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Rosetta kivi detail, demootiline tekst

Rosetta kivi detail, demootiline tekst


ROSETTA KIVI TÕLGE

alates Niilus, märkmed Egiptuse reisijatele, E. A. Wallis Budge, 9. väljaanne, London, Thos. Cook ja poeg, [1905], lk 199-211.

MÄRKUS. Paksus kirjas selle teksti põhiosa ümbritses algtekstis kujutis-JBH.

MEMPHISE PRESTIKIDE KINNITUSE HIEROGLÜÜFILISE TEKSTI TÕLG, ROSETTA STONE 1 -l ja DAMANH & UcircRi teral. OTSUS kuulutati välja 9. POLEETIA VALITSEMISE AASTAL V. EPIPHANES.

1. Kuu kahekümne neljandal päeval GORPIAIOS 2, mis vastab TA-MERTi (EGIPTUS) elanike PERT 3 hooaja neljanda kuu kahekümne neljandale päevale, kahekümne kolmandal aastal. HORUS-RA LAPSE valitsemisaeg, kes tõusis kuningaks oma isa troonile, NEKHEBET 4 ja UATCHETi pühapaikade isand, kohta

2. Egiptus, kelle süda on täiuslik (või heatahtlik) jumalate suhtes, Kulla HORUS, kes muudab täiuslikuks hamentet olendid, kolmekümneaastaste festivalide isand, nagu PTA Ḥ, suveräänne prints nagu R Ā, Lõuna- ja Põhja kuningas, Neterui-merui-a ̇tui-a ̇u ā-setep-en-Pta ḥ-usr-ka-R ā-ānkh-sekhem-A ̇men 6, päikese poeg Ptolemaios, igavesti elav,

armastatud Pta ḥjumal, kes ennast ilmutab.

3. poeg PTOLEEMIA ja ARSINO & Euml, Isa armastavad jumalad, kui PYRRIDESE poeg PTOLEMY oli ALEXANDERi, Päästjajumalate, venda armastavate jumalate ja heatahtlike jumalate preester,

4. ja Isa armastavatest jumalatest ning Jumalast, kes teeb ennast ilmsiks, kui DEMETRIA, Telemachose tütar, oli

5. auhinna võitja BERENICE, heatahtlik jumalanna ja kui CADMUSe tütar ARSINO & Euml oli venda armastava jumalanna ARSINO & Eumli korvikandja

6. kui IROLE, PTOLEMY tütar, oli ARSINO & Eumli preestrinna, Isa armastav jumalanna, sel päeval templite ülemjuhataja ja jumalateenija ning need, kes on jumala salajaste asjade üle ja liberaatorid [kes] lähevad kõige pühamasse kohta, et panna jumalad sel ajal riietesse,

7. pühade kirjutiste kirjatundjad ja kahekordse elumaja targad ja teised vabastajad [kes] olid tulnud lõuna- ja põhjapoolsetest pühapaikadest MEMPHISesse, pidupäeval.

S. Tema Majesteet, Lõuna ja Põhja kuningas PTOLEMY, igavesti elav, Pta ḥ armastatudjumal, kes ennast avaldab, ilude isand, sai isalt suveräänsuse,

sisenesid SE ḤETCH-CHAMBER-i, kus neid oli kombeks kokku panna, MAKHA-TAUI 1-s ja vaata, nad kuulutasid nii: —

9. “Kuningana, kes on jumalate poolt armastatud, on Lõuna- ja Põhjakuningas Neterui-merui-a ̇tui-a ̇ua-en-Pta ḥ-setep-en-usr-ka R ā ānkh-sekhem-A ̇men, päikese poeg Ptolemaios, igavesti elav, Pta ḥ armastatudJumalad, kes on ennast ilmutanud, ilude isand, on andnud Horuse maadele ja kõigile väga palju igasuguseid asju

10. “ need, kes neis elavad, ja igaühele, kes kannab endas mingit väärikust, vaata, nüüd on ta Jumala sarnane, olles Jumala poeg [ja] talle on antud jumalanna, sest ta on Horise vaste, Isise poeg [ja] Osirise poeg, tema isa Osirise kättemaksja ja vaata, Tema Majesteet.

11. “ omas jumalikku südant, kes oli jumalate suhtes heatahtlik ja ta oli kinkinud suurtes kogustes kulda ja suurtes kogustes vilja templitele ning andnud väga palju uhkeid kingitusi, et muuta Ta-Mert [Egiptus] jõukaks. ja saavutada stabiilne edasiminek

12. “ja ta on andnud sõduritele, kes on oma augustikuises teenistuses. . . . . . nende auastme järgi

[lõik jätkub] [ja maksudest] osa neist on ta katkestanud ja osa [ta on kergendanud], põhjustades sellega sõdurite ja maal elavate jõukust.

13. “ tema valitsemisajal [ja nende summade osas, mis kuulusid kuninglikule majale] Egiptuse elanikelt ja samamoodi [need, mis tuli maksta] igaühelt, kes oli oma augustikuu teenistuses, saatis Tema Majesteet need täielikult tagasi , kui toredad nad ka olid

14. “ja ta on andestanud vanglas viibivatele vangidele ja andnud korralduse vabastada igaüks nende hulgast [karistusest], mille ta pidi kandma. Ja Tema Majesteet andis korralduse, milles öeldi: — seoses asjadega, mis jumalatele antakse, ning raha ja

15. “ teravilja, mis antakse templitele igal aastal, ja kõiki asju, mis [antakse] jumalatele viinamarjaistandustest ja Nome viljapõldudelt, kõik asjad, mis siis olid oma püha isa Majesteedi all

16. “kas tal lubada jääda [summas] nende juurde, nagu nad tollal olid, ja ta on käskinud: — Vaata, riigikassa (?) Ei tohi preestrite käest rohkem panustada kui see oli kuni Tema Majesteedi valitsemisaja esimese aastani, tema püha isa ja Tema Majesteet on taganenud

17. “Preestritele, kes teenivad pühakodades kursustel teekonda, mida nad olid harjunud iga aasta alguses paatidega paadiga ALEKSANDRIA linna tegema ja Tema Majesteet käskis: — Vaata, need, kes paadimehi [ameti järgi] ei tohi kinni võtta [ja

valmistatud teenima mereväes] ja kuningakoja templites valmistatud byssuse riide suhtes,

18. “ ta on käskinud kaks kolmandikku neist [preestritele] tagasi saata, Tema Majesteet on [uuesti] kehtestanud kõik asjad, mille täitmine oli kõrvale jäetud, ja taastas need endine seisund ja ta on võtnud kõige suurema hoole, et kõik, mida tuleks jumalate teenistuses teha, toimuks mõistlikul viisil, nagu seda tehti

19. rahvale, isegi nagu Thot, suur, suur [Jumal], ja ta on rohkem käskinud nende vägede suhtes, kes tagasi tulevad, ja ka teiste inimeste suhtes, kes

20. “toimunud revolutsiooni tülid olid olnud [valitsuse suhtes] halvasti meelestatud, et kui nad naasevad oma kodudesse ja maadele, on neil õigus jääda oma vara valdusse ning ta on võtnud hoolega vastu jalavägi ja ratsavägi ning laevad vastulööjate tõrjumiseks

21. “ Egiptus nii maismaal kui ka merel ning seetõttu on ta kulutanud neile väga palju raha ja vilja, et Horose ja Egiptuse maad jõukaks muuta.

22. “Ja Tema Majesteet marssis vastu Shekami linn, mis asub (?) linna UISET ees, mis oli vaenlase valduses ja varustatud katapultidega ning valmistati sõjaks igasuguste relvadega

23. “ mässulised, kes olid selles, —nad tegid Horuse maal suuri pühaduseteotusi ja tegid vigastusi neile, kes elasid Egiptuses.

24. “ ning ta tõstis nende vastu küngasid (või müüre) ja kaevas kaevikud ning mis iganes [tema] nende vastu viis, mis ta tegi ja ta pani kinni kanalid, mis varustasid linna veega, mida keegi enne teda kuningatest polnud kunagi varem suutnud, ja ta kulutas tööde tegemiseks palju raha

25. “ja Tema Majesteet paigutasid jalaväe kanalite suudmesse et neid jälgida ja kaitsta nende erakordse veetõusu eest [Niilusest], mis toimus kaheksandal aastal [tema valitsemisajast], eespool nimetatud kanalites, mis kastsid põlde ja olid ebatavaliselt sügavad

26. “ selles kohas ja Tema Majesteet vallutasid linna rünnakuga väga lühikese ajaga ja lõikasid tükkideks seal viibinud mässulised ning tappis nende seas erakordselt suure tapmise, isegi nagu THOTH 1 ja Horis, Isise poeg ja [Osirise poeg], tõusis nende vastu mässuliste hulka

27. “ kui nad mässasid just selles kohas ja vaata, need, kes olid sõdureid juhtinud ja nende eesotsas ning kes olid rikkunud piire [oma isa ajal ja kes olid pühakodades pühaduseteotust teinud, kui Tema Majesteet tuli MEMPHISesse isa kätte maksma

28. “ja oma suveräänsust karistas ta nende kõrbete järgi, kui ta tuli sinna tähistama] isalt suveräänsuse saamise püha ja [peale selle] on ta [oma nõude

29. “ asjad, mis olid Tema Majesteedi päralt ja mis olid [toona] templites kuni [tema valitsemisaja kaheksanda aastani, mis ei olnud väike summa] raha ja vilja, ning ka Tema Majesteet on seadnud kõrvale [tema väide] byssuse lappidele, mis oleks tulnud anda kuningakojale ja [siis] templites,

30. “ja ka maks, mida nad (st. preestrid) oleks pidanud panustama lappide tükkideks jagamisse, mis pidi toimuma tänaseni, ning ta on templitele üle andnud ka teravilja, mida tavaliselt jumalate viljapõldudelt maksustati, ja samamoodi veinimõõt, mis oli vihje [jumalate] viinamarjaistanduste maksuna

31. “ja ta on teinud suuri asju APISe, MNEVISe ja iga pühamu jaoks, mis sisaldas püha looma, ja kulutas nende peale rohkem kui tema esivanemad ja tema süda on [kaalunud kõike], mis oli neile õige ja õige

32. nende põletusohvritest, ohvritest ja ohvritest

33. “ [ja ta on austanud templite ja Egiptuse privileege ning säilitanud need sobivas kohas

kombe kohaselt ja õigesti ning ta on kulutanud] nii raha kui ka vilja mitte vähe

34. “ja [on andnud] kõik, mis on suures koguses maja jaoks, kus elab ELAV APIS ja Tema Majesteet on selle kaunistanud täiuslike ja uute kaunistustega, mis on alati olnud kõige ilusama tegelasega ja ta on pannud ELAD APISED tõusma [nagu päike] ja rajas [tema auks] templeid, pühamuid ja kabelid [ja parandas pühamuid, mis vajasid remonti ja kõikides jumalate teenistamisega seotud küsimustes.

35. “ ta on ilmutanud heatahtliku jumala vaimu ja oma valitsemisajal, olles põhjalikult uurinud, taastas ta templid, mida peeti suurimas au sees, nagu oli õige] ning nende eest vastutasuks jumalad ja jumalannad on andnud talle võidu, väe ja elu, jõu ja tervise ning kõik ilusad asjad igat liiki ja

36. “ tema ülendatud auastme osas tehakse see temale ja tema lastele igavesti ja igavesti, õnnelike tulemuste (või elu) abil. ”

Ja see on jõudnud lõuna- ja põhjapoolsete templite ning iga templi preestrite südamesse (südametesse).

37. makstakse] lõuna- ja põhjakuningale Ptolemaios, igavesti elav, Pta ḥ armastatud, [Jumal, kes teeb ennast ilmsiks, kelle teod on ilusad ja need, mis makstakse Isa armastavatele jumalatele, kes teda sünnitasid, ja heatahtlikele jumalatele, kes sünnitasid neid, kes temast sündisid, ja vendadele-jumalatele, kes sündisid tema poegade sündijad,]

38. ja Päästja-jumalatele, [suureneb] ja lõuna- ja põhjakuninga kuju, Ptolemaios, alati elav, armastatud Pta ḥJumal, kes teeb ennast ilmsiks, ilude Issand, seatakse üles [igasse templisse, kõige silmapaistvamasse kohta] ja see saab olema

39, nimega tema nimi "PTOLEEMIA, EGIPTIA PÄÄSTJA, "mille tõlgendus (?) on"PTOLEEMIA, VÕITNE. "[Ja see seisab kõrvuti jumalate Issanda kujuga (?), Kes annab talle võidurelva, ja see kujundatakse egiptlaste kombe järgi ja kuju seda tüüpi luuakse]

40. kõik templid, mida tema nimega nimetatakse. Ja ta kummardab neid kujusid iga päev kolm korda ja kõik riitused ja tseremooniad, mis enne neid on sobilik läbi viia, viiakse läbi, ja kõik, mis on ette nähtud ja sobib nende KAKSIKUD, täidetakse, nii nagu see on esinesid pühakodade ajal ja igal pühapäeval (?), [tema] kroonimise päeval ja oma nimepäeval pühakodade ajal jumalate jaoks. Ja samuti [pannakse paika] a

41. suurejooneline (?) Lõuna- ja Põhjakuninga kuju Ptolemaios, Pta ḥ alati armastatud, Jumal, kes teeb ennast ilmsiks, kelle teod on ilusad, tema poeg Ptolemaiosja Arsino ja euml, Isa armastavad jumalad, ja koos kujuga saab olema uhke pühamu, mis on valmistatud peenest vasest ja mis on kaetud igasuguste tõeliste kividega,

42. igas templis, mida nimetatakse tema nimel ja see kuju, jääb kõige pühamasse paika [templites] kõrvuti Nomose jumalate pühapaikadega. Ja suurte pidupäevade päevil, kui [templi] jumal tuleb välja oma pühast elukohast, vastavalt oma päevale tehakse ka Jumala pühamu, kes teeb ennast ilmsiks, iluduste isand tõus [nagu päike]

43. nendega. Ja selleks, et see uus pühamu oleks hõlpsasti eristatav [nii praegusel kui ka tulevastel aegadel, asetavad nad] selle pühamu [kümme kuninglikku kahekordset krooni, mis on valmistatud kullast, ja [iga kahekordse krooni peal] asetada [madu, mis on õige ja õige teha [kahekordsest kuldkroonist] kahe Uraei asemel

44. mis on [paigutatud] pühapaikade tippudele ja SEKHENT CROWN asub nende keskel, sest see oli SEKHENT CROWNis, milles Tema Majesteet säras PTA Ḥ KA majas.st., Memphis)

45. ajal, mil kuningas astus templisse ja viis läbi tseremooniaid, mis tal oli õige ja õige täita [kuninga] ülendatud auastme saamisel. Ja nende kroonide ümber oleva ruudukujulise pjedestaali ülemisel pinnal ja selle keskosas [mis on kohe] all] kahekordne kroon [nad graveerivad papüürusetaime ja lõunapoolse taime ning asetavad need nii, et raisakotkas, peale neb, , mille alt leitakse lõunapoolne taim, kinnitatakse kuldse pühamu paremasse ülanurka ja madu, , all

mis on , peale pandud] papüürusetaim, [kinnitatakse] vasakule poole [ülemises nurgas] ja

46. ​​[nende märkide tõlgendus on]: — "NEKHEBETi pühamu isand ja UATCHETi pühamu isand, kes valgustab Valge Krooni maad ja Punase Krooni maad." Ja niipalju kui hooaja neljanda kuu viimane päev SHEMU 1 (st., MESORE), mis on kauni, igavesti elava jumala sünnipäev, on juba kehtestatud pidupäevana ja seda on HORUSE maadel peetud pidupäevana (st., tempel maandub) vanast ajast ja pealegi hooaja SHAT 2 (st PAOPI) teise kuu seitsmeteistkümnendal päeval,

47. mille puhul [Tema Majesteet] viis läbi kuningliku ühinemise tseremooniaid, kui ta sai oma isalt suveräänsuse [seda peetakse ka pidupäevana], ja vaata, [nendel päevadel] on olnud kõigi [heade] asjade allikas kus kõik mehed on osalenud nendel päevadel, see tähendab iga kuu seitsmeteistkümnendal ja viimasel päeval, peetakse pühakuna templites

48. Egiptuses tuleb igal neist ja nendel päevadel ohverdada põletusohvreid ning lihaohvreid ja kõike, mida on õige ja kombeks pühade tähistamisel teha, nendel päevadel iga kuu ja neil pidudel peab iga mees tegema (st., pakkuma) seda, mida ta on harjunud tegema [muul] peol

49. tivals templites. [Ja preestrid tegid ka otsuse] et asjad, mis [tuuakse templitesse] nagu

ohvreid antakse isikutele, kes [teenija templites ja pühad ja rongkäigud asutatakse templites ja kogu Egiptuses] Lõuna ja Põhja kuningas, Ptolemaios, alati elav, armastatud Pta ḥ, jumal, kes end igal aastal avaldab, kelle teod on ilusad,

50. alates hooaja esimese kuu esimesest päevast Shat (st., Thoth) kuni selle viienda päevani [ja nendel päevadel peavad inimesed kandma] vanikuid oma peas ja pidulikud altarid ning pidama liha- ja joogiohvreid ning tegema kõike, mis õige on ja sobilik täita. Ja kõigi templite preestrid, mis on nimetatud tema nime järgi

51. on lisaks kõigile teistele preestritiitlitele, mis neil võivad olla, tiitel "Jumala teenija, kes teeb ennast ilmsiks, kelle teod on ilusad" [ja see tiitel kinnitatakse kõikidele templitele pandud aktidele ja dokumentidele] ja nad peavad graveerima sõrmustesse, mida nad kannavad oma kätes, pealkirja "Jumala vabastaja, kes teeb ennast ilmsiks, kelle teod on ilusad".

52. Ja vaata, ta peab maal elavate inimeste ja nende soovijate kätes rajama koopia jumala pühapaigast, kes teeb ennast ilmsiks, kelle teod on ilusad, ja määrab selle oma majades ja neil on igal kuul vabadus pidada pidusid ja rõõmustada [enne seda]

53. ja igal aastal ning selleks, et Egiptuses viibijad saaksid teada [miks on egiptlastel au ja#8212 nagu on kõige õigem ja õigem teha

jumal, kes teeb end ilusaks, kelle teod on ilusad, on preestrid määranud] et see OTSUS peab [sisse kirjutatud] kõva kivi steelil jumalate sõnade ja raamatute kirjutamisel ning HAUI-NEBUI (st kreeklaste) kirjutamisel ja see tuleb püstitada pühakodade juurde pühakodades mida [nimetatakse] tema nime järgi esimesest, teisest ja kolmandast [klassist] Lõuna ja Põhja kuninga HORUSE kuju lähedal Ptolemaios, alati elav, armastatud Pta ḥjumal, kes teeb ennast ilmsiks, kelle teod on ilusad.

Joonealused märkused

199: 1 Sulgudes olevad sõnad on lisatud kas Damanh & ucircri kogust või mõtestamise eesmärgil.

199: 2 Osa märtsist ja aprillist.

199: 4 Pistrikjumalanna Nekhebeti pühamu oli Ülem -Egiptuses.

199: 5 Täielikumalt oli Per-Uatchet madujumalanna pühamu Deltas.

199: 6 Nimi, mis tähendab "Kaks Isa armastavat Jumalat, pärija, Pta ḥ valitud, R ā kahekordse tugevuse, A ̇mehe elava jõu".


Rosetta St one demootilise teksti dekodeerimine

Teemaotsing Teema valikud

Kolonel

Kolonel

"Wallis Budge'i Rosetta kivi" on teie vastus.

Jah, aga ma ei saa seda praegu lugeda. Ka sina ei saa! Me ei tea, et see sisaldab Rosetta kivist pärit demootilise teksti tõlget! Nii et jätame selle edasiseks teavitamiseks kõrvale.

Või kui teil on see, oleksin nõus vaatama?

Ertshertsog

Nüüd, Petro. Kuna kasutasite valikuliselt ajaloolaste ametlikku punkti jne, kasutan ma keeleteadlaste ametlikku punkti :)

2 aastat tagasi mõtles lingvistide kogukond välja iidse Makedoonia keele kui indoeuroopa kreeka haru. See sai ISO -koodi XMK. Mis teil selle kohta öelda on?

Så nu tar jag fram (k) niven va!

Ertshertsog

"Wallis Budge'i Rosetta kivi" on teie vastus.

Jah, aga ma ei saa seda praegu lugeda. Ka sina ei saa! Me ei tea, et see sisaldab Rosetta kivist pärit demootilise teksti tõlget! Nii et jätame selle edasiseks teavitamiseks kõrvale.

Või kui teil see on, oleksin valmis vaatama?

Olen kindel, et Akritas toob teieni raamatust ülevaate. Nii et püsige lainel.

Så nu tar jag fram (k) niven va!

Ertshertsog

Koine muutus "tavaliseks" nagu "kõigile kuulumisel"! Mitte "lihtne", mitte "eliit"!

Üks asi veel. Makedoonlased käisid teatris, nagu ma teile varem ütlesin, ja Bacche oli kirjutatud kreeka keeles. Euroopa vanim papüürus pärineb Makedooniast, mida tuntakse Derveni papüüruse nime all. Autor üritab kirjutada pööningul, kuid kasutab palju doriaani sõnu. Kas see helistab kella?

Samuti vajan tõlkijat, et mõista Arkadotsüprioti teatud piirkondadest Küprosel. Kui nad aga kirjutaksid, mida nad mulle ütlevad, saan sellest 100% aru. Sama kehtib Usbekistanist pärit ponlaste kohta. Ma ei saa hästi aru, mida nad räägivad. Kas see muudab Arcadocypriot ja Pontian mitte -kreeka keeleks?

Mis puutub "oma keelde", siis viitate "makedonistidele". Nii et sa mõtled sellega, et näiteks "Attikisti" (pööning) pole kreeka keel?

Så nu tar jag fram (k) niven va!

Ertshertsog

Ja see on pärit Bretaži muuseumist Petro.


Så nu tar jag fram (k) niven va!

Ertshertsog

Mul on mõned leheküljed varem mainitud raamatust. Ülejäänud osas pole mul siiski juurdepääsu.

Kas see tõlge sobib igal juhul ülejäänud kahe skriptiga kivi või Tentovsi versioonis? Samuti, miks teie riik ei taha toetada tema uurimistööd ja kontrollida tõlget vastavalt teie riiklikule televisioonile?

Toimetanud Flipper-24. nov-2007 kell 22:45

Så nu tar jag fram (k) niven va!

Kolonel

[QUOTE = Flipper]
Mul on mõned leheküljed varem mainitud raamatust. Ülejäänutele pole mul siiski juurdepääsu. Igal juhul sobib see tõlge ülejäänud kahe skriptiga kivi või Tentovsi versioonis? Samuti, miks teie riik ei taha toetada tema uurimistööd ja kontrollida tõlget vastavalt teie riiklikule televisioonile?

Rosetta kivi tekst

Noore valitsemisajal, kes on saanud oma isa kuningriigis, diameemide isand, kõige kuulsusrikkam, kes on rajanud Egiptuse ja on jumalakartlik, võidab oma vaenlaste üle, kes on taastanud inimeste tsiviliseeritud elu, isand kolmekümneaastased festivalid, isegi kui Ptah Suur, kuningas nagu Ra, ülem- ja alamriikide suur kuningas, jumalate Philopatorese järeltulijad, kelle Ptah on heaks kiitnud, kellele Ra on andnud võidu, Amuni elava kuju, Ra poeg, PTOLEMIA, kes elas igavesti, armus PTAH -ist, üheksandal aastal, kui Aetos, Aetose poeg, oli Aleksandri preester ja jumalad Soteres, jumalad Adelphoi ja jumalad Euergetai ning jumalad Philopatores ja Jumal Epiphanes Eucharistos Pyrrha, Philinose tütar, Berenike Euergetise Athlophoros, Areia, Diogenese tütar, Arsinoe Philadelphose Kanephoros, Irene, Ptolemaiose tütar, Arsinoe filosoofi preestrinna Xandikose kuu neljandal päeval. 8. Mekhir.

Ka see ei vasta täielikult! Kust sa selle raamatu said, imestan? Millisest allikast saame pilgu heita ja kogu tööd näha?

Ja kas see on demootika translatsioon suure algustähega "D" või demootiline tähendus Koine?

Toimetanud Petro Invictus-24. nov-2007 kell 22:54

Kolonel

Ometi ütleb see kolm skripti ja kirjaoskajate egiptlaste igapäevane skript (või võiks see olla "Egiptuse valitsejad"). Makedoonia valitsejad kuulutati tol ajal vaaraodeks ja Egiptuse valitsejateks. Nii et võib -olla, lihtsalt võib -olla alahindas Briti muuseum tolleaegset "Egiptuse valitsejate" keelt. Kas võib juhtuda, et "Egiptuse valitsejad", kes ei rääkinud egiptuse keelt enne Kleopatrat, rääkisid teist keelt, kasutades Egiptuse kirja (mis tähendab deemotlikku kirja). Valitsejate keel oli makedoonia.

Kolonel

Makedoonia keel demootilise skriptiga Ptolomy emakeelena.

See on reaalsus Rosetta kivi keskmise teksti taga.

Seda ta deklareeris oma isiklikus kirjavahetuses kirjatundjatega ja andis seejärel tõlkida koine keelde kreeka kirjaga ning egiptuse või kopti keelde püha kirjaga (hieroglüüf).

Toimetanud Petro Invictus-24. nov-2007 kell 23:05

Pealik


Hegemom

Toimetas akritas-24. nov-2007 kell 23:36

Kaliif

"Asjaolu, et demootilist stsenaariumi ei ole täielikult tõlgitud ja keegi ei suuda seda foneetiliselt, sõna-sõnalt lugeda, tõestab, et seda ei kasutatud kopti, vaid tõenäoliselt mõne teise keelega. Nüüd küsimus on selles, mis oli valitsejate keel?

Olen kulutanud sellele mõnda aega surfates, kõik, mida olen leidnud, on teie väitega vastuolus. Demotic on täielikult tõlgitud.
Tegelikult tahaksin näha teie allikaid selle kohta. Te mängite kiiresti ja lõdvalt teemadega, mis on hästi uuritud ja dokumenteeritud, näeme mõnda neist. "

Te ütlete, et Demotic on täielikult tõlgitud. Mitte Chicago ülikooli demootilise sõnaraamatu järgi. Demetta Rosetta kivist on loetletud "probleemsete kirjete" all.

Ma ei saa aru! See on vastupidine sellele, mida väidate punase savi kohta. Vaata:

1. Me ei leia Rosetta kivist demootilise teksti täistõlget.

2. Keegi ei saa seda foneetiliselt lugeda!

3. On märke, et see oli isikliku kirjavahetuse skript.

4. Me teame, et see oli algne tekst Rosetta kivil, nii et tundub, et Ptolemaios kasutas dekreedi väljakuulutamiseks seda käsikirja, mis hiljem tõlgitakse hieroglüüf- ja kreekakeelsesse teksti.

5. Oleme näinud, et demootilist skripti kasutasid paljud keeled. Miks mitte ka Makedoonia keel, Egiptuse tolleaegsete valitsejate keel?

Mis siin peidus on?

[9. aasta, Xandikose päev 4], mis võrdub Egiptuse kuu, Pereti teise kuu, 18. päevaga kuninga „Noored, kes on ilmunud kuningana oma isa”, Uraei isanda asemel Kelle vägi on suur, kes on rajanud Egiptuse ja pannud selle õitsema, kelle süda on kasulik jumalate ees ”(see), kes on oma vaenlase üle” Kes on lasknud rahva elul õitseda, aastate Issand ” juubelist nagu Ptah-Tenen, kuningas nagu Pre ', [ülempiirkondade kuningas] ja alampiirkonnad' Isa armastavate jumalate poeg, kelle Ptah on valinud, kellele Pre on andnud võidu, elava pildi Amun, pre-Ptolemaiose poeg, kes elab igavesti, armastatud Ptahist, ilmsest Jumalast, kelle suurepärasus on hea. [vennad ja õed jumalad ja] heategijad [jumalad] ja isa armastavad jumalad ja kuningas Ptolemaios, ilmselge jumal, kelle tipptase on hea, Aetos n Aetosest, samal ajal kui Philinose tütar Pyrrha oli auhinnakandja Berenice'i ees, aga Areia tütar oli Diogenese tütar [korvi] kandja [enne Arsi] noe venda armastav ja Eirene Ptolemaiose tütar oli Arsinoe isa preester. -armastus: sellel päeval anti mr-sn-preestrite ja hm-ntr-preestrite ning preestrite, kes sisenevad pühamusse, et täita jumalatele riietusrituaale, ja jumaliku raamatu kirjatundjate ja koja kirjutajate dekreet. Elust ja teistest preestritest, kes on tulnud Egiptuse templitest [Memphisesse] kuningas Ptolemaios, kes elab igavesti, valitsemisaja vastuvõtmise festival, kes elab igavesti, armastatud Ptahist, ilmsest Jumalast, kelle suurepärasus on hea, oma isalt , kes on kogunenud Memphise templisse ja kes on öelnud:

Arvestades, et kuningas Ptolemaios, kes elab igavesti, ilmselge jumal, kelle täiuslikkus on hea, kuningas Ptolemaios [ja kuninganna] Arsinoe poeg, isa armastavad jumalad, ei kavatse teha palju teenistusi Egiptuse templitele ja kõigile neile, kes on allutatud tema kuningriik, ta on jumal, jumala ja jumalanna poeg ning Horis, Isise ja Osirise poeg, kes kaitseb oma isa Osirist, ja tema süda on jumalate suhtes heatahtlik, kuna ta on andnud palju raha ja palju teravilja Egiptuse templitele, [ta on võtnud suuri kulutusi], et luua rahu Egiptuses ja rajada templeid, ning premeerinud kõiki vägesid, kes on tema valitsemise all, ning tulusid ja makse, mis kehtisid aastal Egiptus oli ta neid mõnevõrra vähendanud või (?) Neist täielikult loobunud, et sõjavägi ja kõik teised inimesed saaksid jõukaks oma ajal [võlgnev kuningana], mis olid kuningale kuulunud rahva seast. Egiptus ja kõik need, kes alluvad tema kuninglikkusele, ja (whi ch) oli suur kogusumma, loobus ta inimestest, kes olid vangis, ja inimestest, kelle vastu oli juba pikka aega süüdistust esitatud, vabastas ta ja andis korralduse seoses jumalate annetustega ning raha ja viljaga, mis antakse hüvitisi oma [templitele] igal aastal ja osad, mis kuuluvad jumalatele viinamarjaistandustest, viljapuuaedadest ja kogu muust varast, mis neil oli isa all, et need jääksid ka nende valdusesse, käskis ta preestrid, et nad ei peaks preestriks saamise eest maksma rohkem, kui nad maksid kuni 1. aastani, kui ta isa juhtis, vabastas ta templite ametis olevad inimesed reisilt, mida nad Aleksandri residentsi tegid. igal aastal andis ta korralduse, et ükski sõudja ei peaks teenistusse muljet avaldama, loobus ta kahe kolmandiku osast peenest linasest, mida varem tehti riigikassa templites, ja viis [õigesse] olekusse kõik, mis selle hülgas. s (korralik) seisukord pikka aega ja hoolitsedes selle eest, et oleksite õigesti teinud seda, mida tavaliselt jumalate heaks tehakse, põhjustades ühtlasi rahva õiglust vastavalt sellele, mida Thoth Kahekordne suur tegi, käskis ta neid, kes võitlevatelt meestelt naasevad, ja ülejäänud inimesi, kes olid eksinud (valg. olnud muul viisil) Egiptuses tekkinud rahutuses, et [nad] tuleks [koju tagasi] saata ja nende vara neile tagasi anda ning ta hoolitses selle eest, et (jala) sõdurid, ratsanikud ja laevad saadetaks nende vastu, kes tulid kaldalt ja merelt Egiptust ründama, kulutas ta nende (vaenlaste) vastu suure summa raha ja vilja, et tagada templite ja Egiptuses viibivate inimeste turvalisus. läks Sk3n linnusesse, [mida] mässulised olid igasuguste töödega kindlustanud, seal oli palju varustust ja igasugust varustust ning ta ümbritses selle kindluse müüri ja tammiga (?) ümber (valgustatud väljas) ) selle mässuliste tõttu, kes olid seal sees, kes olid juba Egiptusele palju kurja teinud ja loobusid kuninga käskudest ja [jumala] käskudest, põhjustas ta kanalid, mis varustasid linnust veega tammuda, kuigi eelmised kuningad poleks saanud sama teha ja much money was expended on them he assigned a force of footsoldiers and horsemen to the mouths of those canals, in order to watch over them and to protect them, because of the [rising] of the water, which was great in Year 8, while those canals supply water to much land and are very deep the King took that fortress by storm in a short time he overcame the rebels who were within it, and slaughtered them in accordance with what Pre and Horus son of Isis did to those who had rebelled against them in those places in the Beginning (as for) the rebels who had gathered armies and led them to disturb the nomes, harming the temples and abandoning the way of the King and his father, the gods let him overcome thein at Memphis during the festival of the Reception of the Rulership which he did from his father, and he had them slain on the wood he remitted the arrears that were due to the King from the temples up to Year 9, and amounted to a large total of money and grain likewise the value of the f ine linen that was due from the temples from what is made for the Treasury, and the verification fees(?) of what had been made up to that time moreover, he ordered concerning the artaba of wheat per aroura of land, which used to be collected from the fields of the endowment, and likewise for the wine per aroura of land from the vineyards of the gods' endowments: he renounced them he did many favours for Apis and Mnevis, and the other sacred animals that are honoured in Egypt, more than what those who were before him used to do, he being devoted to their affairs at all times, and giving what is required for their burials, although it is great and splendid, and providing what is dedicated(?) in their temples when festivals are celebrated and burnt offerings made before them, and the rest of the things which it is fitting to do the honours which are due to the temples and the other honours of Egypt he caused to be established in their (proper) condition in accordance with the law he gave much gold, silver, grain, and other items for the Place of Apis he had it adorned with new work as very fine work he had new temples, sanctuaries, and altars set up for the gods, and caused others to assume their (proper) condition, he having the heart of a beneficent god concerning the gods and enquiring after the honours of the temples, in order to renew them in his time as king in the manner that is fitting and the gods have given him in return for these things strength, victory, success(?), prosperity, health, and all the ( sic ) other favours, his kingship being established under him and his descendants forever:

With good fortune! It has seemed fitting to the priests of all the temples of Egypt, as to the honours which are due to King Ptolemy, living forever, the Manifest God whose excellence is fine, in the temples, and those which are due to the Father-loving Gods, who brought him into being, and those which are due to the Beneficent Gods, who brought into being those who brought him into being, and those which are due to the Brother-and-Sister Gods, who brought into being those who brought them into being, and those which are due to the Saviour Gods, the ancestors of his ancestors, to increase them and that a statue should be set up for King Ptolemy, living forever, the Manifest God whose excellence is fine - which should be called 'Ptolemy who has protected the Bright Land', the meaning of which is 'Ptolemy who has preserved Egypt' - together with a statue for the local god, giving him a scimitar of victory, in each temple, in the public part of the temple, they being made in the manner of Egyptian work and the priests should pay service to the statues in each temple three times a day, and they should lay down sacred objects before them and do for them the rest of the things that it is normal to do, in accordance with what is done for the other gods on the festivals, the processions, and the named (holi)days and there should be produced a cult image for King Ptolemy, the Manifest God whose excellence is fine, son of Ptolemy and Queen Arsinoe, the Father-loving Gods, together with the ( sic ) shrine in each temple, and it should be installed in the sanctuary with the other shrines and when the great festivals occur, on which the gods are taken in procession, the shrine of the Manifest God whose excellence is fine should be taken in procession with them and in order that the shrine may be recognized, now and in the rest of the times that are to come, ten royal diadems of gold should be added - there being one uraeus on them each, like what is normally done for the gold diadems - on top of the shrine, instead of the uraei that are upon the rest of the shrines and the double crown should be in the centre of the diadems, because it is the one with which the King was crowned in the temple of Memphis, when there was being done for him what is normally done at the Reception of the Rulership and there should be placed on the upper side of (the) square(?) which is outside the diadems, and opposite the gold diadem that is described above, a papyrus plant and a 'sedge' plant and a uraeus should be placed on a basket with a 'sedge' under it on the right of the side on top of the shrine, and a uraeus with a basket under it should be placed on a papyrus on the left, the meaning of which is 'The King who has illumined Upper and Lower Egypt' and whereas fourth month of Shemu, last day, on which is held the birthday of the King, has been established already as a procession festival in the temples, likewise second month of Peret, day 17, on which are performed for him the ceremonies of the Reception of the Rulership - the beginning of the good things that have happened to everyone: the birth of the King, living forever, and his reception of the rulership - let these days, the 17th and the last, become festivals each month in all the temples of Egypt and there should be performed burnt offerings, libations, and the rest of the things that are normally done on the other festivals, on both festivals each month and what is offered in sacrifice(?) should be distributed as a surplus(?) to the people who serve in the temple and a procession festival should be held in the temples and the whole of Egypt for King Ptolemy, living forever, the Manifest God whose excellence is fine, each year, from first month of Akhet, day 1, for five days, with garlands being worn, burnt offerings and libations being performed, and the rest of the things that it is fitting to do and the priests who are in each of the temples of Egypt should be called 'The Priests of the Manifest God whose excellence is fine' in addition to the other priestly titles, and they should write it on every document, and they should write the priesthood of the Manifest God whose excellence is fine on their rings and they should engrave it on them and it should be made possible for the private persons also who will (so) wish, to produce the likeness of the shrine of the Manifest God whose excellence is fine, which is (discussed) above, and to keep it in their homes and hold the festivals and the processions which are described above, each year, so that it may become known that the inhabitants of Egypt pay honour to the Manifest God whose excellence is fine in accordance with what is normally done and the decree should be written on a stela of hard stone, in sacred writing, document writing, and Greek writing, and it should be set up in the first-class temples, the second-class temples and the third-class temples, next to the statue of the King, living forever.


Why the Rosetta Stone Ended Up in the British Museum

The Rosetta Stone was regarded by the French as a trophy of war, but it never made it back to Paris. The French did not occupy Egypt for long, as they surrendered to the British and Ottoman forces in 1801. One of the objects seized from the French by the victorious British was the Rosetta Stone.

The artifact was transported back to England. Interestingly, the British left their mark on, or vandalized, (depending on one’s point of view) the Rosetta Stone. Two inscriptions in white can be seen on the broken edges of the stone, one on the left, and another on the right. The former reads ‘CAPTURED IN EGYPT BY THE BRITISH ARMY IN 1801’, and the latter proclaims, ‘PRESENTED BY KING GEORGE III’.

The left and right sides of the Rosetta Stone, containing the faint English inscriptions saying: (L) "Captured in Egypt by the British Army in 1801" (R) "Presented by King George III." (Captmondo/ CC BY SA 3.0 )

Subsequently, the Rosetta Stone arrived in the British Museum in London. The artifact has been exhibited there since then, except during the period of the First World War, when it was temporarily relocated to an off-site, underground spot for safekeeping. After some time, white chalk was used to color the inscriptions, in order to make them more legible.


Fragment of a much larger stela

The Rosetta Stone was not originally located at Rashid (ancient Rosetta) and is actually a fragment of a much larger stela that was originally displayed at a temple, possibly at the ancient Egyptian city of Sais.

"The original stone was considerably taller than it is today," Ray wrote in his book. "Its uppermost register would have been decorated with figures of the king and the gods of the temple where it stood. These are long gone," wrote Ray. "Of the hieroglyphic text which formed its second register, only a third is left." Fragments of the Demotic and Greek texts are also broken off and are gone. Parkinson estimates that when the Rosetta Stone was first created, it was about 59 inches (149 cm) in height.

The town of Rashid (ancient Rosetta) is located by the sea, and the Rosetta Stone would not have originally been placed there, wrote Parkinson. "The land on which that seaside town was built did not exist at the time of its carving, being the result of later sedimentation."

"The stela was probably erected at a more ancient site than Rashid, further inland," possibly the ancient city of Sais, which is fairly close by, wrote Parkinson. "The Rosetta Stone probably stood in the temple precincts of Sais for several centuries."

The temple that once held the stone may have been quarried centuries after the Rosetta Stone was created, and the stone may have been brought to Rashid as quarried rock.


Mõju

The Rosetta Stone was shown to Napoleon, who was very impressed. He arranged for printers to come from Paris and make copies of the inscriptions by inking the stone and laying paper upon it. The copies were sent to the best linguists in Europe. The Greek text was translated in 1802 by the Rev. Stephen Weston. Next, work began on the demotic text. In 1803, a Swedish diplomat named Johan Akerblad published his initial results, identifying the proper names in the text and a few other words.

The linguist whose work was most instrumental in understanding the hieroglyphic text was Jean-Francois Champollion (1790-1832). Champollion had been fascinated by ancient languages since childhood. He began working on the Rosetta Stone inscriptions in 1808 when he was 18 years old.

Champollion made three basic assumptions in his effort to decipher the hieroglyphs. He looked for hints in the script used by the early Egyptian Christians, or Copts, assuming that this represented the last remnants of the language of the pharaohs. Soon after he began working on the Rosetta Stone inscriptions, he identified correspondences between the Coptic alphabet and 15 signs of the demotic script.

Then, Champollion realized that although the hieroglyphs obviously included ideograms, symbols intended to represent objects or ideas, there were also phonograms, symbols representing sounds. In most written languages, ideograms were gradually discarded as phonetic symbols took hold, but the ancient Egyptians retained them both.

Finally, he recognized that the groups of hieroglyphs encircled by an oval loop, or cartouche, were phonetic symbols for the pharaohs' names. Champollion found the name Ptolmys in Greek and demotic, and so was able to decipher the cartouched hieroglyphic characters for the name as well. An obelisk found by Giovanni Belzoni and sent to England also bore both Greek and hieroglyphic texts. From this inscription Champollion was able to pick out the name Kliopadra, defining the sounds of a few more hieroglyphic signs. Champollion had realized that since the names of these Ptolemy rulers were Greek in origin, they would have no meaning in the Egyptian language. Therefore they would be represented only with phonetic symbols. A copy of an inscription from the temple of Ramses II at Abu Simbel afforded additional clues.

During the Late Period (712-332 B.C.) there were as many as 6,000 different hieroglyphs in existence, although no more than about 1,000 were in general use at any one time throughout most of ancient Egyptian history. As in Hebrew and Arabic, the phonograms corresponded only to consonants. Vowels were simply omitted. In English this would correspond to writing "brk" for "brook," "break," and "brick." In hieroglyphic text, a special ideogram called a determinative would be added to remove the ambiguity. In our example, a determinative for water would be added to "brk" to convey the meaning "brook."

Hieroglyphic text is also like other Middle Eastern languages in that it was generally written from right to left. Unlike them, there was also the alternative of going from left to right. The pictures of people and animals in the text always face toward the beginning of the line. If the inscription is written from top to bottom, as is also common, the signs face toward the beginning of the series of columns.

Champollion took 14 years to solve the puzzle of the hieroglyphs. In 1822, he wrote a letter to the French Royal Academy of Inscriptions, explaining his results. He defined an alphabet of 26 letters and syllabic signs, of which about half turned out to be correct. He also included an explanation of determinatives. In 1824 Champollion published his book Precis du Systeme Hieroglyphique, in which he expanded upon the information in the letter, as well as correcting some of his own mistakes and a few of the English physicist Thomas Young. Young had been working on the Rosetta Stone inscriptions and made substantial progress, independently coming to some of the same conclusions as Champollion. His work had been published in 1819, in a supplement to the fourth edition of the Entsüklopeedia Britannica.

Champollion died of a stroke in 1832 when he was only 41 his Egyptian Grammar ja Egyptian Dictionary were published posthumously. In 1897, an exhaustive reference called the Berlin Woerterbuch was begun, including all the words in all the known Egyptian manuscripts and inscriptions.

Additional copies of the Ptolemy V text were later found in other locations, allowing Egyptologists to fill in sections of hieroglyphs that had been missing where the top of the Rosetta Stone was broken off. The stone itself had changed hands soon after its discovery, when Napoleon's forces were routed by the English. Today it is displayed in the British Museum.


Rosetta kivi

The Rosetta Stone, not to be confused with the language learning software, is a fragment of a granite-like rock with a text carved in three different languages. It was found by troops of Napoleon in 1799 in the wall of a fort in the city of Rosetta (Rashid in Arabic), Egypt, which is near Alexandria. It is about 45 inches high. 28.5 inches wide, and 11 inches thick, weighing in at about About ¾ of a ton (1676 pounds - our replica weighs 90-95 pounds). It is a broken piece of granodiorite stone that was originally part of a 5-6 ft. tall stela, or column, located in a temple elsewhere in the Nile Delta. The stone passed into British hands and was taken to England. It is now housed in the British Museum in London, where it is the most popular attraction in the museum.

The writing on the stone is a decree issued jointly by the Pharaoh, Ptolemy V Epiphanes (205-180 BC), and a council of Egyptian priests. The council took place on March 27, 196 BC, the day after the first anniversary of the 14-year-old Pharaoh's coronation. The text itself is referred to as the Decree of Memphis, and has been found in several other locations in Egypt. It cancelled debts and taxes, released prisoners, and granted increased donations to the temples.

The last sentence of the decree reads: "This decree shall be inscribed on a stela of hard stone in sacred (hieroglyphic) and native (Demotic) and Greek characters and set up in each of the first, second and third rank temples beside the image of the ever-living king." Accordingly, our copy of the Rosetta Stone is housed next to a (replica) coin showing the image of Pharaoh Ptolemy V Epiphanes and a genuine coin which was minted during his reign. More informartion can be found from the British Museum: http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=117631&partId=1

Brigham Young University-Idaho is the first university in the world to obtain a full-size, 3D replica of the Rosetta Stone from The Freeman Institute. The replica was obtained to help students get a real view at what the stone is like. The replica is 40% resin and 60% granodiorite filler. It also contains a high density foam core to lessen the weight. It is one of the most important pieces to language and culture as it unveiled the Egyptian language and culture to the world.

Why is the Rosetta Stone important?

Before the discovery of the Rosetta Stone, scholars had not been able to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics, so very little was understood about the Egyptian culture. The Rosetta Stone has the same text written in three styles/languages: 1) hieroglyphics ( top), which can be written in either direction, but in this case they read right to left 2) Demotic ( keskel), a cursive form of Egyptian written from right to left and 3) ancient Greek ( alt), written left to right. Egyptian pharaohs were actually Greek by this date, so Greek was their common tongue. Because scholars could read Greek in 1799, they were able to work out the meaning of the hieroglyphic characters. Thomas Young of England deciphered the demotic script, but young Jean-François Champollion of France, who worked in the library in Grenoble for a time, succeeded in working out the structure of the hieroglyphic characters. He started by finding and deciphering the characters for Ptolemy's name in the Greek and hieroglyphic versions, and published the translation of the full text in 1824. Decoding hieroglyphic symbols opened up the entire Egyptian culture to the modern world.


"More than half of the decree is lost from the hieroglyphic section, originally an estimated 29 lines. The Greek occupies 54 lines, with many errors in the inscription, and the demotic 32, with its last two lines inscribed in a fulsome style to fill the space. The sides taper slightly towards the top. The original shape of the stela is shown in a sign in line 14 of the hieroglyphic text. The stela almost certainly had a rounded top headed by a winged sun-disk, and probably a scene with figures in Egyptian style, similar to that showing the king and queen between two groups of gods on another stela with a copy of the Canopus Decree issued in 238 BC under Ptolemy II." (Parkinson, 26)

Michael Coe, noted scholar of Mayan hieroglyphics, called the Rosetta Stone "the most famous piece of rock in the world." (Parkinson, 19)

Who found the stone, and when?

It was found in July 1799 by scholars ("savants") sent to Egypt by Napoleon. They were tearing down a ruined wall in Fort Julien in the town of Rosetta when they came across a broken stone with writing in three languages. They looked for other pieces but did not find any. (Giblin, 25)

The stone could not have originally been placed in Rosetta, since that town did not even exist during Ptolemy's era. It was built later on sediment from the Nile River. It is probable that the stone was already broken when it was moved to the place where it was discovered. (Parkinson, 26)

The stone undoubtedly was housed in a temple elsewhere, perhaps in Sais, which is 40 miles upstream from Rosetta. (Ray, 3)

Who translated the hieroglyphics?

Working from the Greek text at the bottom of the stone, the British scholar Thomas Young (1773-1829) succeeded in deciphering the demotic text (in the middle of the stone) - a cursive form of Egyptian - in 1814. Young started work on the hieroglyphic text, but then moved on to other projects.

The Frenchman Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) took on the task of puzzling out the hieroglyphic symbols. Champollion had taught himself to read at age 5 and had mastered a dozen languages by the age of 16. He devoted himself to deciphering the hieroglyphic text of the Rosetta Stone, working on the project from 1822 to 1824. The challenge of hieroglyphics lie in the fact that it was unclear whether each symbol represented a letter, a sound, or a concept.

Once Champollion realized what he had done, he ran out of his apartment and over to the Grenoble library where his brother was working, he shouted "I've got it! I've got it!," and then promptly fainted. This was the key to deciphering the rest of the Egyptian alphabet and opened the door to understanding an entire civilization that had thrived for several millennia.

It is worth noting that the Rosetta Stone was found 6 years before Joseph Smith was born. Also, whereas it took Champollion two years to decipher the 14 lines of hieroglyphic text on the stone, it only took Joseph about 75 days to translate the 588 pages (in the 1 st edition Book of Mormon) of "reformed Egyptian" characters on the golden plates with the gift of God and the aid of the Urim and Thummim at about the same time period.

Why did BYU-Idaho acquire a replica copy?

The McKay Library has been actively collecting materials related to the history of writing for several years. The Rosetta Stone is as important to language and culture as the Mona Lisa painting is to the art world. When we learned that a company had just started making life-size replicas of the stone, we felt this would literally be a keystone to our History of Writing collection.

Pictures can give you a general impression of an object, but we felt it was important to have a full size copy to help students have a much more visual understanding of the context of the Rosetta Stone.

Who made this replica?

The Freeman Institute in Maryland. See www.rosettastonereplicas.com In the 1970's, the British Museum made a few molds of the full face of the authentic Rosetta Stone, and the Freeman Institute owns one of them. The Institute spent 4+ years developing a process to make an exact replica of the mold.

A 3D digital image of the Rosetta Stone was made using a laser scanner with an accuracy of 0.0005". A resin mimicking the original coloration of the granodiorite rock of the Rosetta Stone was developed. The replica consists of 40% resin and 60% granodiorite filler. It has a high density foam core to lessen the weight.

Where is the city of Rosetta located?

In the Nile delta, 8 miles from the Mediterranean and 35 miles northeast of Alexandria. It lies on the left bank of the Rosetta branch of the Nile River. The Arabic name of the town is Rashid, named after caliph Harun al-Rashid, who founded it in about 800 AD. (Encyclopedia Britannica)

Can you touch the original?

The original has been encased in glass since at least 1999. A replica has been placed in the King's Library for people to touch. (Ray, 4)

In 1847, the stone was covered with a glass frame to protect the surface. The glass cover was removed in the 1980s because the public complained, but the stone was enclosed in a glass case after its cleaning in 1999. (Parkinson, 25). The stone was also removed from its inclined metal supports and placed upright in 1999. (Parkinson, 27)

Why is it broken?

It was part of a column, or stela, that was originally about 6 feet tall. Based on other copies of this same text (the "Memphis Decree") and a similar decree, scholars have reconstructed what they think the original stela may have looked like:

The glyph that looks somewhat like a coffin, near the right side in the last line of hieroglyphics, is the glyph for "column" or "stela." It shows the shape of the original column that the Rosetta Stone came from.

What does "hieroglyphics" mean?

It comes from two Greek words meaning "sacred writing." It refers to a form of writing in which picture symbols represent ideas and sounds. (www.worldbookonline.com)

Are there any other copies of the text?

Several other copies of the Memphis Decree have been discovered.

In 1898, a limestone stela inscribed with a copy of just the hieroglyphic version of the Decree of Memphis was found at Nubayrah, or el-Nobaira near Damnhur in Lower Egypt. The stela is rounded at the top and is 4 ft. 2 in. high and 1 ft. 8 in. wide and is now in the Cairo Museum. It was carved 14 years after the Rosetta Stone, in 183 BC. (Budge, 103 Parkinson, 30)

A further version of the hieroglyphic version of the Memphis Decree was found in 1848, incised on the walls of the Birth House of the temple of Isis on the island of Philae. (Giblin, 73 Andrews, 13)

Several sandstone fragments containing the text were found in Elephantine and are now in the Louvre. A poorly preserved basalt stela containing the text from Nub Taha is now in Alexandria. (Parkinson, 30)

History of Ptolemy V

"In the summer of 204 BC Ptolemy IV died suddenly in his mid-thirties, and Ptolemy V came to the throne as a six-year-old child. In the courtly intrigues that followed, Ptolemy IV's death was concealed until the boy-king's mother Arsinoe had been killed. This weakened the government severely." Hostilities against Egypt continued until 200 or 198 BC. Rebels were eventually defeated and "they were punished as part of the coronation of the by now thirteen-year-old king, eight years into his reign." The coronation was held in the traditional capitol of Memphis. "A decree was issued to record the priests' granting of a royal cult to the king in return for his favours to them, including exemption from taxes, and is known after its place of issue as the Memphis Decree." (Parkinson, 29)

Bibliograafia:

&bull Carol Andrews, The Rosetta Stone, London: British Museum Press, 1981.

&bull E.A. Wallis Budge, The Rosetta Stone, New York: Dover, 1989.

&bull James Cross Giblin, The Riddle of the Rosetta Stone, Key to Ancient Egypt, New York: Harper Trophy, 1990.

&bull Richard Parkinson, Cracking Codes: The Rosetta Stone and Decipherment, Berkeley: UC Press, 1999.

&bull John Ray, The Rosetta Stone and the Rebirth of Ancient Egypt, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 2007.


The Rosetta stone

Rosetta (today called Rashid), the place where the same-named stone was found, is an old Egyptian seaport in the western Nile delta (Figure 3 ). The Rosetta stone was discovered there in 1799. With the aid of this artefact, it was possible to decipher the hieroglyphic system of writing. The Rosetta stone is a half-round stone stele with carved text in three types of script. This text contributed decisively to the deciphering of the Egyptian hieroglyphs (‘sacred engraved letters’). Today it is located in the British Museum in London. The stone is 114.4 cm high, 72.3 cm wide, and 27.9 cm thick it weighs 762 kg and consists of dark-gray granodiorite—the hardest type of basalt. It dates from 196 BC and contains a carved decree of the council of Egyptian priests. However, the entire stele is heavily weathered the entire upper-left corner has been chipped off, and other large text passages are also missing. Therefore, around two-thirds of the hieroglyphic text were lost.

Map segment (Nile delta) with topography of the city of Rosetta (today called Rashid).

Map segment (Nile delta) with topography of the city of Rosetta (today called Rashid).

This text—a priestly decree honouring King Ptolemy Epiphanes—was written in three different scripts, enabling three population groups to read the text (Figure 4 ) namely the priests in Egyptian hieroglyphs (hieratic script since ∼2400 BC), the administration in Egyptian in Demotic script (demos = people), i.e. the language used for daily purposes in old Egypt (

600 - 470 BC), and the Greek rulers over Egypt in ancient Greek, written in Greek capital letters.

The Rosetta stone as it looks today.

The Rosetta stone as it looks today.

During the Egyptian expedition of Napoleon (1798–1801), in the course of setting up a camp (Kâit Bey = Rosetta Fort), French lieutenant Pierre François Xavier Bouchard found the stone on 15 July 1799, while working on the fortification of Fort St Julien, ∼4 km from the city of Rosetta in the Nile delta. Scientists who accompanied Napoleon on his expedition closely examined the stone.

During the war between France and Britain, Napoleon invaded Egypt. From Egypt, he wanted to conquer India, the richest colony governed by Britain and thus bring the British Empire to a fall. While Bonaparte landed in Egypt, conquered Alexandria, and started the march to the south, British admiral Sir Horatio Nelson crossed the eastern Mediterranean Sea. In August 1798, the Battle of the Nile was fought near Abukir (∼20 km north-east of Alexandria), where the French fleet lay at anchor. The French armada, which previously had brought Napoleon's expedition army to the land of the pyramids, was defeated by the British navy under Admiral Nelson. Thus the British recaptured the command of the Mediterranean Sea. Six years later Nelson died in the Battle of Trafalgar (1805), in which Napoleon's naval forces were defeated and the British fleet gained unrestricted rule over the world's oceans. This was the beginning of the end of Napoleon's reign.

After the French had been defeated in Egypt, they had to relinquish the Rosetta stone to the British in 1801, together with other antiques. In the spring of 1801, when Cairo was being threatened by military operations under the leadership of Sir Ralph Abercromby, academic scholars who participated in the French expedition took the Rosetta stone to Alexandria to keep it safe. According to the unfortunate capitulation treaty, the stone had to be handed over to General Hutchinson however, it initially remained hidden among the luggage of French General Menou. In the end, the Rosetta stone nevertheless got into the hands of Colonel Turner (who was later promoted to Major General), who shipped the precious find to Portsmouth in February 1802, on board of the HMS L'Egyptienne. After intensive archaeological and graphological examinations by the Society of Antiquaries, the Rosetta stone finally made its way to the British Museum, where it can still be viewed and admired today.

In 1822, with the aid of the Rosetta stone, Jean-François Champollion succeeded in deciphering the Demotic script and found the key to the hieratic script and the hieroglyphs ( Figure 5 ). Credit for deciphering the ancient script also belongs to Silvestre de Sacy, Johan David Åkerblad from Sweden and Thomas Young from Britain.

In 1822, 31-year-old Jean François Champollion achieved a breakthrough in the decipherment of the hieroglyphs when he successfully identified the names of the Pharaohs Ramses and Thutmose. Champollion had a remarkable scientific career that came to an early end upon his death at the age of 41. Champollion described the hieroglyphs as a script that contains pictorial, symbolic, and phonetic elements in the same text, the same phrase, and even within the same word.

In 1822, 31-year-old Jean François Champollion achieved a breakthrough in the decipherment of the hieroglyphs when he successfully identified the names of the Pharaohs Ramses and Thutmose. Champollion had a remarkable scientific career that came to an early end upon his death at the age of 41. Champollion described the hieroglyphs as a script that contains pictorial, symbolic, and phonetic elements in the same text, the same phrase, and even within the same word.


Rosetta Stone today

Champollion's discovery remained subject to scientific bickering and controversy until a much less famous stone proved him right in 1866, according to "Cracking Codes." Another decree &mdash also written in hieroglyphic text, Greek and demotic &mdash was found in Tanis, Egypt, and was studied by Prussian Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius that year. The Tanis Stone gave scientists a comparison for testing the Rosetta Stone translation and confirmed Champollion's findings. It is now kept in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

The Rosetta Stone itself remains at the British Museum, where it is a popular tourist draw but no longer the subject of much research. Egyptian authorities periodically call for the return of the stone.

"[T]he artifacts stolen from Egypt must come back," Zahi Hawass, then-director of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, said in 2003. Hawass continued to call for the stone's repatriation to Egypt until he lost his position in the Egyptian government in 2011 amid the upheaval of the country's revolution that year. His successors have taken up the cause, with Egyptian archaeologist Ahmed Saleh calling for the return of the stone as recently as 2014. The British Museum has refused these calls, citing a 1970 UNESCO agreement that denies Egypt the right to demand any artifact taken from the country before 1970, according to the Cairo Post. Recently smuggled artifacts are regularly repatriated to Egypt, but objects taken during the colonial period have proved more difficult for Egypt to reclaim.


Vaata videot: El Secreto de los Jeroglíficos - La Piedra Rosetta - Documetal (November 2021).