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Premodernse Jaapani ajalugu: Nara periood

Premodernse Jaapani ajalugu: Nara periood


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See loeng kirjeldab eelmoodsa Jaapani Nara perioodi.


Nara ajalugu

Nara periood (奈良 時代 Nara jidai) on ajalooline periood, mis algab 710. aastal, mil pealinn koliti Fujiwarakyōst Heijōkyōsse (tänapäeva Nara linn) ja lõpeb aastal 784, kui pealinn koliti Nagaokakyōsse. Kümme aastat Nagaokakyōs (784-794) on tavaliselt Nara perioodi hulka arvatud, andes selle lõppkuupäevaks 794.

Todai-ji

Nara periood tähistas hiinlaste inspireeritud kõrghetke ritsuryō (律令) valitsemissüsteem ning Hiina tsivilisatsiooni muude aspektide aktiivne tutvustamine. Et muuta budism tsentraliseeritud poliitilise võimu vaimseks aluseks, provintside templid (kokubunji) loodi kogu Jaapanis. Nara periood nägi budismi kehtestamist õukonna ja laiemalt riigi religioonina ning intellektuaalsete ja kultuuriliste saavutuste uut kõrgust, mida näitlikustas Tōdaiji templi suure saali ehitamine. Jaapani esimeste kroonikate, Kojiki (古 事 記, 712) ja Nihon Shoki (日本 書 紀, 720). Tangi Hiina mõjul õitsesid kunstid nn Tempyō (天平) kultuur. Keskperioodil puhkes aga õukonna aadli seas võimuvõitlus. Maavaldussüsteemi muudatused tõid kaasa tohutu hulga eramaad (荘 園 või 庄園) shōen) aadlike ja religioossete institutsioonide poolt, mille tulemusel lagunesid kōchi kōmin (公地 公民) maa avaliku omandi süsteem ja selle lagunemine ritsuryō süsteem. Nara perioodi viimastel aastatel oli kasvav vaesus talupoegade seas, kes olid maksudest üle koormatud, ja üha rohkem kodutuid rändureid.

Ritsuryō süsteem

Poliitilise ajaloo kontekstis võis Nara periood alata Taihō koodeksi väljakuulutamisega (大 宝 律令 Taihō-ritsuryō) aastal 701. Koodeksi kohaselt lükati edasi Taika reformidega (645) algatatud tsentraliseerimisreformid ja sel perioodil kehtestati keiser kindlalt Hiina stiilis. ritsuryō osariik. All ritsuryō süsteem, juhtis keskvalitsust dajōkan (太 政 官 Suur Riiginõukogu), mis juhtis kaheksat ministeeriumi. Valitsuse koosseisu kuulusid keisri määratud ametnikud, kellel paluti tegutseda tema ustavate teenistetena. Riik jagati provintsideks (国 kuni või kokii), mis omakorda jagunesid ringkondadeks (郡 relv või kōri), külad (郷 ) ja alevikud (里 ri või sato). Varases Nara-perioodi dokumendis on loetletud 67 provintsi, sealhulgas 555 linnaosa, 4012 küla ja 12 036 küla. Provintse haldasid kubernerid (国 司 kokushi), kes saadeti pealinnast välja. Kõiki inimesi peeti keisri alamateks ja eeldati, et nad kuuletuvad tema nimel tegutsenud ametnikele.

Kogu riisimaa kuulutati avalikuks omandiks. All handen shūju (班 田 収授) süsteemi järgi jagati maa iga kuue aasta tagant kõikidele üle kuueaastastele meestele ja naistele. Mees sai 2 tan (1 tan (段) = 0,12 hektarit või 0,3 aakrit), emane kaks kolmandikku sellest kogusest. Riisimaa nõuetekohase eraldamise tagamiseks uuendati loendusregistrit iga kuue aasta tagant. Keiserliku õukonna volitused ulatusid tollal lõunasse Kyūshū tipust eemal asuvate saarteni ja põhja poole Akitajō -ni, praeguses Akita prefektuuris. Selle piirkonna elanikkond oli hinnanguliselt umbes 5–6 miljonit ja riisipind umbes 601 000 chō (umbes 721 200 hektarit ehk 1,8 miljonit aakrit). On ilmne, et isegi pärast isaste ja naiste suhte arvestamist ei jätkunud maad. Ajalooliste materjalide põhjal otsustades on aga käsi süsteem ja rahvaloenduse registreerimine näivad olevat rakendatud kogu riigis vähese vastupanuga. Määratud riisimaad kutsuti kubunden (口 分 田). Omanikud kubunden olid kohustatud rikkuma (雑 徭 zōyō), riisimaks (租 nii), käsitöö- või kohalike toodete maks (調 chō). Seal oli ka käsitöö- või kohalike toodete maks (庸 ) tööjõu asemel.

Administratiivse ja sõjalise side tugevdamiseks provintsidega ning maksude tasumise hõlbustamiseks rajas valitsus postijaamade võrgustiku (駅 制 ekisei) pealinna ja valitsuse asukohti ühendavatel avalikel teedel. Riisi- ja tootmismaksud, mis seni olid makstud kohalikele ülematele, saadeti nüüd otse keskvalitsusele.

Todai-ji

Hiina valitsemissüsteemi ustaval jäljendamisel olid kindlasti negatiivsed kõrvalmõjud, sest see ei sobinud Jaapani põllumajandusliku tegelikkusega. 730. aasta dokumendi kohaselt oli Awa provintsis (praegune Chiba prefektuur) 414 leibkonnast 412 leitud elatusmiinimumist. Selle aasta Echizeni provintsi (tänapäevane Fukui prefektuur) arvud räägivad sama lugu: 1019 leibkonnast leiti 996 vaesust. Maksukoormus langes kõige rohkem talupoegadele ja põgenenute arv kasvas murettekitava kiirusega. Samal ajal all Sanze isshin no hō (723) ja Konden eisei shizai hō (743), tunnistati taastatud tühermaa eraomandiks üheks või kolmeks põlvkonnaks või alatiseks. Aadlikud ja religioossed institutsioonid suutsid omastada ulatuslikke maavaldusi, mis olid maksudest vabastatud. Elada otsivad hulkuvad talupojad koondusid nendele maadele. Siin peitus Nara maavaldussüsteemi põhimõtteline vastuolu.

Projekt imposantse kapitali ehitamiseks Hiina pealinna Chang’ani (Ch’ang-an) eeskujul oli järjekordne näide liiga innukast jäljendamisest. Paljud talupojad, kes olid ajateenistusse kutsutud, põgenesid tuhandete rahutute talupoegade juurest, kes kogunesid iga päev Heijōkyō äärelinnas, kujutasid endast pidevat ohtu, mistõttu tuli palee arsenali ja keisri residentsi paigutada relvastatud valvurid. Taihō koodeksi kohandamiseks kohalike reaalsustega hakkas minister Fujiwara no Fuhito (藤原 不比 等, 659-720) Yōrō koodeksi koostama (養老 律令 Yōrō-ritsuryō) aastal 718.

Pärast Fuhito surma aastal 720 oli võimsaim poliitiline tegelane prints Nagaya, kuid aastal 729 andis keiser printsile printsi enesetapu väidetava mässu õhutamise eest. Tegelikult olid teda Fujiwara perekonna liikmed valesti süüdistanud, kes arvatavasti kasutasid ühiskondlikke rahutusi, et poliitiline juhtimine keiserlikust majast ära võtta. Kõigi nelja Fuhito poja surm rõugepideemias aastal 737 lõpetas aga perekonna keiserlikud püüdlused.

Keiser Shōmu (聖 武天皇 Shōmu-tennō, 701-756), kes oli abielus keisrinna Kōmyō (光明 皇后 Kōmyō-kōgō, 701–760), Fuhito tütar, oli sündmuste käigust sügavalt häiritud ning lootis, et budismi jõud lõpetab epideemilised haigused ja sotsiaalsed hädad, käskis ta aastal 741 ehitada templid ja nunnakloostrid (国 分 kokubunji) igas provintsis. See ettevõtmine viidi lõpule alles paljude aastate pärast. Shōmu käskis aastal 743 ehitada ka hiiglasliku Buddha Vairocana kuju, et Buddha õnnistused laieneksid kogu riigile. Tuntud kui Suur Buddha (大 仏 daibutsu) Tōdaiji, valmis see 752. aastal suurte kuludega.

Riigikulud läksid seega peamiselt usuliste ehitiste ja kujude ehitamiseks. Nendele headele tegudele keskendunud budistlik kunst ja kultuur saavutasid enneolematu rikkuse ja sära. Hiljem nimetasid teadlased selle perioodi kunstilist õitsengut ajastu nime järgi Tempyō kultuuriks (nengō) aastatel 729-749.

Tempyō kultuur ja saatkonnad Hiinasse

Tempyō (天平) kultuuri küpsemine tulenes mitte mingil määral suhete taastamisest Hiina Tangi (T’angi) dünastiaga (618–907). Ametlike saadikute saatmine oli peatatud pärast Jaapani vägede lüüasaamist Tang Hiina ja Korea Silla osariigi ühendvägede poolt Hakusukinoe lahingus aastal 663. Aastal 701 otsustati saata saatkond Hiinasse ja saadikud asusid järgmisel aastal mandrile. 701–777 lähetati seitse missiooni, millest igaüks hõlmas kuni 500 või 600 meest.

Reisid üle mere olid ohtlikud ja sageli saatuslikud, kui need ette võeti, näitab innukust, millega jaapanlased lootsid Hiinalt õppida. Nende saatkondadega oli kaasas palju üliõpilasi ja teadlasi, paljud neist jäid Hiinasse paljudeks aastateks. Mõned neist tõid tagasi võõraid munkasid ja uusi budismi vorme. Nad aitasid oluliselt kaasa Tempyō kultuuri rohkusele, mõned neist on Gembō (玄 昉, surn. 746), Kibi no Makibi (吉 備 真 備, 695-775) ja Abe no Nakamaro (阿 倍 仲 麻 呂, 698-770). neist õpilastest kuulsamad. Gembō naasis enam kui 5000 suutraga, samal ajal kui Kibi no Makibi, kes oli õppinud konfutsianismi, sõjateadust ja tseremoonialiite, koostas tulevaste valitsusametnike jaoks haridusprogrammi. Hiina munk Jianzhen (või Ganjin, 鑒真 või 鑑真 688–763) jõudis lõpuks pärast nelja ebaõnnestunud katset 754. aastal Jaapanisse. Ta edastas Risshū (律宗) sekti õpetusi ja asutas Naras Tōshōdaiji (唐 招 提 寺) templi.

Külalisi saabus nii kaugelt kui Kesk- ja Lääne -Aasiast, Indoneesiast, Vietnamist, Malaisiast ja Indiast, toetades Tempyō kultuuri dünaamilisust ja mitmekesisust. Nara kunsti kvintessents on esindatud tuhandetes objektides, mis on säilinud Shōsōinis (正 倉 院), Tōdaiji aardemajas Naras. Kuigi Nara kultuur oli võõrmõjuga resoneeriv, jäi see ainulaadselt jaapanlikuks. Hiina kirjutamissüsteem võeti omaks, kuid jaapani keel jäi terveks. Lisaks kasutasid jaapanlased hiina tähemärki vabalt ja fantaasiarikkalt kasutades oluliselt oma keele rikkust ja peenust. Poeetiline antoloogia Man’yōshū (万 葉 集, “Kümne tuhande lehe kogumik”) on selle perioodi silmapaistev meistriteos. Jaapani esimene ajalugu ,. Kojiki (古 事 記), valmis 712, sellele järgnes kaheksa aastat hiljem teine ​​kroonika Nihon Shoki (日本 書 紀), mis oli kirjutatud hiina keeles (漢文 kanbun). The Fudoki (風土 記), ajalehed, mis kirjeldasid kohalikke kombeid, topograafiat ja tooteid, koostati umbes samal ajal. Kõik need projektid viidi lõpule maa- ja maksureformi haldusnõuete keskel.


Nara periood (710–794)

Alustades uue keiserliku pealinna rajamisega Narasse aastal 710, tähistas Nara periood Jaapani ajaloo klassikalise ajastu algust. Just sel perioodil tsementeeriti keiserlik võim ja päikesejumala Amaterasu keiserliku järgnevuse dogma kodifitseeriti Kojikis ja Nihonshokis. Nara perioodi tähistas ka kahe võimsa budismi koolkonna - Tendai ja esoteerilisema Shingoni - kujunemine ning budismi tõus üldiselt. Ajastu lõppes, kui keiser Kanmu (737–806) otsustas peagi pärast keisrinna Kōkeni (718–770) surma pealinna kolida, püüdes eemaldada õukonna budistlikest intriigidest ja võimumängudest. asutus Naras. Alguses kolis keiser Kanmu 784. aastal pealinna Nagaoka-kyosse (15 km Kyotost), kuid ümberkaudsetel üleujutustel ümberkaudsetel jõgedel kolis pealinn 794. aastal uuesti Heiankyōsse (Kyōto).

Nagu ka eelmiste kaartide ja järgnevate kaartide puhul, näitavad punased alad asustuse ja poliitilise kontrolli piire, mida kaasaegsed etnograafid peavad jaapanlasteks.


Tenpyo kultuur

Rahvusliku müüdi, ajaloo ja piirkondliku geograafia koostamine

Kuna keiserlik kohus kehtestas seadustiku, pidid nad määrama riikliku ajaloo. Keiser Tenmu (天 武天皇) käskis Hieda-no Are'l (稗 田 阿 礼) müüdi ja suulise pärimuse ette lugeda ning Oono Yasumarol (太 安 万 侶) kirjutada rekordiks aastal 712. “Kojiki ” (古 事 記, Records of Ancient Asjad) oli Jaapani esimene ajalooline rekord.

Aastal 720 tegid nad veel ühe ajaloolise raamatu, mille nimi on “Nihonshoki ” (日本 書 紀). Ja keiserlik kohus oli sellest ajast alates jätkanud riikliku ajaloo koostamist rohkem kui 180 aastat. Lisaks käskisid nad koguda teavet kogu riigi geograafia ja toodete kohta. Aruannet nimetati enne kui inimesed seda teadsid kui “Fudoki ” (風土 記).

Waka (和 歌)

Nara perioodi Waka koostamiseks oli hakanud rohkem jaapanlasi. Mitte ainult need, kellel on kõrge positsioon, keiserlikud pered ja aadlikud, vaid ka põllumehed ja mungad. Ootomo-no Yakamochi (大 伴 家 持) kogus umbes 4500 luuletust, mis sai nimeks “Manyoshu ” (万 葉 集).

Budismi templid

Nara perioodi juhid seadsid budismi Jaapani ühiskonna tuumaks. Nii ehitasid nad kogu perioodi jooksul Narasse palju templeid.

Shotoku Taishi oli Asuka perioodil juba rajanud Horyuji templi ja Nara perioodi inimesed laiendasid piirkonnas teisi struktuure, sealhulgas Yumedono (夢 殿).

Yumedono saal

Ennekõike ehitas keiser Shomu Todaiji ja paigutas sinna Suure Buddha. Daibutsu-den (大 仏 殿, Suure Buddha saal) ületavad puidust raamistiku meetodina teisi maailma struktuure.

Kui juhid otsisid rahvast ühendavat jõudu, toetusid nad dharmadele ja budismi mõjule. Seetõttu rajas keiserlik kohus Nara seitse suurt templit (Nanto-Shichidaiji, 南 都 七大 寺), Daianji, Gangoji, Horyuji, Kofukuji, Saidaiji, Todaiji ja Yakushiji).

Kuna Horyuji Naras ei asu, lisavad mõned inimesed Toshodaiji seitsmele suurele templile. Kogu Tenpyo peasaali struktuur kadus tänaseni, välja arvatud Toshodaiji.

Toshodaiji peasaal

Kaldkatuse mõlemal küljel on Shibi (鴟 尾), mis on ilutulestik. Ja sambad paisuvad keskel (entasis) täpselt nagu Horyuji koridori puhul. Auditooriumi struktuur muudeti Kiridzuma-dzukurilt (切 妻 造, viilkatus) Irimoya-dzukuriks (入 母 屋 造, puusa- ja viilkatusekonstruktsioon) koos rekonstrueerimisega 13. sajandil.

Buddha kujud

Aastal 745 alustas keiser Shomu plaani teha Suur Buddha inimeste aitamiseks nende kannatustest. Suur kuju hämmastab inimesi, kes külastavad Todaiji veel praegu. Kuid templis näete rohkem muid väärtuslikke pilte.

Suur Buddha Todaijil

Tenpyo kultuuri Buddha kuju skulptor kasutab mitte ainult nikerdamist, vaid ka vormimist ja lakkimist. Kõik kujud olid savist, nii et maavärina või vihmavee šokk murdis need maha. Pärast Nara perioodi ei olnud skulptor vormimisviisi kasutusele võtnud.

Todaiji Hokke-do (法 華堂) sisaldab palju kuulsaid Buddha kujusid, sealhulgas Fukuken-kannel (不 空 羂 索 観 音), Nikko-bosatsu (日光 菩薩) ja Gakko-bosatsu (月光 菩薩).

Todaijil lähevad eestkostjate, Shitsu-Kongozo (執 金剛 像) ja nelja Deva kujutised ritta ja kaitsevad Buddha peamist kuju.

Budas Asura kuju, üks kaheksast budismi leegionist, seisab Kofukuji linnas. Enamik Asurat väljendab raevu, kuid Kofukuji ’ tundub kurb ja tähelepanelik.

Asura, Kofukuji tempel. Foto autor: Imaizumi Atsuo

Ganjin (鑑真), kes tegi reisi Hiinast ja asutas Toshodaiji, suri aastal 763. Vahetult enne seda nägi üks tema jüngritest, kuidas auditooriumi tala purunes ja ta kahtlustas, et see kujutab endast tema peremehe surma. Jüngrid üritasid Ganjini pilte jätta ja tegid kuju üksikasjalikult. See on Jaapani vanim portreeskulptuur.

Maalingud

Nara Periodil oli mõned populaarsed maalid, kuid “, kuue paneeliga kokkupandav ekraan Tangi stiilis riietatud naistest ja#8221 (鳥毛 立 女 屏風, Torige Ryujo-no Byobu) ilmub Jaapani ajaloo noorema koolkonna õpikus. . Shosoin (正 倉 院) Horyuji juures hoiab pilti.

“Kako Genzai Einga-kyo ” (過去 現在 絵 因果 経) näitab Buddha eelmist ja seda elu koos pildikergu stiiliga. Budistlik pühakiri on Jaapani vanim pildirull. Kuid ebatõenäoline hilisem töö, pildid joonistati ülemisele reale ja tegelased kirjutati madalamale.

Käsitöö

Shosoin paneb palju väärt käsitööd, mille keisrinna Komyo (光明 皇后, keiser Shomu ’ naine) kinkis oma abikaasa mälestusmärgi järjekorras. Eriti üks meistritöödest, “Raden Shitan Gogen-no Biwa ” (螺 鈿 紫檀 五絃 琵琶) tähistab kultuuri saabumist Ida- ja Lõuna-Aasiast.

Raden Shitan Gogen-no Biwa

Kitarritaolisel muusikariistal (biwa) on viis keelt (gogen) ja pärlmutterkaunistused (raden), materjaliks on punane sandlipuu. Kaunistused muudavad mehe figuuri ja lilled Hiina läänepiirkondades.

Sama biwaga, “Hakururi-no Wan ” (白 瑠 璃 碗, valge lõigatud klaas) sõitis üle Siiditee. Teadlased arvasid, et klaas pärineb Pärsiast, kuid hiljutine teaduslik analüüs viitab Rooma impeeriumi võimalusele.


EAS232 Jaapani keele areng

See moodul on saadaval AINULT Jaapani bakalaureuseõppe (EASU01) registreeritud üliõpilastele.

Mooduli sisu

Moodul tutvustab Jaapani peamiste kirjandusžanrite-sealhulgas luule, reisikirjade, päevikute ja lugude-keelt ja esinduslikke näiteid Nara ajast kuni Edo keskpaigani, keskendudes peamiselt Heiani ja Kamakura perioodi keelele. Lugedes kommenteeritud näiteid kaasaegsetest tekstidest ja iseõppivatest grammatikamaterjalidest, saate tuttavaks tekstide ning nende esindatava sotsiaalse ja kultuurilise miljööga.

Kaetud teemad

  • Töötavad teadmised kaasaegse jaapani keele grammatikast
  • Klassikalise perioodi peamised tekstid ja žanrid
  • Klassikalise perioodi kultuuriline, poliitiline ja sotsiaalne taust
  • Eelmoodsa keele ajalugu ja areng ning selle skript.

Õppetunnid

Ülikool soovitab kulutada 200 tundi 20 krediidimooduli kallal töötamisele. See hõlmab järgmist:

  • Lugemis-/grammatikatunnid 2 tundi nädalas
  • Sõltumatu uuring 176 tundi (umbes 14 tundi nädalas 13 nädala jooksul)

Hinnang

Seda moodulit hinnatakse ainult kursuste kaupa järgmiselt:

Enne kui alustad…

Kui soovite tutvuda tänapäevase Jaapani kirjandusega, oleks hea alustada Helen McCullough ’teosega„ Klassikaline jaapani proosa: antoloogia ”.


  • 710 (Wadō 3): Jaapani pealinn asutati Naras (Heijō-kyō). Δ]
  • 712 (Wadō 5): Kojiki oli lõpetatud. Ε ]
  • 720 (Yōrō 4): Nihon Shoki lõpetatud. Ζ ]
  • 749-752 (Tenpyō-shōhō 1-4): Keiser Shōmu käsib luua suure Buddha kuju (Daibutsu) aadressil Tōdai-ji Η ]
  • 760 (Tenpyō-hōji 4): Man'yōshū lõpetatud. ⎖ ]
  • 784 (Enryaku 3): Keiser kolib pealinna Nagaoka ⎗ ]
  • 788 (Enryaku 7): Budistlik munk Saichō ⎘ ] rajas kloostri Hiei mäele
  • 17. detsember 794 (Enryaku 13, 10. kuu 21. päev): Keiser liigub vankriga suure rongkäiguga Narast Heian-kyōsse. ⎙ ]
  1. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Jaapani entsüklopeedia. Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus. lk 𧎺–699. ISBN ja#160 978-0-674-01753-5.
  2. ↑ Kongressi raamatukogu Country Studies, Jaapan, "Nara ja Heian Periods" laetud 22.11.2011.
  3. ↑ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). Jaapani keiserlik maja, lk. 56.
  4. Jien Delmer Myers Brown, Ichirō Ishida (1979). 愚 管 抄: 1219. aastal kirjutatud Jaapani tõlgendusajaloo Gukansho tõlge ja uurimus. California ülikooli press. lk. 𧈏. ISBN ja#160 978-0-520-03460-0.
  5. ↑ Ellington, Lucien. (2009). Jaapan, lk. 28.
  6. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Jaapani entsüklopeedia. Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus. lk. 𧎺. ISBN ja#160 978-0-674-01753-5.
  7. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Jaapani entsüklopeedia. Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus. lk ja#160545. ISBN ja#160 978-0-674-01753-5.
  8. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Jaapani entsüklopeedia. Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus. lk 𧏆. ISBN ja#160 978-0-674-01753-5.
  9. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Jaapani entsüklopeedia. Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus. lk 𧆈–137. ISBN ja#160 978-0-674-01753-5.
  10. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Jaapani entsüklopeedia. Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus. lk ja#160608. ISBN ja#160 978-0-674-01753-5.
  11. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Jaapani entsüklopeedia. Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus. lk ja#160682. ISBN ja#160 978-0-674-01753-5.
  12. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Jaapani entsüklopeedia. Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus. lk. 𧐥. ISBN ja#160 978-0-674-01753-5.
  13. Jien Delmer Myers Brown, Ichirō Ishida (1979). 愚 管 抄: 1219. aastal kirjutatud Jaapani tõlgendusajaloo Gukansho tõlge ja uurimus. California ülikooli press. lk. 𧈗. ISBN ja#160 978-0-520-03460-0.

Alloleva artikli peamised märksõnad: Jaapan, iseloomulik, kimono, see, nara, jaapani, tavaline, teada, leid, haruldane, üsna, koht, periood, ajalugu, laenutus, pakkumine, poed, riided, tenpyo.

PEAMISED TEEMAD
Kuigi Jaapanis on kimono laenutuspoode üsna levinud, leidub harva kohta, kus pakutakse Jaapani ajaloo Nara perioodile iseloomulikke rõivaid, mida tuntakse ka Tenpyo rõivastena. [1] Seda riietumisviisi mõjutasid Hiina riided, kuna Nara perioodil tulid Hiina misjonärid Jaapanisse, et levitada budismi ja konfutsianismi. [2] Asuka perioodil jäljendasid Jaapani riided tihedalt Tangi Hiina moodi ja Hiina mood mõjutas Jaapani riietumist Nara perioodil. [3]

Kuigi Jaapanis on kimonolaenutusi üsna levinud, leidub harva kohta, kus pakutakse Jaapani ajaloo Nara perioodile (710-794) iseloomulikke rõivaid, mida tuntakse ka Tenpyo rõivastena. [4] Jaapani ajaloo Nara periood () hõlmab aastaid umbes 710–784 m.a.j. Keisrinna Gemmei rajas pealinna Narasse, tuntud ka kui Heijo kyo, kus see jäi Jaapani tsivilisatsiooni pealinnaks, kuni keiser Kammu rajas uue pealinna Nagaokale (ja alles kümmekond aastat hiljem Heianile või Kyotole). [5] Teemadeks on Hiina kultuuri mõju klassikalisele Jaapanile, keiserlikule perekonnale, Nara perioodile, budismile, šintoismile, jaapani keelele ja selle aja jaapani luulele. [5] Hoolimata Jaapani vaimustusest Tang Hiina kultuuri ja kunsti vastu, sündis Nara perioodil "pool-iseseisev" Jaapani skulptuuristiil, mis ei tuginenud enam ainult Hiina ja Korea mudelitest imporditud ja orjalikult kopeeritud piltidele. [5] Mõned Jaapani kirjandusmälestised on kirjutatud Nara perioodil, sealhulgas Kojiki ja Nihon Shoki, esimesed rahvuslikud ajalood, koostatud vastavalt 712 ja 720 aastal luuletuste antoloogia Man'yōshū ja aastal kirjutatud antoloogia Kaifūsō. Hiina keel Jaapani keisrite ja printside poolt. [5] Mõned Jaapani kirjandusmälestised on kirjutatud Nara perioodil, sealhulgas Kojiki ja Nihongi, esimesed rahvuslikud ajalood, mis koostati vastavalt 712 ja 720, vastavalt Man'yosh (kümne tuhande lehe kogumik), luuleantoloogia ja Jaapani keisrite ja vürstide poolt hiina keeles kirjutatud antoloogia Kaifuso (Fond Recollections of Poetry). [5]

Nad tõid endaga kaasa budistlikke rituaale, riideid, arhitektuuri, kunsti ja raamatuid, mida Nara periood kujutab endast Jaapani kultuuriimpordi kõige aktiivsemat perioodi. [5]

Nara perioodil (710-784) sai budismist Jaapani riigiusk. [6] Jaapanis kasutati veel üht varajast kostüümirühma etendustel ja tseremooniatel, mis meenutasid 752. aastal valminud tohutut pronksist Buddhat, keset Nara perioodi (710–794). [7] Selles õppetükis saate teada Jaapani Nara perioodist ning selle hiina- ja budistlikust kunstiteosest. [8]

Mingil põhjusel jõudsid seelikud Jaapani moel Nara perioodil tupikusse. [3] Nara periood (kuulutus 710-784), Jaapani ajaloos, periood, mil keiserlik valitsus oli Naras ning siniseerumine ja budism olid kõige kõrgemalt arenenud. [6] Nara periood oli aeg Jaapani ajaloos umbes aastast 710 CE kuni 784. aastani. [8]

Tänapäeval võib "Tenpyo" sageli kasutada vaheldumisi "Nara perioodiga", mistõttu Nara perioodile iseloomulikke rõivaid nimetatakse Tenpyo rõivasteks. [1] Nara perioodil ilmus esimene tegelik kimonolaadne riietus. [9]

Nara periood Kui Jaapan jätkas end rahvana kehtestamist, mõjutasid riided endiselt peamiselt Hiina stiile. [10] Heian Japan: Sissejuhatav essee, mis tõstab esile Jaapani ajaloo põhipunktid Heiani perioodil, sealhulgas pealinna kolimine Narast, pöördumine Hiina mudelitest, Fujiwara perekonnast ja Heiani aristokraatiast ning budism Jaapanis . [5] Vana-Jaapani Nara periood (Nara Jidai) (710-794 m.a.j.), mida kutsuti seetõttu, et enamiku ajast asus pealinn Naras, tollal Heijokyo nime all, oli lühike üleminekuperiood enne olulist Heiani periood. [11] Nara perioodil (709–795 pKr) nägi Jaapanis budismi õitsemist, kuid see piirdus pealinna ja kuningliku õukonnaga. [5] Jaapani ajaloo Nara periood (奈良 時代, Nara-jidai) hõlmab aastaid umbes 710–784 m.a.j., mille jooksul keisrinna Genmei (元 明天 皇, Gemmei Tennō) rajas Heijō-kyō pealinna (平城 京, tänapäeva Nara). [5] Nara periood (奈良 時代, Nara jidai?) On aeg Jaapani ajaloos, mis kestis 710–794. [5] On märgitud, et kaasaegses Jaapanis kasvatatakse toitmiseks umbes 3 miljonit rahvaarv 20 korda suurem kui Nara perioodil. [5] Nara perioodil laienes Jaapanis budismi jõud ja mõju ning ehitati palju uusi templeid, et mahutada üha suurenevat palvetajate ja vaimulike hulka. [5]

Nara perioodi kultuur (710-794) Tähtsus See lõi ühenduse hiinlaste ja jaapanlaste vahel ning kultuurid on selles mõttes väga olulised, et enamikku neist kasutatakse Jaapanis veel tänapäevalgi. [5] Hiina keel oli kogu Nara perioodil tavapärane kirjalik valitsemiskeel, kuid on palju tõendeid selle kohta, et kõikidel Hiina ametinimedel ja ametlikel pealkirjadel oli jaapani tõlkeid, mida kõnes tavapäraselt kasutati. [5] Kuna suurem osa Jaapani budistidest Nara perioodil olid korealased ja hiinlased, oli Nara budism sisuliselt identne sama perioodi Hiina budismiga (T'ang Hiina). [5] Nara perioodi iseloomustab Jaapani õukonna vaimustus Tangi kultuurist Hiinas, tugevad õukonna ja vaimulike suhted ning riigi uhked kulutused budistlikele templitele, piltidele ja tekstidele. [5] Nara perioodil saadeti arvukalt Jaapani missioone (välimine link) ka Hiinasse ning Jaapani mungad tõid neil reisidel tagasi lugematuid tekste ja pilte, mida seejärel lõputult provintsitemplate jaoks kopeeriti. [5]

Hiina ideograafid, mida tuntakse kanji nime all, olid selleks ajaks üldkasutusse jõudnud, kuid see on Nara perioodi teine ​​pool, mille jooksul kirjutati Jaapani autentne Jaapani luule, religioosne mõte ja filosoofia. [5] Varajane Nara ajastu Hiina stiilis aed ja teine ​​Jaapani stiilis aed, mis ehitati olemasoleva aia kohale millalgi Nara perioodi keskel, võib -olla umbes aastal 767 pKr. [5] Nara perioodil toimus Jaapani valitsuses põhjalik muutus, mille tõi kaasa Hiina valitsemismudelite vastuvõtmine, mis hõlmasid konfutsianistlikke ideaale. [5] Nara perioodil eristavad valitsuse andmed kahte tüüpi emishi, neid, kes elasid traditsioonilist hõimude elustiili, ja neid, kes olid end sisse seadnud põllumeesteks ja kelle elu jaapanlastega veidi erines. [5] Keiserliku õukonna koondatud jõupingutused selle ajaloo jäädvustamiseks ja dokumenteerimiseks andsid Jaapani kirjanduse esimesed teosed Nara perioodil. [5] Padjasõnad ilmuvad esmakordselt Man'yōshū, vanimas jaapani luulekogus, mis pärineb Nara ajastust. [5] Puitmaterjalid Nara ajastul Erinevalt Asuka ajastust, kui šampoor 樟 (kusu) oli peamine puitkujude jaoks kasutatav puiduliik, olid kõige levinumad puitmaterjalid, mida kasutati Nara perioodil ühe plokiga skulptuuride valmistamiseks. Juudapuu), Keyaki 欅 (Zelkova) ja Kaya Japanese (Jaapani muskaatpähkel). [5] Nara perioodi Waka koostamiseks oli hakanud rohkem jaapanlasi. [5] Nara perioodil populaarne tseremoniaalne tants Gigaku tugines sageli Jaapani folkloorile ja budistlikele lugudele. [5]

Teised aga usuvad, et "ratsionaalse ostleja" mudel, mille John Hunter Boyle esmakordselt pakkus välja 19. sajandi lõpu Jaapani kultuurilaenu kirjeldamiseks, on võrdselt kohaldatav ka Asuka ja sellele järgnenud Nara perioodile. [5] Nara periood Jaapan õitses majanduslikult ja kultuuriliselt, pakkudes oma aristokraatidele rikkalikku elustiili. [5] Fujiwara no Fuhito (藤原 不比 等: 659-720) oli Jaapani keiserliku õukonna võimas liige Asuka ja Nara perioodil. [5] Nara perioodil on tähelepanuväärne, et jätkuvalt mainitakse sageli korealaste rännet Jaapanisse, eeldatavasti endistest Paekche ja Koguryo aladelt pärit isikuid, kes ei olnud Silla valitsemisega rahul. [5] Üks põhjus, miks Nara perioodil oli pronks jätkuvalt domineeriv, oli Jaapanis vase avastamine suurtes kogustes aastal 708 pKr. [5] Tsiteeri seda lehte: Carr, K.E. Nara periood - varakeskaegne Jaapan. [5]


Shozoku Sanpo 710 on selle ehtsuse märgiks koguni kinnitatud kui iidse Nara Tenpyo festivali ametlik pood, mis taastab iidse Nara õhkkonna rongkäiguga ajastu riietuses ja muudel traditsioonilistel üritustel. [1] See oli ka periood, mil Jaapani traditsioonilisi rõivaid tutvustati läänemaailmale. [12]

Meeste riided jätkusid Nara režiimis Heiani perioodi jooksul. [2] Võimalus riietuda Nara ajastu aristokraadiks on unustamatu kogemus, mida peaksid kasutama kõik, kes Jaapani iidset pealinna külastavad. [1] Nara periood algas keiserliku õukonna uue pealinna asutamisega. [8] Nara periood hõlmab suurema osa sellest ajast, aastast 710 kuni 794. [8] Skulptuur oli Nara perioodil oluline, eriti budistlike kujundite loomine templite jaoks. [8] Saatsime oma reporteri Nara poodi, kus saate riietuda Nara perioodi aadlikuks (710-794 pKr) ja isegi oma kostüümis linnas ringi jalutada. [1] Nara perioodi arhitektuur laenas palju elemente Hiina Tangi dünastiast, mis keskendus sügavalt budismile. [8] Nara perioodil dikteeriti moealaseid seadusi, milles täpsustati, mida selga panna erinevatel puhkudel, näiteks matustel ja pidustustel. [8]

Alustades uue keiserliku pealinna rajamisega Narasse aastal 710, tähistas Nara periood Jaapani ajaloo klassikalise ajastu algust. [5] Nara Periodil oli mõned populaarsed maalid, kuid "Tangi stiilis riietatud naiste kuue paneeliga kokkupandav ekraan" (鳥毛 立 女 屏風, Torige Ryujo-no Byobu) on Jaapani ajalooõpikus. [5]

BUDDISTIDE STATUAAR NAARAJAL AJAL Nara perioodi kujutatakse sageli Jaapani esimese suure kunstiaegse geeniuse ajastuks. [5] The capital at Nara, which gave its name to the new period (710-794), was styled after the grand Chinese Tang Dynasty (618-907) capital at Chang'an and was the first truly urban center in Japan. [5] Nara was the capital of Japan during the Tenpyo period more than 1,300 years ago. [5]


TRADITIONAL JAPANESE CLOTHING Kofun/Asuka Periods and Ancient Japan Japan's culture was influenced heavily by China and other surrounding countries, which was reflected in their clothing choices. [10] From the Nara period (710-794) until then, Japanese people typically wore either ensembles consisting of separate upper and lower garments (trousers or skirts), or one-piece garments. [13] The way of clothing for men, for a major part of this era, remained the same as that was in the Nara period. [14]


Because these moves represented new stages in the development of the Japanese state, historians now divide these years into the Nara (710-794) and Heian (794-1185) periods. [5] Empress Genmei moved the capital of Japan to the new planned city of Nara in 710 AD. She wanted the move to help get more power into her own hands and out of the hands of other powerful Japanese families. [5] In the case of Japan, the Asuka, Nara, and the first century of the Heian period represent the "slave society" phase. [5] Nara and Heian Japan (710 AD - 1185 AD) An overview of Japan's Nara and Heian periods. [5] As Japan gradually turned into a clearly defined, centralized state, the descendents of the uji became the aristocracy during the Nara and Heian periods. [5]

Heian Period Japan is known as the Golden Age of Japanese history because of the major import and further development of Chinese ideas in art, architecture, literature, and ritual that occurred at this time and led to a new and ultimately unique Japanese culture. [15] Japanese history: Nara, Heian Periods You are using an outdated browser. [5] Classic Court Culture: Media of Reception and Identity An overview of Japan's Nara and Heian periods. [5] Japan's first historical epoch-the Asuka period, named for the area near Nara where the court resided-coincides with the introduction of Buddhism into the country. [5]

The Nara Period saw the establishment of Buddhism as the religion of the court and, by extension, of the state, and a new height in intellectual and cultural achievements as exemplified in the building of the Great Hall of the Tōdaiji temple, as well as the compilation of Japan’s first chronicles, the Kojiki (古事記, 712) and the Nihon Shoki (日本書紀, 720). [5] Buddhism during the Nara period was essentially for the court, upper classes, and clergy. [5] During the Nara period, Buddhism and all its external trappings became the most important symbol of imperial authority. [5] I. Nara Period (710-784) A. First "permanent" imperial capital (Heijo) 1. [5] The Nara period might rightfully be called the Shōmu Era, for the capital in Nara during the reign of Emperor Shōmu 聖武 (+ 724 to 749) covered about 35 square miles and was home to more than a million people. [5] The last emporer of the Nara period, Kanmu, in fact moved the capital away from Nara to escape the influence of the Buddhist clergy. [5] Factional fighting at the imperial court continued throughout the Nara period as imperial family members, leading court families such as the Fujiwara (藤原), Tachibana, and Otomo clans, and Buddhist priests all contended for influence. [5] The politics of the Nara period were characterized by the dominance of the Fujiwara clan and its struggles against its rivals, discontent among members of the imperial family, the efforts of the imperial government to impose nationwide control at the expense of local administrations, and the parallel attempt of the Buddhist temples to establish their authority at the expense of the imperial government. [5] The Nara Period marked the height of the Chinese-inspired ritsuryō (律令) system of government as well as the active introduction of other aspects of Chinese civilization. [5] During the Nara Period (710-94), women painted their face with a white powder called oshiroi, and in the Heian Period (794-1185), a white facial color continued to stand as a symbol of beauty. [16] From around the Nara Period (710-94), a garment called a kosode (small sleeves) was worn, first as underclothes and later as an outer garment, by both women and men. [17] The Nara Period (奈良時代 Nara jidai ) is the historical period beginning in 710, the year the capital was moved from Fujiwarakyō to Heijōkyō (the modern-day city of Nara), and ending in 784, when the capital was moved to Nagaokakyō. [5] Overview of Nara History The Nara period begins with the relocation of the capital to Heijōkyō 平城京 (present-day Nara). [5] Although dating to the Nara period (710-794), it only became widely used in the tenth or eleventh century, but at that point it became immensely popular, becoming the second-most-popular motif for family mon by the start of the Edo period (1600). [5] Buddhism was introduced by Baekje in the sixth century but had a mixed reception until the Nara period, when it was heartily embraced by Emperor Shōmu. [5] The introduction of Buddhism brought unity and new ideas to the people in the Nara Period because it was believed that Buddhism would bring peace and restore health and prosperity to the land. [5] Significance Besides Buddhism, some people also believed in another religion called Shinto, which means two religions were accepted in the Nara Period. [5] Shotoku Taishi had already established Horyuji temple in Asuka Period and people in Nara Period extended other structures including Yumedono(夢殿) in the area. [5] The Nara period thus inaugurated is remarkable for its wealth of sculpture, which begins with the bronze trinity of Amida in Yakushiji and is followed by the Yakshi trinity of the same temple thirty years later, undoubtedly the finest existing specimen of this art. [5] At the start of the Nara period there were probably were about 8000 officials receiving salaries, but as time went on the number steadily dropped, and by the middle of the 9th century many offices in the table of organization had effectively ceased to exist. [5] The idea that all land should belong to the state and be periodically redistributed to peasants by need - that is, the allocation system adopted from China in the Nara period -- was difficult to set up and bitterly resented by the deeply imbedded clan (uji) interests it probably did work for a while, but by the late 8th century, private land holdings were beginning to appear. [5] After the death of Fujiwara no Fuhito early in the Nara period, Prince Nagaya (長屋王, Nagaya-no-ōkimi, 684 - March 20, 729, a son of Prince Takechi and great-grandson of Emperor Temmu) seized power at the court. [5] As Emperor Kōnin (光仁天皇 Kōnin-tennō, 709-782), he became the last sovereign whose reign fell completely within the Nara Period. [5] During the Nara period the power and influence of Buddhism grew. [5] Early Statecraft and Buddhism: Structures of Power and Faith An excellent short overview of the Asuka period, as well as the Kofun, Hakuho, and Nara periods. [5]


Heian Period The Heian Period marked the end of Chinese influence in Japan and the first period of classical Japanese history. [10] Fashion of the Nara period (645–794) was highly influenced by Chinese styles, especially in the use of silk. [18] Even hair, fashioned using a clip accessory to mimic the style of the Nara Period, takes only a short time to prepare. [4] Because the capital was primarily located in Heij (modern Nara) between 710 and 784 C.E., these years are referred to as the Nara period. [19]

These court outfits derive from Chinese court clothing that came across in the Nara period, but the middle-Heian and later outfits would hardly be recognizable, as the form of many of the various pieces changed in the Heian Period. [20] Large bronze statues were made in great number during the Nara period, spurred on by the discovery of large quantities of copper in Japan in +708. [21] It is believed that it was brought to Japan in the Nara period. [22]

In the Asuka and Nara periods, gilt bronze statues (kondou 金銅 ) were imported in great number from Korea and China, and numerous copies of these were made in Japan's court-sponsored workshops. [21] The Nara period is often portrayed as Japan's first great age of artistic genius. [21]

This era is considered a groundbreaking period in Japanese Buddhism and Buddhist art, with two new sects introduced to the original Six Sects of Nara. [21] It's said that this moon viewing custom was introduced to Japan from China during Nara and Heian period. [22] During the Asuka (550-710) and Nara (710-794) periods methods of sewing developed further, and clothing became longer and wider. [23] Japan's pre-Buddhist beliefs in nature spirits and holy men with magical powers were incorporated into Buddhism during the Nara and Heian periods, resulting in a complex blend of Shinto-Buddhist practice. [21] Heian period Heian period c. 800 -1200 (with the mid-point being 1000 CE, the millennial year) followed by the Kamakura period (technically 1185 - 1333) This places the 400 years of the Heian Period centering on the year 1000 in the midst of two other periods of c. 100 years each -- the Nara Period before and the Kamakura Period after. [24] The Nara period might rightfully be called the Shōmu Era, for the capital in Nara during Emperor Shōmu's reign (reigned +724 to 749) was home to between 70,000 to 200,000 people and covered roughly 4.2 kilometers from east to west and 4.7 kilometers from north to south. [21] During the Nara period, the great temples of Nara and their sects flourished and became politically powerful, resulting in the capital being moved to Kyoto in 794 to escape the temples' meddling. [25] Artwork from the Nara period is mostly a reflection of Chinese influences, aristocratic tastes, and the reproduction of imported sculptural models from China and less so from Korea. [21]

Buddhism was brought to Japan and many aspects of the Chinese culture were incorporated into the Japanese society. [8] Sanskrit proper, however, has not been used as a liturgical language in Japan--the Sanskrit and Pali that is used in Buddhism in Japan is taken from Chinese, leading to pronunciations of words like Prajñāpāramitā as 'Han Nya Ha Ra Mi Ta' in modern Japanese. [3]

Within the broad category of No robes called ôsode, a term referring to tall and wide sleeves that are left unsewn at their ends, are certain types of robes long since obsolete in Japan, except within the most conservative and traditional spheres of Japanese life, such as imperial court rites and Shinto rituals. [7] Buddhist sects (such as Zen), previously unknown in Japan, were introduced from the Asian mainland, which resulted in the importation of kesa made from certain luxurious types of textiles otherwise unavailable to the Japanese. [7]

Dignitaries from various Asian countries came to Nara, then the capital of Japan, to attend. [7] This period was later named after the city of Nara, which is where the first capital was located. [8] Only a few years before moving the capital permanently to Nara, the government passed a law dictating what dress suited high ceremony, uniforms and mourning wear (the Taihou Code of 701), and only a few years after establishing the new capital, the Yourou Clothing Code of 718 was passed, declaring that collars must be crossed left over right, in accordance with the Chinese way of dressing. [3] Empress Genmei and her successors developed Nara into a center of modernity, religion, and innovation where she emulated many aspects of the Chinese culture and incorporated them into the Japanese society. [8] Before Tokyo or Kyoto, Heijo-kyo, otherwise known as modern-day Nara, was the capital of Japanese civilization between approximately AD 710-794. [1]

During the Meiji period, terms were coined in order to distinguish the old Japanese way of dressing ( wafuku ) from the newly adopted Western dress ( yofuku ). [7] According to period documents, dress at Japan's imperial court followed that of China's at this time, with rank indicated by color. [7] This proposed the widely held belief that those of lower ranking, who were perceived to be of less clothing due to their casual performance of manual labor, were not protected in the way that the upper class were in that time period. [12] It is also during this period that family crests are thought to have first appeared on clothing. [7] We will explore the main characteristics of the architecture, clothing, and other forms of art from this period. [8]

The imperial city of Kyoto became the capital again with the advent of the Nambokuchô era (1333-1392), a period marked by clashes between rival military clans. [7] There are few extant garments from the Kamakura era (1185-1333), and the period literature is not very rich on the subject of costume. [7] A costume history of this period cannot be based on extant garments, as extremely few examples have survived. [7]

Before the Yayoi period (300BC - 700AD), people used to wear a tubular dress with holes to put their arms through, like a sack dress. [2] During the Kamakura period (1185-1133) with the rising influence of the military class and warriors, people had no need for elaborate kimono. [2] By the time of the Yayoi period, people mainly wore a top and a bottom. [2] The Obi is similar to a belt as it wraps around the final layer of the traditional robe to help in keeping all of the layers together for a long period of time. [12]

The year 552 is considered the official date for the introduction of Buddhism in Japan and marked the first year of the Asuka period (552-710). [7] During the Edo period, Japan was divided into feudal states. [2]

Photograph of a man and lady wearing traditional clothing, taken in Osaka, Japan. [12] Bright colors were the dominant tones in men's clothing in Japan. [3]

Traditional fashion gradually transformed to best suit Japanese people lifestyles, as their clothing became more practical, light, and self-expressive. [12] In later Japanese traditional dress, several of these early modes of clothing were to be reflected in the costumes of the No theater. [7] In more recent years, the word has been used to refer specifically to traditional Japanese clothing. [2]

Japanese traditional fashion combines multiple styles that reflect early Japan's visual culture. [12] The most well known form of Japanese traditional fashion is the kimono (translates to "something to wear"), but other types include the yukata and the hakama. [12] For the more sophisticated urban population, and especially men, traditional Japanese dress ceased to be a part of everyday wear until eventually the use of traditional dress was relegated to Buddhist temples and monasteries Shinto shrines No, kyôgen, and Kabuki theater tea ceremony and other traditional arts such as flower arranging and the imperial court. [7] Whereas ample archaeological evidence exists in China of extant garments, ceramic sculptures, and tomb paintings, giving a credible view of Chinese costume history across several centuries before the advent of the Common Era, a verifiable history of Japanese dress does not begin until the eighth century C.E. [7] Japanese dress was to mimic the Chinese mode in this and in other ways soon thereafter. [7] With the adoption of the imperial title tennō, translated from the Chinese t’ien-huang, or "heavenly emperor," the Chinese concept of the emperor as the supreme symbol of central government rule was incorporated into the native Japanese interpretation of the emperor as also the leading Shintō cult figure. [6] Like its T’ang Chinese prototype, the Japanese central government consisted of a Council of State (Dajōkan) and ministries of Rites, Personnel, Public Works, War, Justice, and Revenue. [6] Chinese language and literature were studied intensively the Chinese characters were adapted to the Japanese language and numerous Chinese manuscripts, particularly Buddhist scriptures, were copied. [6]

The elevation of handcrafted works made by simple-living country people and minorities on the fringe of Japanese society did not fit with conventional ideas of social hierarchy in Japan. [7] A Japanese family also might don kimono when participating in special national and regional festivals or when relaxing after bath time at a traditional inn. [7] These developments continue to influence Japanese color theory into modern times. [3] Japanese fashion designers: the work and influence of Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo. n.p.: Oxford New York: Berg, 2011., 2011. [12] Fashionable Tang Dynasty ladies wore their skirts tied over their robes (unlike when China first contacted the Japanese, when fashion dictated that jackets and shirts should drape over the top of skirts), and so Japanese women began to follow this trend. [3] After the agekubi robes left the world of everyday dress for men of the court, they were left with the crossed-collar mode worn by women and lower-class Japanese. [3] Japanese Woman in Traditional Dress Posing Outdoors by Suzuki Shin'ichi, ca. 1870ndad. [12] Silk remains the fiber of choice for traditional Japanese dress. [7] Japanese street fashion emerged in the 1990s and differed from traditional fashion in the sense that it was initiated and popularized by the general public, specifically teenagers, rather than by well known fashion figures/designers. [12] The Japanese are often recognized for their traditional art and its capability of transforming simplicity into creative designs. [12] Those who championed the idea of mingei can be thought of as the East Asian inheritors of the Arts and Crafts movement, although they did not have to insist on the importance of handicraft, as did their Western predecessors, because in the traditional Japanese distinctions between fine and decorative arts were not emphatic. [7]

Helen Craig McCullough's Classical Japanese Prose contains many excerpts of Heian era writings, mostly by female authors, as well as several early Kamakura era writings (mostly by authors who had witnessed the end of the Heian Period), including the Gossamer Journal by Michitsuna's Mother, Sei Shonagon's Pillow Book, and a selection of short stories from the middle to late Heian Period. [3] The Heian Period was the longest, most stable period of Japanese history, lasting nearly 400 years and promoting the development of a uniquely Japanese culture. [3]

Kuukai in particular is credited with bringing the Siddham script to Japan, as his handwriting has been particularly venerated throughout Japanese history (all of the other monks on the same mission surely also learned and practiced Siddham, after all!). [3]

The Kimono (着物), labeled the "national costume of Japan", is the most formal and well-known form of traditional fashion. [12] From the intricate patterns to the layers of fabric, the essence of beauty that was found in traditional wear has influenced the modern fashion that is immersed in Japan's community on a daily basis, specially found in Tokyo, the capital of Japan. [12] Such dress would not be suitable for Japan's long months of warm and humid weather, and a life on horseback would have been unlikely in mountainous Japan. [7] The archaeological record in Japan yields little in the way of human imagery until the fifth century C.E. Prior to that time representations of stick figures found on pottery shards and bronze bells allow for the hypothesis that a long tunic-like garment, belted at the waist, may have been a common form of dress. [7] The history of Buddhist dress in Japan, as embodied in the religion's principal ritual garment, a patchwork mantle ( kesa ), illustrates the theme of importation and adaptation. [7] This city was an important point of the Silk Road, became a center of Buddhist worship in Japan and is also known for the Heijo Palace, home of Empress Genmei. [8] The different styles have been produced, expressed, and transformed by artists well known in Japan, including fashion designers Issey Miyake, Yohji Yamamoto, and Rei Kawakubo. [12] Different forms of street fashion have been socially categorized based on geography and style, such as the Lolita in Harajuku (原宿) or the Ageha of Shibuya (渋谷), all of them being based in the popular shopping districts of Tokyo, Japan. [12]

Buddhism had its origins more than a thousand years earlier in India, spread to China by the beginning of the Common Era, and finally reached Japan by way of Korea. [7] In the 8th century, many technologies and cultural aspects of neighboring China were brought to Japan. [8] Geisha, still an institution in Japan at the start of the twenty-first century, were still expected to entertain in kimono. [7] During the latter part of the twelfth century, the base of power in Japan shifted away from the increasingly decadent, self-absorbed imperial court in Kyoto to provincial military clans who chose the town of Kamakura as their headquarters. [7]

Buddhists and elite samurai families sold off quantities of kesa and No costumes, ultimately enriching museum and private collections in Japan and the West. [7] The Shôsôin costumes are very likely representative of diverse types of Asian dress then in use, and any number of them may well have been made outside of Japan. [7] Color has always been a very important indicator of rank throughout Japan. [2]

It was not uncommon for a Japanese housewife to attend kimono school in order to better understand how to select and properly wear a kimono and its most important accessory, the obi. [7] The uchikake is a type of kimono coat worn by Japanese brides on their wedding day. [12]

Pattern-dyed designs were to become one of the most important creative expressions in later Japanese dress. [7] Yohji Yamamoto and Rei Kawakubo were Japanese fashion designers who shared similar tastes in design and style, their work often considered to be difficult to differentiate by the public. [12] Tang Dynasty fashion also influenced the Japanese to begin wearing skirts and pants over their robes, a style which persists to modern day. [3]

Nara became a very powerful center of Buddhist influence, exercising greater and greater influence over the Imperial family, much to the chagrin of the Fujiwara clan, the traditional center of power over the emperor. [3] Through the Nara and the Heian eras (8th-12th century), the nobility ( kuge ) constituted the ruling class, and learning and culture were the concern primarily of the kuge and the Buddhist monks. [6] The government ordered the construction of seven Buddhist temples in the city of Nara. [8] After moving the capital permanently to Nara, the government passed a law dictating that collars must be crossed left over right, in accordance with the Chinese way of dressing. [2] Nara, the country’s first permanent capital, was modeled on the Chinese T’ang dynasty (618-907) capital, Ch’ang-an. [6]

In 710 the imperial capital was shifted a short distance from Asuka to Nara. [6] The new capital was called Heijō-kyō and is known today as Nara. [6] It began when a new capital was established in a city later known as Nara. [8]

If you have access to a car, our reporter also recommends taking an approximately 15-minute drive from the shop to pose in front of several reconstructed structures of Heijo Palace, also known as the Nara Imperial Palace. [1] Nara artisans produced refined Buddhist sculpture and erected grand Buddhist temples. [6] Tang Dynasty women showing the high fashion of the day, then copied by Nara ladies. [3]

Liza Dalby's Kimono: Fashioning Culture is an excellent resources on clothing and history (specifically Heian and Meiji culture), and is very readable. [3] Issey Miyake is most known for crossing boundaries in fashion and reinventing forms of clothing while simultaneously transmitting the traditional qualities of the culture into his work. [12] The clothing that embodies the culture represents Japan's traditional values that remain in their community to this day. [12] People of high stature wore suits and dresses, and the traditional kimono was reserved for special occasions only, no longer part of daily clothing requirements. [2] Traditional clothing often included a variety of colors in their time, and their use of "the absence of color" provoked multiple critics to voice their opinions and criticize the authenticity of their work. [12] You can mix and match your costume from various pieces of clothing found within the shop. Take some time to choose the perfect colors that suit you from dozens of vivid hues. [1] Clothing was also influenced by the Chinese fashion of the times. [8] Loose-fitting, wide-sleeved, floor-length Chinese robes, the other dominant elite mode of dress on the continent, were the antithesis of this kind of nomadic clothing. [7] Further articles of clothing, such as a jacket, skirt-like pants ( hakama ), and an apron worn at the back completed women's court dress. [7] The most well-known clothing of the Heian period is the juunihitoe, or 'twelve layered robe', worn by the highest-ranked ladies of the Imperial Court. [3] By the Edo period (1603-1868), No costumes were being made specifically for use on the stage however, for the most part the costume styles did not change and continued to reflect the clothing of earlier periods. [7]

Our reporter Masami, whom we sent to check out the new store, was incredibly pleased with this particular style of dress as it was very easy to move around in, unlike the 12-layered "junihitoe" kimono worn by court ladies of the subsequent Heian period (AD 794-1185). [1] Men's ensembles varied mostly in color and design between court ranks, according to the ranking system in use in the Heian Period, the Court Rank System of 701 introduced by Emperor Tenno. [3] Now, the only people wearing the round-necked robes of the early Heian Period (aside from historical re-enactors) are members of the Imperial family during their marriages, or during the investiture of a new Emperor. [3]

A woman's ability to put together a well-coordinated ensemble, sensitive to the passing seasons and elegantly displaying forbidden colors or specially granted brocades was far more important than her physical beauty, and the sight of sleeves became a popular romantic motif in poetry, novels, and art from the Heian Period. [3] I'll likely go more in-depth about color in another Hub--many of these color traditions still hold (i.e. bright colors in winter, pale pastels in spring, light, cool colors in summer, dark, warm tones in fall), but some have changed (i.e. in the Heian period, bright red hakama indicated a married woman, while a darker maroon indicated an unmarried girl in modern kimono 'grammar', bright red is a child's color while dark colors indicate a grown woman of refined taste). [3]

Male dress of the Heian period retained the narrow, round tunic-like collar reflecting the earlier period of influence from the Asian mainland, and men also wore a skirt-like trouser and an underrobe or two. [7] The same term had been used for the plain silk robe worn next to the skin and under layers of voluminous garments in the Heian period. [7]

The materials, colors, and layers used for the clothing differentiate them and their significance, as the looks are also often worn seasonally. [12] With traditional clothing, specific techniques are used and followed, such as metal applique, silk embroidery, and paste- resist. [12]

Western dress was adopted, with the emperor and empress helping to set an example for the rest of the country by occasionally wearing Western clothing. [7] The kesa also reflected fashionable taste in a more indirect way as a result of the custom for lay Buddhists to donate valuable clothing to temples. [7] Stitching techniques and the fusion of colors also distinguished the wealthy from the commoner, as those of higher power had a tendency to wear ornate, brighter clothing. [12] The peasants and lower classes of the Heian era wore simple clothing, similar to the 'kosode' undergarments worn by the aristocrats. [3]

Japan's native religion, Shintoism, coexisted with Buddhism, in keeping with a continuous theme in Japanese history of borrowing from the outside while preserving the most valued native traditions and ultimately transforming foreign ways into something uniquely Japanese. [7] Paul Varley's Japanese Culture is an excellent overview of Japanese history, with specific attention paid to the influence of Buddhism on Japanese culture. [3]

Such costumes did, however, change their over-all sleeve shape from oblong to squarish in response to an Edo period trend, and certain No robes with embroidered designs were occasionally influenced by contemporary fashion styles. [7] During the Edo period, most kosode -category costumes still preserved Muromachi and Momoyama period styles. [7] Kabuki costumes of the early twentieth century continued to resemble those of the Edo period. [7]


When the capital was moved to Kyoto at the end of the period it was destroyed, which was common practice in Japan. [5] In 995 there was a dangerous epidemic of measles (a new disease to Japan at the time) and 8 out of the 14 sangi level counselors died during a period of months. [27] Long before Karl Marx became a man of political renown he was an historian, and in Japan in the period after the Second World War it is fair to say that the majority of historians have been Marxist. [5] Late in the period Japan entered into direct diplomatic relations with the Manchurian kingdom of Po-hai, which claimed to be a successor state of Koguryo, and which controlled much of what is today North Korea, so that it could communicate directly with Japan by ship across the Japan Sea. [5] In the early days two or three thousand conscripts from eastern Japan were sent to serve as coast guards in Kyushu, but this was abandoned rather early in the period. [5] With more than 1,200 years of history as the imperial capital of Japan (794-1867), the lavish, elegant life of the nobles of the Heian period was perhaps Japan's finest period. [28]

Society became based on clans and was ruled overall by the Emperor of Japan whose capital was in Yamato province, now known as Nara. [5] Nara, or more correctly Heijokyo, as it was known then, was made the capital of Japan from 710 to 784 CE, after which time it was relocated to Nagaokakyo. [11] Nara, located around 30 km south of modern Kyoto, was the capital of ancient Japan between 710 and 784 CE. It gave its. [11] Kasuga Taisha is an ancient Shinto shrine located in a forest east of Nara, capital of Japan between 710 and 784 CE. Founded. [11] A statue of Hachiman is ceremoniously transferred from the Shinto Usa shrine to the Buddhist Todaiji shrine in Nara, Japan. [11] Balhae sent its first mission in 728 to Nara, which welcomed them as the successor state to Goguryeo, with which Japan had been allied until Silla unified the Three Kingdoms of Korea. [5] Bohai sent their first mission across the Sea of Japan to Nara in 728. [5]

Overall, the history of Nara coinage provides solid evidence of the fact that the Japanese domestic economy was still primitive by Chinese standards, which demonstrates in turn that the administrative system that was adopted was much more complicated than would have been required by the demands of Japanese society alone, and could scarcely have evolved without the impulse to attempt to raise Japan to the level of civilization attained by Korea and China. [5] POSSIBLY USEFUL The establishment of Nara, modeled on a Chinese capital, with lavish palaces and accumulated wealth, influenced by Buddhist thought and Chinese culture, brought about a dramatic alienation of Japanese aristocracy from the Japanese population. [5] The Japanese capital is moved from Fujiwarakyo to Nara (aka Heijokyo). [11] The Buddhist Kofukuji temple is established at Nara, main temple of the Japanese Fujiwara clan. [11] The first authentically Japanese gardens were built in the city Nara at the end of the eighth century. [5] Although resonating with foreign influence, the Nara culture remained uniquely Japanese. [5]

The Ryukyus were not made a part of Japan until the 19th century and did not come under Japanese political control until the 17th century. [27] The word kimono literally means "clothing", and up until the mid 19th century it was the form of dress worn by everyone in Japan. [17]

Date favoured by historians for the founding of the Kasuga Taisha Shinto shrine at Nara, Japan. [11] The capital at Nara, which gave its name to the new period, was styled after the grand Chinese Tang dynasty (唐, 618-907) capital at Chang'an (長安). [5] The Nara era lasted from about 710 to 794 CE, and marks the period where the capital of Nihon moved to Heijo-kyo (Nara city), which was modeled after the capital city of Tang China. [5] The early Heian period (794-967) continued Nara culture the Heian capital was patterned on the Chinese capital at Chang'an, as was Nara, but on a larger scale. [5] The Nara era ends when the capital moves from Nara (Heijōkyō 平城京 ) to Kyoto (Heian 平安 ), and the subsequent Heian Period begins. [5] One characteristic of the Nara and Heian periods is a gradual decline of Chinese influence which, nevertheless, remained strong. [5] The general rule throughout the Nara and Heian periods was that each politically important clan would have just one man in the Dajokan at a time, though the Fujiwara were frequently able to violate this rule and have several. [5] Each be specialized in a skilled task such as farming, warfare, shamanism, etc. Some of the most skilled of the important and difficult be such as metallurgy, who typically consisted or recent immigrants from the Korean peninsula, joined the lower ranks of the aristocracy in the Nara and Heian periods. [5]

VALITUD VALIKUD ALLIKAD(36 alusdokumenti, mis on paigutatud ülaltoodud aruande esinemissageduse järgi)


Welcome to Explore Nihon

Tere! Kuidas sul läheb? It’s nice to meet you. My name is Sam.

If you’re looking for an introduction into Japanese and the history and culture behind the language, you’re in the right place. I’m a firm believer that to understand your target language you need to get familiar with the culture and history behind it. There are certain concepts that you will be able to understand better because you have background knowledge. In my future posts, I will talk about formal and informal language. Japanese has both, and there are different ways to talk to different people. But why? The answer to this question lies in Japanese culture. There is a strict social hierarchy that dictates how you speak to people. You talk to strangers and your friends very differently. Sort of how we change how we talk depending on the situation. You wouldn’t talk to your friends the same way you do to your boss. Except it isn’t as noticeable in English.

In my next post get ready to start with the very basics. We’ll start going over premodern history. I’m currently taking my second Japanese history course, which is about modern Japan. Premodern Japan was the first one. So, everything I go over will be what I learned in that class, plus what I read in the textbook. Japan has a vast history that is very interesting and unique. The Jomon Period started around 14500 BCE. Compared to the US’s nearly 250 years, Japanese history is extensive.

I will leave you with one thing before I go. What is one Japanese word that most people know? Its Sushi, or すし(寿司), す(su) し(shi).


Part 2: Prehistory

Jomon c. 8,000-300 BC

The evidence of chipped stone tools suggests that humans inhabited Japan at least 30,000 years ago. “Neolithic” cultures called “Jomon” (that still retained stone tool traits of earlier periods), date to at least 10,000 BC. The Jomon people were hunters and gatherers who lived upon the rich resources of game, fish, and wild plants native to post-Ice Age Japan. One of the unusual features of Jomon culture is pottery—the oldest reliably dated on earth. By 8,000 BC a type of cord-wrapped pottery—with decorated lines made by wrapping or laying cords on wet clay – developed. Other clay objects are the so-called dogu (“earth god”) figurines. These are small statues that look something like “extra-terrestrials” (or Pokemon cartoon figures!) that may have been used in fertility worship. Always few in number, the Jomon peoples seem to have been centered on the Kanto plain area of Honshu island.

A dogu “earth god” figurine

Jomon pottery with rope design

Yaoyoi Period c. BC 300- AD 300

Japan first appears in the historical records of China in about 300 BC. In those records the inhabitants of Japan were known as the “Wa.” The records tell of a Queen named Pimiko (Himiko) who had a tribal domain in the southwest areas of Honshu and Kyushu. According to the accounts she lived in a hill-top fortress and was waited upon by 1,000 young women. Her brother handled communications outside the walls, acting as a sort of regent. The queen may have had a dual role as a type of shaman with links to the spirit world. It is not known if she was related to the gods. Eventually, Japanese emperors would trace descent directly to the Sun Goddess, Amaterasu, who along with her brother, were instrumental in the creation story of Japan.

The Sun Goddess Amaterasu emerges from her cave and dances

During the Yayoi period a number of new technological and agricultural elements arrived from the Asian mainland, most probably by boat from the Korean peninsula. Among the new cultural attributes were wet-rice agriculture, bronze and iron, new styles of pottery, livestock, and a whole host of cultural patterns having to do with village and elite life. Most likely, these elements of culture were carried to Japan by waves of immigrants who settled around the land, gradually displacing or absorbing the native populations. It is unclear how the aboriginal Ainu fit into the picture of these early periods of Japan, but warfare with displaced tribes continued for centuries.


  • 710 (Wadō 3): Japan's capital city was established in Nara (Heijō-kyō). Δ]
  • 712 (Wadō 5): Kojiki was finished. Ε ]
  • 720 (Yōrō 4): Nihon Shoki lõpetatud. Ζ ]
  • 749-752 (Tenpyō-shōhō 1-4): Emperor Shōmu orders the creation of a large statue of Buddha (Daibutsu) at Tōdai-jiΗ]
  • 760 (Tenpyō-hōji 4): Man'yōshū lõpetatud. ⎖ ]
  • 784 (Enryaku 3): The emperor moves the capital to Nagaoka⎗]
  • 788 (Enryaku 7): The Buddhist monk Saichō⎘] establishes a monastery on Mt Hiei
  • December 17, 794 (Enryaku 13, 21st day of the 10th month): The Emperor moves by carriage in a grand procession from Nara to Heian-kyō. ⎙ ]
  1. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. pp. 698-699. ISBN𧓒-0-674-01753-5 . https://books.google.com/?id=p2QnPijAEmEC&pg=PA698 .  
  2. ↑Library of Congress Country Studies, Japan,"Nara and Heian Periods" retrieved 2011-11-22.
  3. ↑Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, lk. 56.
  4. ↑ Jien; Delmer Myers Brown, Ichirō Ishida (1979). 愚管抄: A Translation and Study of the Gukansho, an Interpretative History of Japan Written in 1219. University of California Press. p. 271. ISBN𧓒-0-520-03460-0 . https://books.google.com/?id=w4f5FrmIJKIC&pg=PA271 .  
  5. ↑ Ellington, Lucien. (2009). Japan, lk. 28.
  6. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 698. ISBN𧓒-0-674-01753-5 . https://books.google.com/?id=p2QnPijAEmEC&pg=PA698 .  
  7. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press. p. 545. ISBN𧓒-0-674-01753-5 . https://books.google.com/?id=p2QnPijAEmEC&pg=PA545 .  
  8. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Jaapani entsüklopeedia. Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus. p. 710. ISBN 𧓒-0-674-01753-5. https: //books.google.com/? Id = p2QnPijAEmEC & amppg = PA710.  
  9. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Jaapani entsüklopeedia. Harvardi Ülikooli Kirjastus. lk. 136-137. ISBN 𧓒-0-674-01753-5. https: //books.google.com/? Id = p2QnPijAEmEC & amppg = PA136.  
  10. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Jaapani entsüklopeedia. Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus. p. 608. ISBN 𧓒-0-674-01753-5. https: //books.google.com/? Id = p2QnPijAEmEC & amppg = PA608.  
  11. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Jaapani entsüklopeedia. Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus. p. 682. ISBN 𧓒-0-674-01753-5. https: //books.google.com/? Id = p2QnPijAEmEC & amppg = PA682.  
  12. ↑ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric (2002). Jaapani entsüklopeedia. Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus. p. 805. ISBN 𧓒-0-674-01753-5. https: //books.google.com/? Id = p2QnPijAEmEC & amppg = PA805.  
  13. ↑ Jien ; Delmer Myers Brown, Ichirō Ishida (1979). 愚 管 抄: 1219. aastal kirjutatud Jaapani tõlgendusajaloo Gukansho tõlge ja uurimus. University of California Press. p. 279. ISBN 𧓒-0-520-03460-0. https: //books.google.com/? Id = w4f5FrmIJKIC & amppg = PA279.  


Vaata videot: Jaapani muusika (Mai 2022).


Kommentaarid:

  1. Shaktilkree

    cool ... it was interesting to read

  2. Kendal

    Sul pole õigus. Ma olen kindel.

  3. Siodhachan

    Wonderful, this is a funny thing



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