direktor. [1]

Baumhart valiti taas vabariiklasena kaheksakümne neljandale, kaheksakümne viiendale ja kaheksakümne kuuendale kongressile. [1] Ta ei olnud 1960. aastal ümbernimetamise kandidaat. Baumhart hääletas 1957. ja 1960. aasta kodanikuõiguste seaduste poolt. [2] [3] Ta oli 1968. aasta vabariiklaste rahvuskonvendi delegaat. [1]

Hiljem töötas ta avalike suhete konsultandina. [1]

Ta suri 23. jaanuaril 2001 Ohio osariigis Lorainis. [1] Ta on maetud Ohio osariigis Vermilionis asuvasse Maple Grove'i kalmistule. [1]

  1. ^ abcdefghijklm"A. David Baumhart juunior, endine kongressi liige". Hommikune ajakiri . Välja otsitud 2020-06-08.
  2. ^
  3. "HR 6127. 1957. aasta kodanikuõiguste seadus". GovTrack.us.
  4. ^
  5. "HR 8601. PASSAGE".

See artikkel Ohio osariigi Ameerika Ühendriikide Esindajatekoja liikme kohta on tükk. Saate Vikipeediat aidata, laiendades seda.


Albert David Ltd.

Albert David asutati aastal 1938. Ettevõte kuulub Kothari gruppi.

Albert David, kellel on aastakümneid silmapaistev esinemine tervishoiutööstuses, toodab farmatseutilisi preparaate ja lahtisi ravimeid, infusioonilahuseid ja suukaudseid tahkeid aineid, ühekordselt kasutatavaid süstlaid ja nõelu ning taimseid preparaate. Ettevõte ekspordib neid tooteid Vietnami, Venemaale, Valgevenesse, Egiptusse, Bangladeshi, Keeniasse, Tansaaniasse, Ugandasse, Sudaani, Etioopiasse, Nigeeriasse, Zairesse, Haiti, Brasiiliasse, Kanadasse, USAsse, Suurbritanniasse, Hollandisse ja Saksamaale, kuna ettevõte on WHO. 8211 heakskiidetud tarnija.

Sellel on ka Ameerika Ühendriikide Toidu- ja Ravimiametiga (USFDA) DMF suuremate ravimite, tolbutamiidi ja kloropropamiidi jaoks. Nende ravimite tootmisrajatist on kontrollinud ja kinnitanud USA ravimiamet.

Ettevõtte tootmisettevõtted asuvad Ghaziabadis New Delhi lähedal, Kolkata ja Mandideep Bhopali lähedal.

Ettevõtte Alamin kaubamärgi all olev aminohapete valik sisaldab kõrgete rahvusvaheliste standarditega puhast kristallilist aminohapet, mis on valmistatud ainulaadse tehnoloogia alusel, mis vastab WHO ja FAO soovitustele. Taimede segmendis müüb ettevõte oma tooteid kaubamärkide all nagu Adliv, mis on maksa kaitsev ja Siotone kapsel, mis on ainus stressile näidatud adaptogeen.

ADL -il on sidemed Jaapani Ajinomoto Co ja Roussel Morishita Co -ga, kes toodavad ja turustavad laias valikus kristalseid aminohapete infusioonilahuseid, suukaudseid tahkeid aineid ja vedelikke Indias.


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- Ettevõte soovitas maksta Rs dividende. 4,50 rubla aktsia aktsia kohta. 10/- igaüks 5707162 aktsiaaktsial.

- Ettevõte on soovitanud dividende Rs. 4,50 Rs aktsia aktsia kohta. 10/- iga lõppenud eelarveaasta kohta.

- Ettevõte on soovitanud dividende Rs. 4,50 Rs aktsia aktsia kohta. 10/- iga lõppenud eelarveaasta kohta.

2013
-Albert David Ltd on soovitanud maksta Rs dividende. 4,50 rubla aktsia aktsia kohta. 10/- iga.


Kuidas kaotas Albert Lin jala? Kadunud linnade saatejuhil juhtus hull õnnetus!

Pühapäeval, 20. oktoobril algas National Geographicu kanalil uus uurimissari.

Kadunud linnad koos Albert Liniga viivad vaatajad teekonnale Vaikse ookeani kadunud kuningriigist Iisraeli templirüütliteni. Sarja eesmärk on näha, kuidas teadlased saavad kasutada kaasaegseid tehnoloogiaid, et uurida iidseid kultuure ja ajalugu.

Saatejuht ei pruugi enamiku vaatajate jaoks tuttav olla, kuid teenib endale kiiresti uurimismaailmas nime - teda on isegi nimetatud biooniliseks Indiana Jonesiks!

Niisiis, kes on saatejuht Albert Lin? Ja kuidas ta jala kaotas? Siin on kõik, mida peate teadma!

Ekraanipilt: iidne Nan Madoli linn | Kadunud linnad koos Albert Liniga - National Geographic YouTube

Kes on Albert Lin?

Albert Lin on 38-aastane telesaatejuht, California Ülikooli San Diego tehnoloog ja National Geographic Explorer.

National Geographic Explorer on organisatsiooni rahastatav teadlane uurimistöö või uurimisprojekti läbiviimiseks. Alberti esimene projekt National Geographicuga oli Khansi org, mis uuris Mongoolia minevikku. Selle projekti kohta saate rohkem lugeda siit.

MasterChef 2021 | Treiler - BBC treilerid

Albert oli UCSD üliõpilane. Ta õppis seal bakalaureuse- ja magistrikraadi ning omandas seejärel doktorikraadi. materjaliteaduses.

Vaatamata oma kasvavale karjäärile teleuurijana pole Albert täielikult loobunud armastusest õppimise ja teaduse vastu, kuna asutas koos ettevõtte, mis kasutab videomänge õpilastele loodusteaduste õpetamiseks.

Hiljuti käivitasid Albert ja mõned teised UCSD õppejõud Inimpiiride Keskuse. See on mõttekoda, mis keskendub tehnoloogia rollile kaasaegse ühiskonna ja kaasaegse inimese kujundamisel. Päris muljetavaldav asi!

Kuidas kaotas Albert jala?

26. septembril 2016 juhtus Albert Linil suur õnnetus, mis tähendas, et ta nõudis parema jala amputeerimist.

Albert sattus maastikuautoõnnetusse, mille tagajärjel purunesid tema jalaluud. Järgmisena eemaldati tema jalg - põlveõndla all - ja talle paigaldati jäseme protees. See oli pärast kolm nädalat kaalumist, kas haiglas bioonikaks minna või mitte.

Kuid ta ei ole lasknud õnnetusel oma armastust uurimise vastu ära võtta ja sageli võite märgata Albertit - ja tema uut jalga - surfamist, uisutamist ja matkamist!

Albert on oma avariis väga avameelne ja suur osa loost on tema Instagramis vahendatud.

Jälgi Albertit sotsiaalmeedias

Kui soovite Albert Linist rohkem teada saada, siis on parim koht, kus tema uusimate töödega kursis olla, Instagramis ja Twitteris.

Ta jagab pilte kõigist oma eepilistest seiklustest Jordaania, Peruu, Iisraeli ja California surmaorguga. Albert võtab ette igasuguse maastiku!

Vaadake Albertit Instagramis @exploreralbert või Twitteris sama käepideme all.

VAATA KADUNUD LINNU ALBERT LINIGA PÜHAPÄEVADEL KELL 20.00 RAHVUSVAHELISEL GEOGRAAFILISEL KANALIL

TELLI JA LUGEGE UUT REALITY TITBIT MAGAZINI SIIT


David Vincent "Üksinduse ajalugu" Fay Bound Alberti üksinduse elulugu - ülevaade

Üksindus pole sama mis üksindus. Üksikud inimesed tunnevad vajadust seltskonna järele, üksildased aga püüavad sellest pääseda. Üksinduse kõige täpsem määratlus, kirjutab David Vincent oma suurepärases uues uuringus, on „ebaõnnestunud üksindus”. Teine erinevus nende kahe rühma vahel on see, et erakud, õngitsejad, trappistlikud mungad ja romantilised luuletajad otsustavad olla üksi, samas kui keegi ei vali end hüljatuna ja hüljatuna. Enesepartnerluse nimetamine, mis tähendab, et istute kinos (kui need peaksid olema avatud), hoides kätt, võib olla kas tõeline soov üksinduse järele või viis isoleerituse häbimärgistamise ratsionaliseerimiseks. Suurim erinevus on aga see, et üksindus on harva kedagi tapnud, samas kui üksindus võib teid hauda ajada. Koroonaviiruse leviku tõttu võivad mõned meist nüüd valida füüsilise nakatumise ja vaimse lagunemise vahel.

18. sajandi valgustusaja jaoks oli omaette olemine kõrvalekalle inimkonna tegelikust olemusest, mis oli oma olemuselt seltskondlik. Just romantikutega hakkas see muutuma. Eraldamine oli nüüd see, mis meil ühine oli. Frankensteini koletis on üks esimesi suuri ingliskeelse kirjanduse üksindajaid, keda inimkond on ümber lükanud ja halvustanud. Kuigi üksindus oli kaasaegse ajastu sümptom, võib üksindus olla selle kriitika. See oli üks väheseid viise, kuidas transtsendentsega kontakti saada, paljastades seeläbi, mis puudus üha materiaalsemas ühiskonnas. Kui Wordsworth kirjutab, et ta eksles üksildasena pilvena, võib ta silmas pidada lihtsalt seda, et ta oli üksi või et tal puudus kaaslane või et üksi olemine andis talle ruumi enese tundmiseks ja vaimseks mediteerimiseks.

See, et mina ilmneb alles maailmast taandudes, on usk, mis ulatub tagasi vähemalt algkristlike kõrbeisadeni, kuid see raamat näitab, kuidas vajadus eneseosaduse järele süveneb, kui kaasaegsed ühiskonnad muutuvad rahvarohkemaks. Selline tagasitõmbumine võib olla kulukas: Virginia Woolf nõudis oma toa vajadust, kuid seda said endale lubada ainult kõrgemad keskklassid. 19. sajandil elas ainult 1% Briti elanikkonnast 2011. aastal omaette, see oli 31% ehk umbes 8 miljonit inimest. Ent kui linnastumine ja suured pered lõid inimesed kokku, lõhestas tööstuskapitalismi anonüümne maailm ka need lahku. Maaelu võis olla karm, kuid vähemalt teadsite, kes seal kõrval elab. Nii et kui igatsus üksi olla muutus teravamaks, muutus ka hüljatud tunne.

Üksinduse ajalugu nõuab "Briti ühiskonna vaikset ajalugu" või "üldse mitte midagi tegemise ajalugu". See on tähelepanuväärselt mitmekülgne uurimus, ulatudes John Clare’i luulest interneti „võrgustunud üksinduseni” ja tähelepanelikkuse kultuseni. Seal on põnev osa üksildasest kõndimisest, mida 19. sajandi keskklass harrastas vaimseks puhkuseks (arvatakse, et Wordsworth on oma elu jooksul kõndinud umbes 180 000 miili) ja töölisklassid võtsid endale kohustuse töö leidmiseks. Pidev perambulatsioon ühendas talupojad ja patriitsid.

Loomulikult võib seltskonnas olla üksildane. Tegelikult väidab psühholoog Donald Winnicott, et laps saab õppida üksi olema ainult usaldusväärse täiskasvanu juuresolekul. 19. sajandi teisel poolel tekkisid uued kloostrid, kus naised said koos olla üksi, samas kui vanglasüsteem pakkus vähem kõrgemeelset üksikvangistust. (Purjesportlane Robin Knox-Johnson arvas, et kuritegevuse määr võib langeda, kui inimesed mõistetakse vanglasse mineku asemel üksi ümber maailma purjetama.) Suitsetamise kampaania näitab, kuidas sõjajärgsel ajastul peeti seda harjumust vähem marsruudiks kirikuaias kui teena sisemise rahu juurde, isegi kui palvet.

Vincent kahtleb nn üksinduse epideemias tänapäeva elus. Ta juhib tähelepanu sellele, et üha enam mehi ja naisi otsustas pärast teist maailmasõda elada üksi, sest see oli teostatav. Igal juhul pole laialt levinud üksindus uus ja mõned sotsioloogid näevad vähe tõendeid selle kohta, et see kasvab. Seevastu Fay Bound Alberti raamat „A Biography of Loneliness” läheneb probleemile sügavama pakilisustundega. Kui Vincent on sotsiaalajaloolane, on ta emotsionaalne, olles veendunud, et inimlikud tunded, mis pole kaugeltki aegumatud ja universaalsed, on ajalooliselt sama tinglikud kui mõte ja tegevus ning igati muutlikud. Juhtumit saab vaidlustada: emotsioonide väljendamise viisi kujundab kindlasti meie kultuur, kuid lähedase kaotuse pärast leinamine või paanika, kui grislikaru omaks võtab, ei paista sõltuvat sellest, kas olete pärit Kansasest või Kambodža. Sama kahtlane on see, et kõik emotsionaalsed seisundid on soolised, nagu see raamat väidab. Kas tõesti reageerivad naised mäest alla kukkudes meestele erinevalt? "Kõik emotsioonid on poliitilised," kinnitab Alberti, kuid "kõik on poliitiline" avaldused võivad mõiste "poliitiline" tühjendada mis tahes kasulikust tähendusest. See kujutab endast ülereageerimist neile, kes arvavad, et isandkantsleri ametikoht pole poliitiline, vaid loomulik.

There’s a gripping account here of Queen Victoria’s pathological grief over Prince Albert’s death, which compares the stricken monarch with the surreal Miss Havisham of Dickens’s Great Expectations. The book is impressively balanced: it sees that loneliness, in the sense of Vincent’s “solitude”, can be the price one pays for creativity. Loneliness can be restorative as well as destructive, but only when it is a choice. Historically speaking, it springs from the separation of self and society but this long pre-dates 1800, as Hamlet or Othello might testify. Overlooking this fact, the book idealizes the 18th century as a “relatively collective world”, which would have come as something of a surprise to the vagrants and workless who wandered its highways.

All the same, Alberti is right to politicize loneliness, unlike the neuroscientists who are racing to develop a pill to cure it. One can’t dissociate feeling useless and disconnected from the history of possessive individualism, even if that history stretches further back than the author imagines. If, as she points out, “there are very few physical spaces where people can meet in the 21st century without paying for the privilege of being there”, it is largely because the gospel of neoliberalism can see no point in them. There is, then, a villain in this book, as there isn’t in the more cautious reflections of Vincent. But there is also a good deal more: a brief history of old age, speculations on homelessness, refugees, soul mates, hunger artists, and Fomo, the connections between loneliness and obesity, a digression on Wuthering Heights which fails to drive home what an utter bastard Heathcliff is, and an array of other topics.

What distinguishes both these studies is their mixture of empirical research and general commentary. Both recount a grand narrative about solitude or loneliness, unfolding across the centuries, but they do so on the basis of detailed documentation. In their combination of scholarship and sympathy, poetry and clinical psychology, they appeal as much to the common reader as to the expert. One answer to loneliness is solitude. Enjoying being on one’s own, or at least being able to tolerate it, is part of being grown up. But Vincent and Alberti both highlight the privilege this involves – how positive aloneness is possible for the middle-class poet, but not for the impoverished housewife with children to care for, not least in a society which has hacked social provision to the bone.

Even so, this is a compassionate, wide-ranging study, which makes the bold claim that loneliness was invented around 1800. This may help to explain why Robinson Crusoe doesn’t once complain of lacking company. It also chimes with Vincent’s case: in his view, “lonely” becomes a negative emotion only around this time. It is now less a fact (“on one’s own”) than an existential condition, as with Byron’s gloomy heroes. Today, Alberti argues, lonely people are 30% more likely to die early than less lonely ones, the poor are lonelier than the well-off and the young are the loneliest of all. To be lonely is to cease “to exist in a meaningful way with other people”.


Is Albert Bandura a Behaviorist?

While most psychology textbooks place Bandura’s theory with those of the behaviorists, Bandura himself has noted that he ". never really fit the behavioral orthodoxy."

Even in his earliest work, Bandura argued that reducing behavior to a stimulus-response cycle was too simplistic. While his work used behavioral terminology such as 'conditioning' and 'reinforcement,' Bandura explained, ". I conceptualized these phenomena as operating through cognitive processes."

"Authors of psychological texts continue to mischaracterize my approach as rooted in behaviorism," Bandura has explained, describing his own perspective as 'social cognitivism.'


Umbes

The mission of the Barnes is to promote the advancement of education and the appreciation of the fine arts and horticulture.

Our founder, Dr. Albert C. Barnes, believed that art had the power to improve minds and transform lives. Our diverse educational programs are based on his teachings and one-of-a-kind collections.

Philadelphia art collector Albert C. Barnes (1872–1951) chartered the Barnes Foundation in 1922 to teach people from all walks of life how to look at art. Over three decades, he collected some of the world’s most important impressionist, post-impressionist, and modern paintings, including works by Renoir, Cézanne, Matisse, and Picasso. He displayed them alongside African masks, native American jewelry, Greek antiquities, and decorative metalwork.

Dr. Barnes was a strong supporter of progressive education and social justice, and he worked closely with black communities in the belief that people—like art—should not be segregated.

The main gallery upon entering the Barnes collection.

Dr. Albert C. Barnes, c. 1946. Photograph by Angelo Pinto. Photograph Collection, Barnes Foundation Archives

Raised in a working-class household, Albert Barnes excelled in school and earned a medical degree by age 20. Instead of practicing medicine, he turned to pharmacology, where he made a fortune by co-inventing an antiseptic. In 1912, at the age of 40, he began purchasing modern paintings with the help of his childhood friend William Glackens. Following the philosophy of John Dewey—who believed that education was fundamental to democracy—Dr. Barnes held art appreciation lessons at his factories. Each day, for two hours, production stopped as his workers discussed painting and philosophy. Many were women or African Americans to whom, in defiance of the era’s prejudices, Dr. Barnes had extended employment.

Galvanized by the success of the factory teachings, and with a rapidly growing art collection at his disposal, Dr. Barnes decided to undertake a full-blown experiment in education. In 1922, he purchased a 12-acre arboretum in Merion, Pennsylvania, and hired architect Paul Phillippe Cret to design a residence and gallery. This would become the first home of the Barnes Foundation, an educational institution that offered free art appreciation classes. The unique approach to teaching—now known as the Barnes Method—emphasized close looking, critical thinking, and prolonged engagement with original works of art. Dr. Barnes worked closely with his colleague Violette de Mazia to shape the program.

To better serve Dr. Barnes’s educational mission, the Foundation moved to Center City Philadelphia in 2012, where its vastly expanded program reaches 12,000 Philadelphia schoolchildren every year. In its award-winning Parkway home, designed by Tod Williams Billie Tsien Architects | Partners, Dr. Barnes’s final 1951 arrangement of the collection is still on view, enhanced by a wide variety of special exhibitions, public programs, and classes for adult learners. Community and family programs are offered on-site and in neighborhoods throughout the city, honoring Dr. Barnes’s commitment to diversity and inclusivity.


Richard Albert Turner

Click on one of the headings below to go to a specific part in the article.

Rick Turner was a charismatic political philosopher and theorist who was also an activist and educationist. He was highly influential in the re-emergence of the Black labour movement and one of the first in the White-left to appreciate the significance of the Black Consciousness Movement. He influenced many future activists, historians and theorists before he was killed at the age of 36 by an apartheid assassin.

A biography of Rick Turner

Richard “Rick” Albert Turner was born in Cape Town on 25 September 1941, the only child of Jane and Owen “Paddy” Turner, working class English parents who had settled in South Africa. Paddy had earlier been to South Africa when he fought in the Second Anglo-Boer War.

Rick grew up in Stellenbosch on a fruit farm, Welcarmas. After his father died in 1953, when he was 12, he was raised by his mother Jane, and became a boarder St George’s Grammar School, a private school in Cape Town run by the Anglican Church.

In 1959 he registered for a course in Engineering at the University of Cape Town, but he switched to Philosophy in his second year. He joined the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS), and taught adult literacy classes in a Black township with his childhood friend, John Clare. He completed an Honours degree in Philosophy in 1963.

At UCT he was friendly with Alan Brooks and others who joined the African Resistance Movement, a White liberal organisation that initiated acts of sabotage before it was crushed by the apartheid regime. According to Turner’s daughter Jann, writing in 2008: “Brooks was arrested and badly tortured and on his release left for England. In 1974 Dad commented that ‘the ARM episode, in which disillusioned students tried sabotage, shattered their own and others lives and did great damage to the cause they were fighting for, made me acutely aware of the dangers of students turning to violence’.”

In 1964 Turner married his sweetheart Barbara Hubbard just before they left for France, where their daughter Jann was born.

Turner secured a place at the prestigious Sorbonne in Paris, where he completed a doctorate in 1966 after producing a thesis on the political philosophy of Jean Paul Sartre, titled Quelques implications de la Phenomenologie Existentielle (Implications of existential phenomenology). He met with Sartre on one occasion.

Turner was transformed by his stay in Paris. Observing the nascent French student movement convinced him that students could wield genuine power. He returned to South Africa in 1967 and took up a series of teaching posts in Cape Town. He became involved in protests against the government’s decision to refuse permission for anthropologist Archie Mafeje to teach at UCT.

Turner moved to the University of Natal in 1970, when he got a job there teaching political philosophy. Soon after he arrived in Durban, he met Steve Biko, who was then studying medicine at Natal University’s Black Section, and Omar Badsha, an activist and photographer who introduced Turner to Mewa Ramgobin and other activists about the same time as they were reviving the Natal Indian Congress.

Biko had by then broken away from NUSAS to form the South African Student Organisation (SASO), the first organization to initiate the programme of what would become the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM). Turner was receptive to Black Consciousness and acted as a mediator between SASO’s black students and white students from NUSAS, advising white students on the way forward after the exodus of Black students.

Turner was invited by Mewa to join the board of the Phoenix Settlement Trust and with Schlemmer, Badsha, Eli Gandhi organized the first of two work camps at Phoenix settlement which had a profound influence on the students that attended them.

Turner also developed strong relationships with academics at the university, people such as Fatima Meer, Lawrence Schlemmer and Eddie Webster.

The year 1970 also saw the end of his first marriage and the beginning of his second, to Foszia Fisher, who he met through Biko. Their marriage was a daring act of resistance against apartheid’s Mixed Marriages Act, the Immorality Act and the Group Areas Act. Turner converted to Islam so that he could be married by an imam and to appease Fisher’s Muslim parents and was conducted at the home of Fatima and Ismail Meer. the imam being the only cleric prepare to join the couple. The marriage was conducted according to Muslim rites, and was not legally recognised in South Africa.

He bought a house in Bellair, Durban, where he gathered together a community of activists, academics and unionists, including Lawrence Schlemmer, Gerry Maré, and Turner’s student Peter Hudson and others. The house became a centre of left activity.

Turner threw himself into political activity in Durban, conducting workshops and forming, with Badsha and others , the Education Reform Association, a body that sought to popularize alternative education methods, a school of thought influenced by radical educationist Paulo Friere.

According to Badsha, Turner always bought at least three copies of books he was interested in and passed on copies to Biko, Badsha and others.

Turner also established Using a forum called Platform, which met fortnightly at the University of Natal Warwark Avenue campus. Where he and guest speakers gave lectures on Marxism and other topics reflecting the thinking of the New Left, which he had imbibed during his stay in Paris. Turner’s Marxism was decidedly non-Stalinist, Sartrean and aligned to the New Left., which appealed to activists and students.

Turner was loved by his students – especially because of his teaching style, which transformed the teaching situation into a more democratic encounter than that found at traditional schools and universities. This was a movement that the BCM was also propagating, with many activists at the time influenced by the works of Ivan Illich and Paulo Friere.

A passionate lecturer pioneering the teaching of radical political philosophy and an advisor to NUSAS, Turner encouraged activism by whites in the aftermath of the 1969 departure of blacks from NUSAS. Among the students he taught were lawyer Halton Cheadle, Dan O’Meara (Marxist historian, author of Volkskapitalisme), and political philosopher Peter Hudson.

Turner who was an advisor to NUSAS provided support to students such as David Hempson, Halton Cheadle, David Davis who had started the Nusas Wages Commission With the help of trade unionist Harriet Bolton, Cheadle and others, Turner and the Student Wages Commission found a base at the Garment Union head office in Durban to help with the formation of the General Factory Workers Benefit Fundencouraged white students to get involved in the unionisation of black workers, spurring the formation of the NUSAS Wages Commissions in 1971. Turner, Fisher became the A moving force behind the Institute for Industrial Education and the South African Labour Bulletin during and after the Durban strikes of 1973, he worked with Gerry Maré, Alec Erwin, Eddie Webster and John Copelyn, and helped to recruit and train many future labour organisers.

Jann, Kim, Foszia Turner (Richard Turner's second wife) and Barbara Follet (Richard Turner's first wife (née Hubbard)

Turner like Fatima Meer, Schlemmer and other white and black academics and theologians became a member of As a contributor to the publications of the Study Project on Christianity in Apartheid Society (SPROCAS), he compelled his colleagues to consider more radical recommendations than those prescribed by traditional liberalism. In an influential response to the final report of the SPROCAS Political Commission, in 1972 he wrote the utopian The Eye of the Needle: A Guide to Participatory Democracy in South Africa, in which he envisioned a decentralized socialist society.

The "Durban Moment" of intellectual excitement centering on Turner ended when he was banned along with seven national NUSAS leaders in March 1973, when several BCM leaders, including Biko, were also banned.

Turner banning made it illegal for him to teach, publish. The University of Natal showed its support for Turner by keeping him on the academic but he continued informally to advise unions and remained in contact with student leaders and secretly supervised the work of some student activists like bobby Marie., but it became illegal for him to teach, publish or be quoted. A brief respite from his non-person status occurred when he testified as a defencedefense witness during the 1975-76 trial of "the SASO Nine", officially known as The State vs Cooper and eight others.

The University of Natal showed its support of Turner by keeping him on the academic staff, although he could not teach because of his banning order.

In 1976 the government denied him permission to take up a prestigious Humboldt fellowship in Germany.

Shortly after midnight on 8 January, 1978, two months before his ban was due to expire, Turner was shot through a window of his suburban Durban home and died in the arms of his 13-year old daughter, Jann. Following four months after Biko's death in detention, Turner's murder created a public outcry.

Rick Turner’s funeral was attended by about a thousand people – many of them former students, colleagues and activists, as well as banned people who were allowed to attend, among others. Although the funeral was conducted according to Islamic rites, it was an inter-faith affair, with Muslim, Hindu, Catholic and Jewish priests delivering speeches.

He was buried in the Muslim cemetery at Brook Street in Durban.

Turner and the Security police

Even before he was banned, Turner was an object of scrutiny by the apartheid security police unit, the Bureau of State Security (BOSS). His phone was tapped, he was followed and they attempted to kill him on at least one occasion, when he was with Omar Badsha at workcam at Phoenix Settlement when they were nearly run over by security police agents. and the cops tried to run them down with a motor car.

His Bellair home was firebombed in March 1972, and in December his car’s tyres were slashed and his engine damaged.

In his book on Turner, Choosing to be Free, Billy Keniston reproduces a slew of security police reports about Turner, many of them painting a picture of his political activities, trying to present these as “communistic” activities.

Eventually he was killed by an assassin, in all likelihood a security cop.

Predictably, after his death, police investigations turned up no clues, and his killers were not identified.

The original investigating officer, murder and robbery captain Chris Earle, testified at a section 29 hearing of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in post-apartheid South Africa. He said he suspected from the beginning that Turner had been killed by apartheid state agents. Earle said Turner had been killed by “people who were part of the security forces and that they wanted to protect this and not have it known”. He added that BOSS operative Martin Dolinchek “and possibly other members of BOSS were involved. I also had information available that the firearm used to shoot the deceased was of Angolan origin.”

Earle requested that Dolinchek’s firearms be forensically tested but this request did not lead to any conclusion.

The TRC said: “Former Vlakplaas Commander Eugene de Kock reported that one of his informants, former BOSS member Piet Botha, told him that Dolinchek had killed Turner and that Dolinchek’s brother-in-law, Mr Von Scheer, drove the getaway vehicle.”

Dolincheck also testified, but denied he had killed Turner.

Both Earle and his immediate superior, Major Christoffel Groenewald, told the TRC that they believed the investigation had been obstructed when Groenewald and his superior, Brigadier Hansen (now deceased), were called to Pretoria and instructed not to waste time investigating Dolinchek, because there was no proof of his involvement in the killing. Both expressed the view that Dolinchek had been responsible for the killing.

The TRC found that national police commissioner General GL Prinsloo ordered the investigation to be shut down.

Turner, Biko and Black Consciousness

Turner was a close friend of Biko, and one of the first white left leaders to comprehend the significance of the Black Consciousness Movement – to recognize that the move to separate themselves from whites was not a racist tendency, as some considered, but an authentic attempt to spur blacks on to regain the will to fight apartheid and to lead the struggle.

He displayed a genuine understanding of the BC point of view and affirmed its insights with great clarity. Above all, he understood the power dynamics at play between whites and blacks, and the need for blacks to break free of the psychological strangleholds within which they had been locked by a long history of oppression.

But the BC intervention was clouded by confusing threads. Some whites saw the BC position as black racism, while apartheid apologists cheered the BCM stance, thinking it was in line with “separate development”. Confusion also arose from the BC position that whites had to leave blacks to themselves to operate on their own to overthrow apartheid, and that they should instead “conscientise” other white people, to transform white society into an anti-racist community. This left whites perplexed as to their role in the struggle against apartheid.

Turner wrote an article, “Black consciousness and white liberals”, published in Reality in July 1972, which “untangled” some of the confusions surrounding the relationship between white liberals and BC activists. He spelt out the reasons BC activists rejected earlier modes of resistance, in which liberal whites were cultivated by black progressive forces.

“As a group, white opponents of apartheid are not a significant political force, and are certainly not going to be the chief agent in the overthrow of apartheid. It would therefore be wrong for blacks to orient their political activity towards an appeal to whites to help them. There has always been a tendency for black political organisations to make appeals to the moral sensibility of the whites. It is this strategy that is being attacked by proponents of ‘black consciousness’. And of course they are quite right to attack it. Blacks cannot leave their case to be argued by whites in the context of white political institutions.”

He also “tried to show in this article where the attacks by ‘black consciousness’ on ‘white liberalism’ are justified, and where they are too sweeping”. He argued that there had to be a role for both whites and blacks, and that sweeping rejections of any group were unproductive and based on dubious and simplistic assumptions. He argued that apartheid was dehumanizing for both blacks and whites, and that its destruction would be a liberation for both groups – for humanity.

He wrote: “Black consciousness is a rejection of the idea that the ideal for humankind is ‘to be like the whites’. This should lead to the recognition that it is also bad for whites ‘to be like the whites’. That is, in an important sense both whites and blacks are oppressed, though in different ways, by a social system which perpetuates itself by creating white lords and black slaves, and no full human beings.”

Turner’s interventions allowed for a certain amount of cooperation between the white NUSAS students and SASO’s black students, and a certain division of labour when he encouraged the white left to get involved in union building.

Turner and the Labour movement

Turner was involved in several initiatives to resuscitate the labour movement among black workers, which had been suppressed after the banning of the South African Council of Trade Unions (SACTU) in the early 1960s.

After Black students left NUSAS, white activists tried to “conscientise” their own communities but were unsuccessful and instead got involved in organizing black worker unions. Turner was involved with the Wages Commission as an advisor before the “Durban Moment” in 1973, when spontaneous strikes crippled industries in the city.

The Wages Commission was initiated by mainly white students, many of them taught by Turner, at the University of Natal in 1971. It sought to investigate the wages of Black workers and stressed the fact that black workers’ wages were generally well below that of a living wage, sometimes less than half of a living wage.

Turner acted as an advisor, but there was also something of a break with his orientation in the commission, whose main drivers – among them Halton Cheadle, Charles Nupen, Karel Tip and David Hemson, all except Hemson heavily influenced by Turner – were turning to a more traditional Marxist class analysis to help them mobilise black workers. They experienced class analysis and the necessity of connecting with the working class as a way out of the immobility imposed on them by the Black Consciousness Movement. But they remained in a dialogue with Turner.

On the other hand, Dan O’Meara asserts that it was Turner who suggested that white students work with black workers as a way out of their immobility. “Rick’s analysis started to give the white left a sense that there was something that we could do, something that we could do that SASO couldn’t,” he says in Keniston’s biography, Choosing to be Free.

Soon after he was banned in March 1973, Turner started the South African Labour Bulletin (SALB), together with Badsha, Bolton, Cheadle, Fisher, Webster and Dave Hemson. Turner had written up virtually all the articles for the first issue, but he appointed John Copelyn to act as editor as well as author, since he was not allowed to publish his works. The Bulletin survives to this day as a major source of analysis and information about the labour movement in South Africa.

In the wake of the Durban strikes in 1973, the GFWBF became transformed to accommodate the need of the growing move to form Industrial Unions. white radicals formed and the Trade Union Advisory and Coordinating Council (TUACC) was formed to coordinate the various unions that were in the process of emerging. Turner was not directly involved in TUACC but acted as an advisor, playing a key background role with to the organisers, who included David Hemson, Paula Ensor, Halton Cheadle, Omar Badsha, Jonny Copelan Alec Erwin and Gerry Maré.

Alonside the formation of the trade unions Turner and Fisher with Schlemmer and the TUACC leadership also formed the Institute for Industrial Education (IIE) soon after he was banned. The IIE, essentially a correspondence school, straddled the worlds of education as well as labour, with many of its members also members of TUACC. This initiative would prove to be a point of conflict (see next section).

Turner and democratic pedagogy

Throughout his career as an academic, Turner was interested in transforming education into a more democratic process. His lectures resembled discussions more than prepared texts delivered from a podium in a lecture hall.

This interest in drawing the best out of students and in tailoring the education process to the specific experience and needs of oppressed people was very much in the air, and was also taken up by the BCM.

Much of this project was based on the works of Ivan Illich, Paulo Friere and liberation theology. Friere, a Brazilian theorist of education and author of Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1970), developed a “critical pedagogy” to teach colonised people in a manner that would uplift them. The main tenet of this school was that teaching and learning were political acts, and that education was a process of remaking oneself. He declared in his book: “No pedagogy which is truly liberating can remain distant from the oppressed by treating them as unfortunates and by presenting for their emulation models from among the oppressors.”

Illich, an Austro Croatian Catholic who worked in Latin America, was critical of the manner in which institutions approached social problems, especially the school system, although he extended his analysis to medicine, labour and economic development, among others. He lamented that the education system was obsessed with certificates and failed to develop critical thinking. His book Deschooling Society (1971) was immensely influential in South Africa and throughout the world.

Turner used these theorists to inform his approach to education, and in 1973, together with Fisher, Cheadle, Badsha, Schlemmer and Eddie Webster, Bolton he formed the Institute for Industrial Education (IIE). The educational programme, aimed at workers, sought to stimulate the study of capitalism, the role of workers and the working class organization. Turner developed much of the curriculum for the courses, while Fisher served as director.

According to Schlemmer: “What Rick was saying, through the IIE, was, ‘Listen, these workers are oppressed people. We’ve got to take their consciousness seriously and see where they’re at. We need to give them the intellectual tools and the awareness to occupy whatever power bases they’re going to create, meaningfully’… He asked us not to decide for them, but to let themsee for themselves what they must do to change their situation.”

The project produced a study, The Durban strikes, subtitled “Human Beings with Souls”, in 1973, which was published in 1974.

As mentioned in the previous section, the IIE worked closely with TUACC, with many members belonging to both organisations. Despite promising beginnings, the IIE lasted about two years before it was shut down by TUACC after hostile camps developed regarding the direction of the institute. Conflicts revolved around allegations that each camp was imposing itself on workers rather than taking direction from them, a.nd Turner and Schlemmer insistence that the IIE should also serve the needs of other groupings. Things came to a head when they wanted to serve the needs of the newly established Inkatha established by Gatcha Buthelezi the Zulu Homeland leader.

TUACC’s John Copelyn was particularly impatient with Turner’s emphasis on education, as he was convinced that organizing workers was a greater priority. He accused Turner of using the IIE to influence the ideas of workers and of being “anti-organisation”. Turner’s decision to admit anyone, not only workers, was also criticized for attracting the “wrong kind” of workers.

TUACC wanted to bring the IIE into the council as a subcommittee, but the project fell apart in 1975.