Richmond


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Richmond, Ida -Virginia, on James -jõe navigeerimise eesotsas olev meresadam, mida esimest korda külastas kapten John Smith aastal 1607. Inglismaal Thamesi väikelinna Richmondi järgi nimetatud emigrandid asusid sellesse piirkonda elama 1637. aastal. Aastal 1644 ehitati Fort Charles, et kaitsta asunikke põliselanike rünnakute eest. Richmondist sai Virginia Rahvaste Ühenduse pealinn 1779.

Richmond liideti linnana 1782. aastal ja linnana aastal 1842. Suurema osa Ameerika kodusõja ajal sai Richmondist Konföderatsiooni pealinn. President Jefferson Davis asutas linnas oma valitsuse ja sai seetõttu liidu armee peamiseks sihtmärgiks.

1862. aasta suveks oli peamine liidu armee George McClellani juhtimisel valmis Richmondile marssima. McClellan ja tema 115 000 meest kohtusid konföderatsiooni armeega Williamsburgis 4. mail. McClellan kolis oma väed Shenandoahi orgu ning koos John C. Fremontiga piirasid Irvin McDowell ja Nathaniel Banks Thomas Stonewall Jacksoni ja tema 17 000 -mehelist armeed.

Thomas Stonewall Jackson oli president Jefferson Davise käsul proovida Richmondi rünnakut edasi lükata. Jackson ründas John C. Fremontit Cross Keysil, enne kui Port Republicis Irvin McDowelli sisse lülitas. Seejärel tormas Jackson oma vägesid itta, et liituda Joseph E. Johnsoni ja George McClellaniga võitlevate konföderatsiooni vägedega.

1862. aasta mais ründas kindral Joseph E. Johnson umbes 41 800 mehega Fair Oaksis McClellani pisut suuremat armeed. Liidu armee kaotas 5031 meest ja Konföderatsiooni armee 6134. Johnson sai lahingu ajal raskelt haavata ja kindral Robert E. Lee asus nüüd konföderatsiooni vägesid juhtima.

Kaks kuud hiljem kohtus George McClellan Antietamis Robert E. Lee ja Thomas Stonewall Jacksoniga. Septembril ründasid McClellan ja kindralmajor Ambrose Burnside üle 75 300 sõjaväelase 37330 Konföderatsiooni sõduri vastu. Lee pidas vastu, kuni Ambrose Hill ja täiendused saabusid. See oli kõige kulukam päev sõjas, kus liidu armee tappis 2108 inimest, sai haavata 9549 ja kadus 753 inimest. Abraham Lincoln lükkas nüüd Richmondi vallutamise katsed edasi ja käskis McClellani tagasi Washingtoni sõnadega: "Mu kallis McClellan: Kui sa ei taha armeed kasutada, tahaksin seda mõneks ajaks laenata."

Märtsis 1865 liitus William Sherman Peterburis Ulysses S. Granti ja liidu armeega. Aprillil ründas Sherman Five Forksit. Konföderaadid eesotsas kindralmajor George Picetiga olid ülekoormatud ja kaotasid 5200 meest. Uudiseid kuuldes otsustas Robert E. Lee Richmondist loobuda ja liituda Joseph E. Johnsoniga, püüdes Shermani armeed Lõuna -Carolinas peatada.

President Jefferson Davis, tema pere ja valitsusametnikud olid sunnitud Richmondist põgenema. Liidu armee võttis Richmondi kontrolli alla ja 4. aprillil sisenes linna Abraham Lincoln. Kümne meremehe kaitse all kõndis ta tänavatel ja kui üks mustanahaline mees tema ette põlvili langes, ütles Lincoln talle: "Ära põlvita minu poole. Sa pead põlvitama ainult Jumala ees ja tänama teda oma vabaduse eest."

Richmond taastus kiiresti pärast Ameerika kodusõda. Linn on suur tubakaturg ja pangakeskus. Selle pindala on nüüd 155,7 ruutkilomeetrit (60,1 ruut miili). Rahvaarv kasvas 1980. aastal 219 214 -ni, kuid langes seejärel ja vähenes 1998. aastaks 194 173 -ni. 1990. aasta rahvaloenduse andmetel moodustavad mustanahalised 55,4 protsenti elanikkonnast.


Meie ajalugu

Richmond liideti omavalitsuseks 10. novembril 1879 ja määrati linnaks 3. detsembril 1990.

Richmondi saared ehitas üles ja kujundas võimas Fraseri jõgi ning just see jõgi on meie kasvu kujundanud. Kalandus ja jõe rikkalik delta muld on olnud meie majanduse ja tööstuse arengu aluseks. Richmondi ajalugu on juurdunud kalanduse, põllumajanduse, laevanduse, lennunduse ning hiljem tootmis-, teenindus- ja tehnoloogiatööstuses.

Asutajad
Richmond on paljude rahvaste maa. Põlisrahvad tulid esimestena saartele kala püüdma ja marju korjama. Coast Salishi bändid olid teadaolevalt püstitanud ajutised laagrid ning väidetavalt asusid neil saartel aastased eluruumid, mis olid aasta -aastalt hajutatud ja kolitud. Samuti on teateid küladest, mis eksisteerisid korraga Stevestoni lähedal ja Meresaarel.

Esimesed Euroopa asukad sellesse piirkonda olid 1860. aastatel põllumehed. Varajase asustuse muster oli orienteeritud jõele, kuna paadiga oli lihtsam ringi liikuda kui Lulu saare madalate, sageli soiste sisepiirkondade ületamine. Fraseri jõgi võimaldas ka transpordiühendust Richmondiga lähedal asuvast New Westminsteri linnast.

Kuigi Fraseri suudmes asuvate saarte olemus viitab sellele, et need olid taludele ideaalsed kohad, ei olnud põlluharimine lihtne puhastamine, tammimine ja mõnel juhul maa kuivendamine peamine ülesanne, millega tuli tegeleda enne põhitööd põllutööga võiks alata. Alustades oli põllumajanduse mitmekesisus tähelepanuväärne. Lisaks teravilja- ja söödakultuuridele oli köögivilja- ja marjakasvatus üliedukas. Võib -olla olid tuntuma kohaliku põllumajanduse kaks tahku piimandus ja marjakasvatus, millest viimane on tänapäevani oluline. Eelkõige kaks marjakultuuri, mustikad ja jõhvikad, õitsevad Lulu saare kesk- ja idaosa turvasemas pinnases.

Vajadus ehitada tammid oli oluline tegur, mis ajendas varaseid asunikke esitama nõukogu leitnant-kubernerile avaldust, et anda 1879. aastal Richmondile omavalitsuslik staatus. Kohalik omavalitsus oli vajalik tammide, teede, sildade ja muude teenuste pakkumisel arendada ja hooldada. See varajane algus tähendab, et Richmond on meie naaberlinnast Vancouverist seitse aastat vanem.

Kalanduse rohkus meelitas meie kallastele palju rohkem inimesi. 1880ndate aastate algusest tõid Richmondi kalalaevastikud oma saagi koju, et seda töödelda ühes paljudest jõe ääres tekkinud konservitehastest. See tööstus tegi enamat kui kala turule toomist. Õitsesid ka sellega seotud tööstusharud, näiteks paadiehitus.

Kalatööstuse elujõud meelitas Richmondisse Jaapani kalureid, lisades mitte ainult tööstusele, vaid ka kogu meie kogukonna rikkusele. Kasvavad konserveerimis- ja paadiehitustööstused tõid piirkonda rohkem võõrtöölisi. Nende hulgas oli põlisrahvaid ja Hiina lepingulisi töötajaid, kes tulid algselt Briti Columbiasse raudteed ehitama. Eelkõige sai Stevestonist kalatööstuse keskus, mis saavutas rahvusvahelise kuulsuse lõhekonservide kvaliteedi ja rikkuse poolest. Vaatamata muutuvate aegade survele on Steveston säilinud ainulaadse ja mitmekesise kogukonnana, mis säilitab tugevad sidemed merega.

Richmond meelitab jätkuvalt sisse rännet paljudest teistest riikidest ja mujalt Kanadast, hiljutise rändega, eriti Hiinast ja Hongkongist. Meie kultuuriline mitmekesisus on rikastanud meie linna ja teinud Richmondist põneva elukoha.

Richmondit nähakse sageli uue kogukonnana, sest see on viimase paari aastakümne jooksul näinud nii dramaatilist kasvu, kuid te ei pea kaugele vaatama, et näha meie ajalugu kujundanud tegureid. Maa, jõgi ja meri muutsid Richmondi ainulaadseks üle sajandi tagasi ja see kehtib ka tänapäeval.

Lennunduse ajalugu
Richmond oli ja on Briti Columbia lennunduskeskus. Esimene lend eKr tehti 25. märtsil 1910 Minoru hipodroomilt. Vancouveri esimene lennujaam oli Richmondi Lulu saarel. Mitte palju rohkem kui muruplats ja mõned väikesed teenindushooned praeguse Alexandra tee ja aedlinna tee lähedal, jäi lennujaam sinna kuni kolimiseni Richmondi mere saarele 1931. aastal.

Lähiajaloos on lennujaam olnud Richmondi jätkuva arengu peamine tegur. Lennujaama lähedus on aidanud Richmondisse meelitada suurt hulka töötlevaid ja kõrgtehnoloogilisi tööstusharusid. Vancouveri rahvusvahelisest lennujaamast on saanud oluline värav Kanada ja teiste Vaikse ookeani piirkonna riikide vahel.

Kelle või mille järgi Richmond sai nime?
On kolm teooriat selle kohta, kuidas Richmondi linn, endine Richmondi linna vald Briti Columbias, sai oma nime.

Üks on see, et see sai nime Ontarios asuva Richmondi linna järgi, millest kolm allakirjutanuid Richmondi aleviku inkorporeerimise taotlusele allkirjastasid. tuli.

Teine on see, et selle nime andis Sea Islandi ühe esimese asutaja tütar “Richmond View”, sest vaade üle Fraseri jõe tõi meelde mälestused tema endisest kodust Uus -Lõuna -Walesis, Austraalias.

Viimane on see, et see sai nime ühe esimese asuniku sünnikoha, Richmondi, Yorkshire'i, Inglismaa järgi.

Kahjuks ei jätnud esimese (1879. aastal moodustatud) vallavalitsuse liikmed kirjalikku kinnitust selle kohta, kuidas uus vald oma nime sai. Hilisemad uuringud ja siinsetelt esmaasukatelt annetatud teave on näidanud ülaltoodud seoseid Ontario, Austraalia ja Inglismaa paikadega.

1990. aastal määrati Richmondi alevivalitsus linnaks - nüüd Richmondi linnaks.

Muud teabeallikad
Richmondi ajaloo kohta lisateabe saamiseks külastage meie muuseumi, arhiive ja muinsuskaitseobjekte või hankige kohalikus raamatukogus "Richmondi laps Fraseri" koopia või ostke koopia Richmondi arhiivist.

Ajaloolisemate fotode vaatamiseks vaadake jaotist Arhiivid Fotootsing.

Ajalooliste paikade kohta lisateabe saamiseks vaadake pärandinventari ja avalike pärandikohtade jaotisi.


Sisu

Nimi Muuda

Piirkond oli keskajal tuntud kui Shene, see nimi registreeriti esmakordselt (as Sceon) 10. sajandil ja mis on säilinud naaberpiirkondades East Sheen (tuntud ka kui Sheen) ja North Sheen. Mõis läks kuninglikesse kätesse ja mõisahoone sai lõpuks nimeks Sheen Palace, enne kui see hävis suuresti tulekahjus 1497. aastal. Henry VII ehitas selle uuesti üles ja nimetas selle 1501. aastal Richmondi paleeks, vihjates oma Richmondi krahvkonnale ja tema esivanemate auks. Richmond Yorkshire'is. Seotud asula kandis sama nime, kuigi mõned aastad kasutati neid kahte nime sageli koos (näiteks "Shene muidu nimega Richemount"). [11] [12]

Kuninglik residents Muuda

Henry I elas lühidalt kuninga majas "Sheanes". Aastal 1299 viis Edward I, "šotlaste haamer", kogu oma õukonna Sheeni mõisahoonesse, veidi sillast ida poole ja jõe äärde, ning sellest sai kuninglik elukoht. William Wallace hukati Londonis aastal 1305 ja just Sheenis langesid Šotimaa volinikud põlvili põlvili enne Edwardit.

Edward II asutas pärast šotlaste lüüasaamist Bannockburni lahingus 1314. aastal Sheeni juures karmeliitide kloostri. Kui poiss-kuningas Edward III 1327. aastal troonile tuli, andis ta mõisa oma emale Isabellale. Edward kulutas hiljem parandustele üle 2000 naela, kuid töö keskel suri Edward ise mõisas, aastal 1377. Richard II oli esimene Inglise kuningas, kes muutis Sheeni oma peamiseks elukohaks, mille ta tegi aastal 1383. Kaksteist aastat hiljem , Richard oli oma naise Böömimaa Anne surma tõttu 28-aastaselt nii häiritud, et 16. sajandi inglise krooniku Holinshedi sõnul "põhjustas ta [mõisa] mahakukkumise ja hävitamise, samas kui endised kuningad sellest maast, kes oli linnarahva väsinud, kasutas harjumuspäraselt seal lõbustuspaika ja teenis oma puhkust. " See ehitati ümber aastatel 1414–1422, kuid hävis tulekahjus 1497. aastal. [13]

Pärast seda tulekahju ehitas Henry VII Sheeni uue elukoha ja 1501. aastal nimetas ta selle Richmondi paleeks. Teatriselts, kuhu Shakespeare kuulus, esitas seal Elizabeth I valitsemisajal mõningaid näidendeid. [14] Kuningannana veetis Elizabeth suure osa ajast Richmondis, kuna talle meeldis hülgata jahti "Newmond Parke of Richmonde" (nüüd Old Deer) Park). Ta suri palees 24. Suurem osa paleest oli lagunenud 1779. aastaks, kuid säilinud struktuuride hulka kuuluvad riidekapp, trompetite maja (ehitatud umbes 1700. aastal) ja värava maja, mis ehitati 1501. aastal. Sellel on viis magamistuba ja see anti 65-aastase rendilepinguga Crown Estate Commissioners 1986. aastal.

18. ja 19. sajandi areng Edit

Lisaks vana palee territooriumile jäi Richmond kuni 18. sajandini peamiselt põllumajandusmaaks. Valge Lodge, mis asub praeguse Richmondi pargi keskel, ehitati George II jahimajaks ja sel perioodil suurenes nende territooriumil asuvate suurte majade - näiteks Asgill House ja Pembroke Lodge - arv märkimisväärselt. Neile järgnes veel oluliste majade, sealhulgas Downe House'i, Wicki maja ja The Wicki ehitamine Richmondi mäele, kuna see piirkond muutus üha moesemaks elupaigaks. Richmondi sild valmis 1777. aastal, asendades praamipunkti, mis ühendas idakaldal asuva Richmondi kesklinna naaberpiirkonnaga Ida -Twickenhami. Tänapäeval on see koos hästi säilinud Gruusia terrassidega, mis ümbritsevad Richmond Greeni ja ääristavad Richmondi mäe kuni selle harjani, nüüd hoone nimekirja. [16]

Kui Richmond jätkas õitsengut ja laienemist 19. sajandil, ehitati Richmond Hilli tänavatele palju luksuslikke elamuid, samuti kesklinna kauplusi, et teenida üha kasvavat elanikkonda. Juulis 1892 moodustas korporatsioon aktsiaseltsi Richmondi (Surrey) elektrilise valguse ja energiaettevõtte ning see ühendas linna elektriga umbes 1896. aastaks.

Maailmasõjad Redigeeri

Nagu paljud teised Suurbritannia suured linnad, kaotas Richmond Esimeses ja Teises maailmasõjas palju noori. Teises maailmasõjas hukkus õhurünnakutes 96 inimest, mille tagajärjel lammutati ka 297 maja. [17] Richmondi sõjamälestusmärk, mis meenutab nüüd mõlemat sõda, paigaldati 1921. aastal Whittakeri avenüü lõppu, vana raekoja ja Riverside'i vahele. [18]

Praegune redigeerimine

Richmondi linn asub Londoni Richmond upon Thamesi linnaosas ja on osa Ühendkuningriigi parlamendi Richmond Parki valimisringkonnast. 2019. aastal valitud parlamendiliige on liberaaldemokraatide esindaja Sarah Olney. Richmond kuulub ka Londoni Assamblee edela valimisringkonda, mida esindab Nicholas Rogers.

Ajalooline redigeerimine

Richmond, varem tuntud kui Shene, oli osa suurest iidsest Kingston upon Thamesi kogudusest Surrey Kingstoni sajas. Richmond St Mary Magdalene kogudus, mis oli Kingstonist Thamesist juba varakult eraldatud, moodustas alates 1890. aastast Richmondi linnaosa. [19] Vallalinna laiendati 1892. aastal Kew, Petershami ja Põhja -Sheeni piirkonna lisamisega. Mortlake [9] 1933. aastal lisati linnaosasse Ham. [9] 1965. aastal kaotati kihelkonna- ja munitsipaalpiirkond 1963. aasta Londoni valitsuse seadusega, millega viidi Richmond üle Suur -Londonisse. Koos endise Twickenhami linnaosa ja endise Barnesi linnaosaga moodustas see uue linnaosa - Londoni Richmond upon Thamesi linnaosa. [20]

Richmond asub Ida-Twickenhami vastas, mis on tehniliselt Thamesi jõe lõunakaldal, kuid selle jõe kalduvuse tõttu on linn kohe lähimast jõeosast põhja ja kirde poole. Thames kõverdab linna ümber ja seejärel pöördub Kew, alustades Petershamist, tagasi kindlamale lääne -ida teljele. Jõgi on Richmondis endiselt loodetega, nii et suuremate reisijate- ja kaubaliikluse jätkamiseks mõõna ajal avati 1894. aastal poolvee lukk, mida kasutatakse siis, kui külgnev tamm on paigas. See pais tagab, et alati on minimaalne veesügavus 5 jalga 8 tolli. (1,72 m) jõe keskosa suunas Richmondi ja Teddingtoni vahel, olenemata loodete seisust. Luku ja tammi kohal on väike kõnnitee.

Richmond on hästi varustatud roheliste ja avalike ruumidega, mis on avalikkusele kättesaadavad. Linna südames asub Richmond Green, mis on ligikaudu ruudukujuline ja koos väikese rohelisega, mis on väike lisaroheline, mis ulatub selle kagunurgast, on 12 aakri (0,05 km 2) suurune. Greeni ümbritsevad hästi kasutatud metallkattega teed, mis pakuvad nii elanikele kui ka külastajatele õiglast sõidukite parkimist. Lõunanurk viib linna peamisse ostupiirkonda läänenurgas on vana väravahoone, mis viib läbi teiste lossi ülejäänud hoonete juurde põhja nurgas on jalakäijate juurdepääs Old Deer Parki (pluss sõidukite juurdepääs omavalitsustele) . Park on 360 aakri suurune (1,5 km 2) Crown Estate maastik, mis ulatub linnast mööda jõeäärt kuni UNESCO maailmapärandi nimistusse kuuluva Kewi kuningliku botaanikaaia piirini. See sisaldab laia rohelist muruplatsi ja spordirajatisi ning I klass loetles endise kuninga vaatluskeskuse, mis püstitati George III -le 1769. aastal. Linna peamine ostutänav George Street on samuti kuninga nime saanud. [21] [22]

Kesklinn asub veidi alla 10 meetri (33 jalga) üle merepinna. Kesklinnast lõuna pool, Richmondi sillast kuni 50 meetri kõrgusele tõustes, asub Richmondi mägi. Vahetult pärast Richmond Hilli tippu jääb Richmond Park, mis on 2360 aakri suurune ala (9,55 km 2 3,7 ruut miili) ja looduslikult hõivatud nõmme ja metsamaa, mis algselt olid jahipidamiseks piiratud ning moodustavad nüüd Londoni suurima kuningliku pargi. [23] Park on riiklik looduskaitseala, [24] teaduslikult huvipakkuv ala [25] [26] ja eriline kaitseala [27] ning see on I astme ajalooliste Inglismaa ajalooliste parkide registris. ja Inglismaal ajaloolise huviga aiad. [28] Charles I lõi selle 1634. aastal [29] hirvepargiks ja praegu on seal 630 puna- ja metskitsi [30], kes hulgaliselt pargist läbi liiguvad. Pargis on mitmeid liiklus- ja jalakäijate väravaid, mis viivad Sheeni, Roehamptoni, Putney, Kingstoni ja Hami ümbritsevatesse piirkondadesse.

Lähimad kohad Muuda

Londonis on kõige vähem vaesust Richmondi -Thamesi linnaosas Londonis, millest Põhja -ja Lõuna -Richmond moodustavad kaks hoolealust. [31] Richmondi linnas on linnaosa suurim kaubanduskeskus ja see on Londoni plaani järgi klassifitseeritud suureks keskuseks. See on väljakujunenud turunduspiirkond. [32] Selle kompaktses keskuses on ligikaudu 50 000 m2 kaubanduspinda, mis on suures osas keskendunud George Streetile, The Quadrantile ja Hill Streetile. See koosneb peaaegu eranditult tänavatest, millest suurimad on Marks & amp; Spencer, Boots, Tesco Metro ja Waitrose. 2013. aastal avati uus toiduaine, kus avati 2013. aastal uus toiduainete turg, mille pindala oli 20 000 jalga 2. [33] Ülejäänud kesklinna kauplused on suures osas üksikud.

Enamasti sõltumatud ettevõtted ääristavad kitsad alleed, mis kulgevad George Streeti juurest Richmond Greeni poole ja lähevad üles Richmondi mäest üles. Laupäeviti on Heroni väljakul põllumajandustootjate turg. Richmondil on üks suur eraldiseisev supermarket Sainsbury's, kus on parkla 420 autole linnast ida pool, Põhja-Sheeni raudteejaama lähedal.

Richmondi mäe harjal, mis vooderdab Friars Stile Roadi, samuti Kew Roadi botaanikaaia poole ja Sheen Roadil, leiate erinevaid mugavusi ostvaid kauplusi, restorane ja kohvikuid.

Richmond pakub ka laias valikus kontorimajutusi ning on mitme rahvusvahelise ettevõtte, sealhulgas eBay, PayPali ja The Securitas Groupi peakorter Ühendkuningriigis/Euroopas, samuti mitmete riiklike, piirkondlike ja kohalike ettevõtete peakontor. Londoni oma Õhtune standard on kirjeldanud Richmondit kui "Londoni kasvava tehnoloogiatööstuse peksvat südant". [34]

Richmondi jõeäärne redigeerimine

Thames on suur panustaja Richmondi paljudes inimestes tekitatud huvides. Sellel on Richmondi silla ümber lai esikülg, kus on palju baare ja restorane. Richmondi jõeäärne võlgneb suure osa oma uus-gruusia stiilis arhitekt Quinlan Terryle, kelle ülesandeks oli piirkonna taastamine (1984–87). Jões endas on siinkohal lehtedega korporatsioonisaar ja kaks väikest lillepoti saart. Thamesi poolne kõnnitee võimaldab juurdepääsu Richmondi kaudu elamutele, pubidele ja terrassidele ning erinevatele rohelustele, radadele ja jalgteedele. Thamesi jõeosa Richmondi mäe all on tuntud kui Horse Reach ja hõlmab Gloveri saart. Mõlemal pool jõge on veoteed ja rajad ning neid kasutavad palju jalakäijad, jooksjad ja jalgratturid. Westminsteri reisijateveoassotsiatsiooni paadid, mille litsents on London River Services, sõidavad iga päev Kewi ja Hampton Court'i palee vahel, kutsudes Richmondi igas suunas.

Richmond Green Muuda

Richmond Green, mida on kirjeldatud kui "üks ilusamaid linnarohelisi, mis on säilinud kõikjal Inglismaal", [35] on sisuliselt ruudukujuline ja selle laialehiste puudega raamitud rohumaa ulatub ligikaudu kaheteistkümne aakri suurusele alale. Suvistel nädalavahetustel ja riigipühadel meelitab roheline palju elanikke ja külastajaid. Sellel on pikaajaline spordiürituste korraldamise ajalugu alates 16. sajandist, turniirid ja vibulaskmise võistlused on toimunud haljasalal, samas kui kriketivõistlusi on toimunud alates 18. sajandi keskpaigast [36], mis jätkub tänapäevani. Kuni viimase ajani arvati, et esimene registreeritud maakondadevaheline kriketimäng mängiti 1730. aastal Richmond Greenil Surrey ja Middlesexi vahel. Nüüd on aga teada, et varasem matš Kenti ja Surrey vahel toimus Dartfordis 1709. aastal. [37]

Greenist läänes asub Old Palace Lane, mis kulgeb õrnalt alla jõeni. Üks Richmondi vanimaid teid, algselt oli see teekond jõest, kuhu kaubad laaditi ja laaditi kraanaga, kuni "kaupmehe sissepääsuni" Richmondi paleesse. [38] Vasakul küljel on hästi säilinud kolmekorruseliste majade tuntud terrass, mida tuntakse kui Maids of Honor Row. Need ehitati 1724. aastal George II kuninganna abikaasa kuninganna Caroline'i teenijatele (usaldusväärsed kuninglikud garderoobiteenijad). Lapsepõlves elas viktoriaanlik maadeavastaja Richard Burton numbril 2. [39]

Praegu on Greeni põhja-, lääne- ja lõunapool elamud, samas kui George Streetiga ühendav idapool on suures osas jae- ja kaubanduslik. Avalikud hooned ääristavad Little Greeni idakülge ning pubid ja kohvikud asuvad nurgas Paved Court'i ja Golden Courti ääres. Need alleed on ääristatud enamasti eraomanduses olevate butiikidega.

Richmond Hill Muuda

Osaliselt üles Richmondi mäest on moonivabrik, kus töötavad peamiselt puudega endised sõjaväelased ja naised, ning mis toodab mälestuspäevaks igal novembril müüdavaid moonid.

Vaade ülevalt lääne suunas Windsorisse on juba ammu kuulus, inspireerinud maalid sellistelt meistritelt nagu J. M. W. Turner ja Sir Joshua Reynolds [8] ning ka luule. [8] Ühe eriti suurejoonelise vaate kirjelduse leiab Sir Walter Scotti romaanist Midlothiani süda (1818). On levinud eksiarvamus, et rahvalaul "Lass of Richmond Hill" on seotud selle künkaga, kuid laulus olnud noor naine elas Yorkshire Dalesis Richmondis Hill House'is. [40]

Peale Twickenhami suure ragbi staadioni ning Heathrowst maanduva ja õhkutõusva lennuki on stseen kahesaja aastaga vähe muutunud. Richmond Hilli vaade on nüüd osa Thamesi maastikustrateegiast, mille eesmärk on kaitsta ja täiustada seda jõekoridori osa Londonisse. [41]

Lai ja kruusane jalutuskäik kulgeb mööda mäeharja ja jääb teelt kõrvale, vooderdatud pinkidega, mis võimaldab jalakäijatel katkematut vaadet üle Thamesi oru koos külastajate infotahvlitega, mis kirjeldavad huvipunkte. Thamesi jõeni kalduvad terrassiaiad, mis rajati 1880ndatel ja mida laiendati jõele umbes 40 aastat hiljem. [42]

Mäe juhtiv omadus on endine Royal Star and Garter Home 2010. aastatel, mis müüdi arendamiseks ja muudeti elamukorteriteks. Esimese maailmasõja ajal võeti selle koha vana hotell Star ja sukapael, mis oli 18. ja 19. sajandil populaarne meelelahutuskoht, kuid suleti 1906. aastal, ja võeti kasutusele sõjaväehaiglana. [43] Pärast sõda asendati see uue hoonega, mis pakkus majutust ja hooldusvõimalusi 180 raskelt vigastatud sõjaväelasele. See müüdi 2013. aastal pärast seda, kui kodu juhtiv heategevusfond jõudis järeldusele, et hoone ei vasta enam kaasaegsetele nõuetele ning seda ei saa hõlpsalt ega majanduslikult uuendada. Usaldus avas täiendava kodu Solihullis, Lääne-Midlandsis, ja ülejäänud Richmondi elanikud kolisid 2013. aastal uude otstarbeks ehitatud hoonesse Surbitonis. [44]

Richmond Park Muuda

Richmond Hilli tipus, endise kuningliku tähe ja sukahoidja kodu vastas, asub Richmondi värava sissepääs Richmondi parki. Park on riiklik looduskaitseala, teaduslikult huvipakkuv ala ja eriline kaitseala. Suurim Londoni kuninglikest parkidest, selle lõi Charles I 1634. aastal hirvepargina ning praegu on seal üle 600 puna- ja metskitse. Richmondi värav jääb koidiku ja hämariku vahel liiklusele avatuks.

King Henry's Mound, II klassi loetletud [45] neoliitikumi matmishaud [46], on pargi kõrgeim punkt. Küngast avaneb kaitstud vaade Londoni linna Püha Pauluse katedraalile üle 10 miili (16 km) itta, mis loodi 1710. aastal. Erinevatel aegadel on künka nimi olnud seotud Henry VIII või tema isaga Henry VII. [46] Siiski puuduvad tõendid legendi toetuseks, et Henry VIII seisis küngas, et jälgida püha Pauluse silti, et Anne Boleyn hukati tornis ja et ta võis siis Jane Seymouriga abielluda. [46]

Kuningas Henry küngas asub Pembroke Lodge'i territooriumil, mis on loetletud II klassis. [47] 1847. aastal sai sellest majast toonase peaministri lord John Russelli [48] kodu, kes ajas seal palju valitsusasju ja kostitas kuninganna Victoria, välismaiste kuningriikide, aristokraatide, kirjanike (Dickens, Thackeray, Longfellow, Tennyson) ja teised selle aja märkimisväärsed inimesed, sealhulgas Garibaldi. See oli hiljem Lord John Russelli lapselapse, filosoofi, matemaatiku ja ühiskonnakriitiku Bertrand Russelli lapsepõlvekodu. Nüüd on see populaarne restoran, kust avaneb vaade Thamesi orule.

Samuti on pargis ja II klassi loetletud kuninglik residents Thatched House Lodge. Alates 1963. aastast on see olnud printsess Alexandra, auväärse leedi Ogilvy, kuninganna Elizabeth II nõbu, kodu. Teise maailmasõja ajal oli see kindral Dwight D Eisenhoweri kodu, kellest sai hiljem Ameerika Ühendriikide president. [49]

Muuseumid ja galeriid Muuda

The Richmondi muuseum, Richmondi vanas raekojas, Richmondi silla lähedal, on väljapanekuid Richmondi, Hami, Petershami ja Kewi ajaloo kohta. Selle vahelduvad näitused, [50] haridustegevus ja ürituste programm hõlmavad kogu kaasaegset linnaosa. Muuseumi esiletõstetud kohtade hulka kuuluvad 16. sajandi klaas Richmondi paleest ja maal, Terrass ja vaade Richmondi mäest, Surrey Hollandi joonestaja ja maalikunstniku Leonard Knyffi (1650–1722) poolt, mis on osa Richmond upon Thamesi linnaosa kunstikogust. [51] Sissepääs muuseumi on tasuta. [52]

The Riverside galerii, samuti vanas raekojas, pakub aastaringset kohalike kunstnike näituste programmi, sealhulgas maale, trükiseid ja fotosid. Sissepääs on tasuta.

Teatrid ja kinod Redigeeri

Richmondis on kaks teatrit. Richmondi teater Little Greenil on hiline viktoriaanlik ehitis, mille kujundas Frank Matcham ning mille restaureeris ja laiendas Carl Toms 1990. aastal. Teatris on iganädalane näidendite ja muusikalide ajakava, mille annavad tavaliselt professionaalsed ringreisiettevõtted, ning West Endi-eelseid etendusi saab mõnikord näha. Seal on jõulu- ja uusaasta pantomiimitraditsioon ning siia on ilmunud paljud Suurbritannia suurimad muusikasaalid ja pantomiimiesitajad.

Richmondi raudteejaama lähedal on Orange Tree Theatre, mis asutati 1971. aastal Orange Tree pubi kohal asuvas ruumis. Kui publik suurenes, tekkis surve leida sobivam ruum ja 1991. aastal kolis ettevõte oma praegustesse ruumidesse ümberehitatud algkoolis. 172-kohaline teater ehitati spetsiaalselt vooru teatriks. Ainuüksi oma lavastusi esitledes on ta saavutanud riikliku maine oma töö kvaliteedi poolest uute näidendite lavastamisel ning teenimatult unustatud vanade näidendite ja hooletusse jäetud klassikute avastamise eest. [53]

Linnas on kaks kino, kunstimaja Curzon in Water Lane ja Odeoni kino, kus on kokku seitse ekraani kahes kohas, ühe fuajee on tunnustatud kui ainus Richmondi sillalt nähtav peatänavahoone ja teine ​​komplekt on asub lähedal Red Lion Streetil.

Pubid ja baarid Muuda

Paljud avalikud majad ja baarid on hajutatud kogu Richmondi kesklinnas ning jõe ääres ja mäest üles, piisavalt erinevaid, et rahuldada enamikku maitseid. Üks vanimaid on The Cricketers, kus serveeritakse õlut alates 1770. aastast, kuigi algne hoone põletati maha aastal 1844. See asendati peagi siin näidatud praeguse hoonega. Whitbreadi õlletehase asutaja Samuel Whitbread kuulus sellele osaliselt koos Collinsi perekonnaga, kellel oli vana palee lähedal Water Lane'is õlletehas. [54] II klassi pubidesse kuuluvad Valge Rist, [55] Vana laev [56] ja Britannia. [57]

Restoranid ja kohvikud Muuda

Richmondi sillast 500 meetri raadiuses on palju suuremaid restoranikette. Samuti on palju eraomandis restorane, kus pakutakse kulinaarseid pakkumisi kogu maailmast, sealhulgas prantsuse, saksa, india, jaapani, korea, vene, hispaania ja tai.

Hotell Bingham Riverhouse [58] pälvis 2010. aastal oma esimese Michelini tärni. [59] Hotell, kust avaneb vaade Thamesile, asub II klassi kaitse alla võetud hoones, mis pärineb umbes aastast 1760. [60]

Richmondi kohaliku ajaloo selts uurib Richmondi, Kewi, Petershami ja Hami kohalikku ajalugu. See korraldab vestlusprogrammi ajaloolistel teemadel [66] ja ajaloolist huvi pakkuvate hoonete külastamist. [67] Selts avaldab infolehte kolm korda aastas, indekseeritud aastakirja (Richmondi ajalugu) ja muud väljaanded. [68]

Richmondi selts on kodanikuühiskonna ja looduskaitse rühmitus, mille asutas 1957. aastal rühm kohalikke elanikke, et algselt võidelda ettepaneku vastu paigaldada Richmond Greeni ümber kaasaegsed lambipostid. Ta tegutseb survegrupina, kes tegeleb Richmondi loodusliku ja ehitatud keskkonna säilitamisega, jälgib ja mõjutab arendusettepanekuid ning annab välja auhindu [69] [70] hoonete ja muude skeemide eest, mis annavad Richmondile positiivse panuse. Samuti korraldab ta kohtumisi kohalikul huvil olevatel teemadel ning giidiga jalutuskäikude ja külastuste programmi ning avaldab kord kvartalis uudiskirja. [64] [71] Professor Ian Bruce CBE , Bamber Gascoigne CBE FRSL , Sir Trevor McDonald OBE , Ronny, Baroness van Dedem and Lord Watson of Richmond CBE [72] are the Society's patrons.

Richmond Opera (formerly Isleworth Baroque) holds rehearsals in Richmond and gives performances in the local area. [73] [74]

With a third of the borough being green and open space – five times more than any other borough in London – [75] Richmond has much to offer in the way of leisure activities.

Field sports Edit

Old Deer Park provides open recreation areas, football, rugby and other pitches, and has a leisure centre, Pools on the Park, run by the borough council, with 33m indoor and outdoor pools and a fitness centre. The park also includes the Royal Mid-Surrey Golf Club [76] with both golf and pitch and putt courses, and the Richmond Athletic Ground, home to Richmond F.C. and London Scottish rugby clubs. An additional sports ground is home to both the Richmond Cricket Club and the London Welsh Rugby Union club, as well as tennis courts and a bowling green.

The Prince's Head Cricket Club holds fixtures on Richmond Green throughout the summer. [77]

Jalgrattasõit Muuda

Richmond is part of the London Cycle Network, offering on and off-road cycle paths throughout the area, including along the Thames Towpath and in Richmond Park. [78]

Equestrian Edit

Richmond Park also has bridle paths and horses can be rented from a number of stables around the perimeter of the park.

Ham Polo Club is on the Petersham Road at the bottom of Richmond Hill. The club was established in 1926 and is now the only polo club in London it is popular with picnickers during the summer months. [79]

Boating Edit

Skiffs (fixed seat boats) can be hired by the hour from local boat builders close to the bridge, with opportunities to row upstream towards the historic properties Ham House and Marble Hill House. In addition, Richmond Canoe Club, [80] founded in 1944 and now Britain's biggest canoe club, is also on the towpath south of Richmond Bridge.

Richmond University – a private institution, also known as Richmond, the American International University in London – is based here. Its degrees are accredited in the US and validated in the UK.

2011 Census homes
Ward Detached Semi-detached Terraced Flats and apartments Caravans/temporary/mobile homes/houseboats Shared between households [81] [1]
North Richmond 142 1,093 1,546 1,963 0 27
South Richmond 384 653 1,092 2,995 0 44
2011 Census households
Ward Rahvaarv Households % Owned outright % Owned with a loan hectares [81]
North Richmond 10,649 5,168 26 30 272
South Richmond 10,820 4,047 28 24 266

In 2011, Richmond was 66.5% White British, 1.2% Black, 6.3% Asian, 3.5% Mixed and 18.6% Other White.

German residents Edit

The town and the borough of Richmond have been popular destinations for German expatriates and German British since at least the 19th century. Richmond resident Sir Max Waechter, a German-born businessman and advocate of a federal Europe, donated Glover's Island to the local council in 1900. The German School London opened in nearby Petersham in 1971, continuing the popularity of Richmond for German families settling in London. [82]

Thirty per cent of Richmond households do not have a car or van. This figure is well above the borough average of 24%, which may be related to the excellent transport links in the area and the lower proportion of families as reported in the 2001 census. A half of households have one car, in line with the borough average. [83]

Tube/trains Edit

      towards Kew Gardens and Upminster towards Kew Gardens, Willesden Junction and Stratford and three branch line services call at the station en route to Windsor and Weybridge. One service calls at Richmond station on its return to the central London terminus via Kingston upon Thames.
    • Waterloo to Reading line

    Buses Edit

    Richmond is served by a number of Transport for London bus routes. [84]

    Roads Edit

    Richmond's main arterial road, the A316, running between Chiswick and the M3 motorway, bisects Old Deer Park and the town to its north. The town's only dual carriageway, it was built in the 1930s, cutting off Richmond from Kew and entailing the construction of Twickenham Bridge. This road expands into three lanes and motorway status three and five miles west respectively.

    The town centre is on the A307, which used to be the main link between London and north-west Surrey, and was previously one of the main routes of the Portsmouth Road before that was diverted.

    The nearest acute hospitals, both of which include accident & emergency units and maternity units, are:

    Nimi Denomination/Affiliation Aadress Veebisait Pilt
    Bethlehem Chapel, Richmond Independent Calvinist Church Terrace, Richmond TW10 6SE website
    Christian Fellowship in Richmond Evangelical Alliance Halford House, 27 Halford Road, Richmond TW10 6AW website
    Duke Street Church, Richmond Conservative Evangelicalism Duke Street, Richmond TW9 1DH website
    Ebenezer Strict Baptist Chapel, Richmond Strict Baptist 17 Jocelyn Road, Richmond TW9 2TJ
    First Church of Christ, Scientist, Richmond Christian Science 35 Sheen Road, Richmond TW9 1AD website
    Friends Meeting House, Richmond Kveekerid 1 Retreat Road, Richmond TW9 1NN website
    Holy Trinity, Richmond Inglismaa kirik Sheen Park, Richmond TW9 1UP website
    Our Lady Queen of Peace Church, Richmond Roman Catholic 222 Sheen Road, Richmond TW10 5AN website
    Raleigh Road United Church Methodist & United Reformed Raleigh Road, Richmond TW9 2DX website
    Richmond & Putney Unitarian Church Unitarian Ormond Road, Richmond TW10 6TH website
    Richmond Synagogue Orthodox Judaism Lichfield Gardens, Richmond TW9 1AP website
    St Elizabeth of Portugal Church Roman Catholic The Vineyard, Richmond TW10 6AQ website
    Chapel of St Francis, Hickey's Almshouses Inglismaa kirik Sheen Road, Richmond TW9 1XB
    St John the Divine, Richmond Inglismaa kirik Kew Road, Richmond TW9 2TN website
    St Mary Magdalene, Richmond Inglismaa kirik Red Lion Street, Richmond TW9 1RE website
    St Matthias Church, Richmond Inglismaa kirik Friars Stile Road, Richmond TW10 6PN website
    The Vineyard Life Church, Richmond Evangelical Alliance The Vineyard, Richmond TW10 6AQ website

    Richmond has eight groups of almshouses. They are all managed by Richmond Charities, which also manages Candler Almshouses in Twickenham. Six are of historical interest and some were founded in the 16th century:

    Nimi Aadress Number Ajalugu Pilt
    Bishop Duppa's Almshouses The Vineyard 10 almshouses The original almshouses were founded in 1661 (on Richmond Hill) by Brian Duppa, Bishop of Winchester. They were rebuilt in 1851 on the present site and are Grade II listed.
    Church Estate Almshouses Sheen Road 10 almshouses Most of the buildings, designed by William Crawford Stow and now Grade II listed, date from 1843 but the charity that built them is known to have existed in Queen Elizabeth I's time and may have much earlier origins.
    Hickey's Almshouses Between Sheen Road and St Mary's Grove 50 almshouses William Hickey, who died in 1727, left the income of several properties on Richmond Hill in trust to provide pensions for six men and ten women. In 1822 the charity's funds were boosted by a major donation by Elizabeth Doughty. Twenty almshouses, designed by Lewis Vulliamy, and a chapel and two gate lodge cottages, were built in 1834 and are Grade II* listed. The property, which includes another 29 buildings behind the almshouses, now consists of 49 flats and cottages, a laundry and a workshop.
    Houblon's Almshouses Worple Way 11 almshouses Now Grade II* listed, these were founded in 1757 by Rebecca and Susanna Houblon (who built nine almshouses). A further two almshouses were added in 1857.
    Michel's Almshouses The Vineyard 17 almshouses These were founded in the 17th century by Humphrey Michel. The original ten almshouses were built in 1696 and were rebuilt in 1811. Another six almshouses were added in 1858. They are Grade II listed.
    Queen Elizabeth's Almshouses The Vineyard 4 almshouses These were founded by Sir George Wright in 1600 (during Elizabeth I's reign) to house eight poor aged women. Known originally as the "Lower almshouses", they were built in Petersham Road, a few hundred yards south of what is now Bridge Street. By 1767, they were almost derelict. In 1767, William Turner rebuilt the almshouses on land at the top end of his estate in The Vineyard. Funds for the rebuilding were raised by public subscription. The almshouses were rebuilt again in 1857. They were damaged during World War II and replaced with four newly built houses in 1955.

    A seventh set of almshouses, Benn's Walk (now with five almshouses), was built in 1983. [85]

    An eighth set of almshouses is 10–18 Manning Place (with nine almshouses), just off Queen's Road. The property was built in 1993 and was purchased by The Richmond Charities in 2017. [86]

    The Richmond and Twickenham Times has been published since 1873. [87] The Twickenham & Richmond Tribune, a weekly online newspaper, has been published since 2016. [88]

    For centuries, Richmond was home to the country's royal family. It also has a long list of famous residents, both past and present.

    Richmond is a popular filming location. Richmond Park has featured in many films and TV series.

    • A locomotive runs through the park and crashes into a tree in the film The Titfield Thunderbolt (1955). [89]
    • In the 1968 film Performance, James Fox crosses Richmond Park in a Rolls-Royce car. [89]
    • The park was the backdrop for the classic historical film Anne tuhandetest päevadest (1969), [90] with Richard Burton and Geneviève Bujold, which looks back to Richmond Park in the 16th century. The film tells the story of King Henry VIII's courtship of Anne Boleyn and their brief marriage.
    • An Indian dust storm was filmed in the park for the film Heat and Dust (1983). [89]
    • The Royal Ballet School in Richmond Park featured in the film Billy Elliot (2000). [89][91]
    • In 2010, director Guy Ritchie filmed parts of Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows (2011) in the park with Robert Downey Jr. and Jude Law. [92]
    • Some of the scenes from Into the Woods (2014), the Disney fantasy film featuring Meryl Streep, [93] were filmed in the park. [94][95]

    As well as a location for films, Richmond Park is regularly featured in television programmes, corporate videos and fashion shoots. It has made an appearance on Blue Peter, Inside Out (the BBC regional current affairs programme) and BBC Springwatch. [90] In 2014 it was featured in a video commissioned by The Hearsum Collection [96] and in 2017 in a television film featuring and narrated by David Attenborough, which was produced by the Friends of Richmond Park. [97]

    The village green, divided into The Green and Little Green, has Georgian splendour, stately listed buildings and paved alleyways leading to the high street. It is a magnet for film crews, particularly when recreating a city square or row of townhouses of bygone years. In 2011, The Crimson Petal and the White was filmed there, [98] as was Downtoni klooster in July 2014. [99] Many other films and TV shows have featured The Green or Little Green, including Agatha Christie's Poirot. [100] Simon Schama's Power of Art, Peter Rabbit 2 [101] and the 2020 sports comedy TV series Ted Lasso. [102]

    Richmond Theatre ranks as a major film location it has featured in the Peter Sellers comedy Alasti tõde (1957), [103] Bugsy Malone (1976), Krays (1990), Evita (1996), Bedazzled (2000), The Hours (2002), Finding Neverland (2004) [104] and The Wolfman (2010). [105]


    History of Richmond College

    On March 4th, 1840 the Virginia Legislature granted a charter for “a Seminary of learning for the instruction of youth in the various branches of science and literature, the useful arts and the learned and foreign languages, which shall be called and known by the name of Richmond College.”  This “Seminary of learning” grew out of an actual seminary The Virginia Baptist Seminary was founded in 1832, and the Virginia Baptist Education Society had been formed two years earlier. The seminary began admitting students who had not had a calling to the ministry, and in due time it made sense to expand the mission of the institution.

    The first campus was located on the grounds of an old mansion once owned by the Haxall family, who at the time owned the largest milling operation in Virginia. The mansion was named “Columbia” and stands to this day at the corner of Grace and Lombardy Streets.

    In the early days, Columbia was Richmond College. The basement of the building housed a dining hall, a chapel, two classrooms, and a study room. The first floor held the president’s office, a classroom, a society hall, and a library. The second floor was a dormitory and also held apartments for two bachelor faculty members. 68 students were enrolled in the early years, and the first bachelor’s degrees were conferred in 1849 to Poindexter Smith Henson and Josiah Ryland.

    The College increased its student body and endowment in its first twenty years. 161 students were enrolled in 1861, and there were 68 alumni. The College ceased operations during the Civil War as most of the students and faculty went to fight for the Confederacy. When the war was over, one fifth of the alumni and many members of the student body had been killed, the campus was a camp for the Union Army, the endowment was worthless, and the equipment and books of the College were stolen as spoils of war.

    Through the generosity of alumni and the Virginia Baptist Society, funds were raised to reopen the College in the fall of 1866. Individuals who literally kept the College alive during the Reconstruction Period – such as Thomas, Ryland, Puryear, and Jeter – have been honored with buildings on the West End campus named for them. Over the next 50 years a beautiful campus thrived within the borders of Ryland, Broad, Lombardy, and Franklin Streets, near the current campus of Virginia Commonwealth University.

    In 1895 Frederic Boatwright was appointed president of Richmond College. During this time, Richmond College had 200 students and 11 faculty members. Although there were no entrance requirements for the College, the courses were of such quality that students without preparation could not make passing grades. Roughly two-thirds of the matriculates failed to earn a degree.

    Although women had been enrolled in Richmond College toward the end of the 19th century, the prevailing wisdom at the time was that higher education was the dominion of men. In the early 1900’s, President Boatwright and the Board of Trustees set in motion the series of events that ultimately moved the campus to its current location on the West End in 1914 and established Westhampton College as a coordinate college, “of equal grade, and having similar courses of instruction.” Westhampton College existed on one side of the lake, and Richmond College on the other. To this day, we refer to the Westhampton and Richmond “sides” of the campus. In 1920, the name of the institution was changed to the University of Richmond, but the coordinate colleges remained as separate entities well into the later part of the 20th century.

    Dr. John C. Metcalf was appointed the first Dean of Richmond College, a position he held through 1917. In 1915, student self-governance was established for the College with the creation of the Richmond College Student Council, which later became the Richmond College Student Government Association, or RCSGA. Tuition and fees for the 1914 – 1915 academic year were $20 matriculation, $70 tuition, $5 contingent and $5 laboratory – a total of $100 (not including room and board).

    During World War I the Federal Government took over the new campus, using it as a hospital for wounded soldiers. The Colleges moved to the old Richmond College campus during 1917-18.

    Dr. Raymond Pinchbeck began his 26-year tenure as the Dean of Richmond College with the 1931-32 academic year. Dean Pinchbeck started the first orientation program and first career services office on campus, and advocated with the student leaders to create the Richmond College Council of Honor in 1933.

    After World War II, the University grew in its offerings and in stature. The growing student body necessitated the development of a Dean of Students position for Richmond College. Dr. Clarence Gray was named the first Dean of Students in 1947, a position he filled until 1968.

    The University was changed forever in 1969 when E. Claiborne Robins gave $50 million as seed money to make the University of Richmond a truly great small University. The academic and student life programs have steadily improved ever since.

    During the 1970’s the decision was made to merge the academic missions of Richmond and Westhampton Colleges into what became in 1991 the School of Arts & Sciences. President Morrill and the Board determined that the Coordinate Colleges should remain as the pivot point between the academic and co-curricular lives of the students.

    The appointment of Dr. Richard Mateer as Dean of Richmond College in 1976 began the “modern era” of Richmond College as a coordinate college. During his 26 years as dean, many of the traditions that are emblematic of the Richmond College experience were established, including the class photo, class flag, Investiture, and the Senior Banquet. Residence Life and Orientation programs were created and expanded upon, and the development of living/learning programs began with Spinning UR Web.

    Today, Richmond College holds a unique position as a men’s college within a coeducational University. Richmond College is defined not by bricks and mortar, but as a community of diverse, authentic men who strive to uphold the values of a Positive Image of Masculinity: to act with sound judgment, demonstrate a generosity of self, and to live with confidence. We encourage our students to discover their best selves, and work to help shape society’s perception of men and masculinities.

    There are still ties to the original campus that are visible today. The original Richmond College building, Columbia, remains at Grace & Lombardy. The Richmond College gates stand at Grace and Ryland Streets. The bricks of Old Main, which burned in 1910, make up the brick pathway next to Ryland Hall. Finally, the stone steps from Old Main now lead up to the Gottwald Science Building.


    Nicole Sackley, associate professor of history and American Studies, has received $6,000 in summer funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities to advance her book project, which explores the history of cooperatives in the United States. Read more: http://bit.ly/Sackley-NEH-Grant

    Nicole Sackley, associate professor of history and american studies, was awarded a $2,000 VFIC Mednick Memorial Fellowship for her project, Co-op Capitalism: Cooperatives, International Development, and American Visions of Capitalism in the Twentieth Century.

    Nicole Sackley, associate professor of history and american studies, has been awarded a $50,000 American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) Fellowship for her project, Co-op Capitalism: Cooperatives, International Development, and American Visions of Capitalism in the Twentieth Century.

    Nicole Sackley, associate professor of history and American Studies, received a $2,000 grant from the Friends of University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries for her new project, Co-op Capitalism: Cooperatives, International Development, and American Visions of Capitalism in the Twentieth Century.

    Michelle Kahn has been awarded the 2019 Fritz Stern Dissertation Prize by the German Historical Institute.

    Dr. David Brandenberger, Professor of History and Global Studies, has been awarded a $18,000 Title VIII National Research Competition Grant from the National Council for Eurasian and East European Research for "The Leningrad Affair: The Purge of Stalin’s Would-Be Successors, 1949-1952."

    Dr. Edward L. Ayers, Tucker-Boatwright Professor of Humanities and President Emeritus , was named a charter member of the  St. John's Church Foundation Leadership Council .

    History professor  Joanna Drell was invited to speak at a meeting Palermo, Sicily in early October on the topic of medieval immigration of northern Italians down to Sicily. The meeting was coordinated by the Office of Medieval Studies and the Cultural Circle of the ‘Marquises of Monferrato.’

    Edward Ayers, Tucker-Boatwright Professor of the Humanities and president emeritus, was elected to the board of trustees for the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

    History professor Carol Summers published  "Scandal and Mass Politics: Buganda's 1941 Nnamasole Crisis" in the  International Journal of African Historical Studies.


    A Brief History of the Point San Pablo Peninsula

    On New Year’s Day of 1903, the Richmond Record Herald warmly touted the impending construction of a belt line railway, along Richmond’s western waterfront and around Point San Pablo, tying together “…the dozens of factories and great system of docks which are projected to entirely encircle the vast waterfront.” In ten years, it was confidently predicted, the population of the little town of Point Richmond would reach 40,000, and its future of this “magnificent city” would “…exceed the expectations of the most optimistic.” Bold words. And, all things considered, not terribly unrealistic.

    Indeed, within a few short years, the northern portion of the western waterfront was home to many commercial enterprises, including the Standard Oil Long Wharf, a whale oil processing plant, an oil can factory (owned by Standard Oil) at Point Orient, a brick factory (Central Brick, just beyond Point San Pablo), two rock quarries (Blake Bros. and Healey & Tibbetts), a large winery complete with worker housing, a hotel, and a school (Winehaven), and, of course, at Point San Pablo a ship terminal to handle all the cargo being produced at these enterprises. In 1915, the area became even busier, with the opening, at Point Castro, of the Richmond-San Rafael Ferry system. It seemed that the early predictions of economic boom were to be proved correct.

    But by 1920, the summit had already been reached, and a slow commercial decline set in, which has continued to the present day. Prohibition was the death blow to the winery , which struggled along for a few years in the 1920s, selling grape juice and sacramental wine. At the same time, the Healey & Tibbetts quarry, near Point Molate, went under, as did the Central Brick Company.

    The can company at Point Orient was never very successful, and was moved onto the refinery. Things picked up in the early 1940s, when the Navy acquired Winehaven, and set up a fuel depot, using the old winery housing for naval families. Around 1930, Captain Clark, who had begun the Richmond-San Rafael Ferry, strung some old hulks together, and created the Point San Pablo Yacht Harbor, just beyond Point San Pablo. And between the Point and the harbor, there sprang up some fish-processing plants, to handle the tons of sardines brought in by Italian (and other) fishermen. The failure of the sardine run killed this industry, and in its place, in 1956, a whale-rendering plant was erected. In business for 15 years, it closed in 1971, when all whaling in the United States was banned.

    In 1956, with the completion of the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge, car-ferry service on San Francisco Bay came to an end. For a time, the old ferry pier was used for recreational fishing, but by the 1980s, due to lack of maintenance, the pier was no longer usable.

    For a time, some people were attracted to the peninsula by the operation of some steam trains and cars, run by a group of steam train buffs, using part of the old belt line Railway. But the club moved their equipment to Niles, and by the late 1980s, local residents had little reason to venture out on Western Drive. Even the Navy was leaving, and by 1995, the last family had moved out. By 2000, about the only draw was Point San Pablo Yacht Harbor, which was (and is) still in operation, and which provides boat access to the East Brother Light Station, a bed and breakfast facility on the National Register of Historic Places. Point Molate Beach, once the site of a Chinese shrimp camp (which operated until about 1912), had been turned into a city park, but, due to lack of maintenance funding, has been closed for years.
    Today, the Point San Pablo Peninsula is a quiet place, and for most local residents, quite unknown. Its 4.5 miles of waterfront (largely unchanged from its 19th century configuration) await a new future in a new world. Plans are afoot to create (perhaps) a casino out of the old Winehaven building (now also on the National Register). No doubt there will be a struggle between those desiring residential and commercial development and those preferring that the site remain in its natural state, as park land. Whatever the outcome, the Point San Pablo Peninsula represents one of the most beautiful and surprisingly unspoiled segments of waterfront territory on the entire San Francisco Bay, and its future deserves very careful consideration.

    Point Molate Beach Recreational History:
    Klõpsake nuppu Siin to learn about the recreational history of Point Molate Beach from 1930 to 2013.


    Richmond History, Family Crest & Coats of Arms

    Richmond is a name that came to England in the 11th century wave of migration that was set off by the Norman Conquest of 1066. The Richmond family lived in Yorkshire, at Richmond. This local name indicated that its original bearer hailed from Richmond, a location which takes its name from the Norman personal name Richard, tähendus brave and strong. Richmond (Richemont) was originally a place in the arrondissement of Neufchatel in Normandy. [1]

    Not withstanding the above, we did find this interesting passage which we include in its entirety: "Alain le Roux, son of Eudes Count of Brittany, 'in his very youth not a little famous for his valour,' led the division comprising the men of Brittany and Maine, that formed the left wing of the Norman army at Hastings, and received three entire wapentakes in North Yorkshire, which became the great Honour of Richmond, the name given by the new possessor in the new language to the old English soke of Gilling." [2] Essentially this passage confirms the entry of the family into England with the Conqueror. Furthermore, the author goes on to explain that "Alain Fergant, Alain le Roux, and Alain le Noir " all arrived with the Conqueror and all were granted lands. Alain le Roux and Alain le Noir were brothers, the sons of Eudes of Brittany, Count of Penthievre. Alain le Roux's change to the name Richmond cleared up the confusion.

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    Early Origins of the Richmond family

    The surname Richmond was first found in the North Riding of Yorkshire at Richmond, a borough, market-town, and parish. "The town and castle seem to have been founded in the reign of William the Conqueror, by his nephew Alan Rufus, upon whom he bestowed the whole district, with the title of Earl, and who gave the place the name of 'Rich Mount,' indicating, it is presumed, the value he attached to it. The district had previously belonged to the Saxon Earl Edwin, and the charter, for dispossessing him of his Yorkshire estates, and conferring them on Alan, was granted at the siege of York, in 1069. " [3] Richmond in Surrey was anciently Sheen and was renamed by Henry VII., on his building of a palace there after his own title of Earl of Richmond in Yorkshire. [1]

    Coat of Arms and Surname History Package

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    Early History of the Richmond family

    This web page shows only a small excerpt of our Richmond research. Another 82 words (6 lines of text) covering the years 1630, 1771, 1837, 1771, 1837, 1795, 1825, 1802 and are included under the topic Early Richmond History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

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    Richmond Spelling Variations

    The English language only became standardized in the last few centuries. For that reason, spelling variations are common among many Anglo-Norman names. The shape of the English language was frequently changed with the introduction of elements of Norman French, Latin, and other European languages even the spelling of literate people's names were subsequently modified. Richmond has been recorded under many different variations, including Richmond, Richmond, Richman and others.

    Early Notables of the Richmond family (pre 1700)

    Outstanding amongst the family at this time was Christopher Richmond, High Sheriff of Cumberland in 1630. Thomas Richmond (1771-1837), was an English miniature-painter, the son of Thomas Richmond, originally of Bawtry, and of an old Yorkshire family. The father was a 'groom of the stables' to the Duke of Gloucester, and afterwards the proprietor of the Coach and Horses at Kew, where the artist was born in 1771. Though the pose of some of his figures is in the.
    Another 79 words (6 lines of text) are included under the topic Early Richmond Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

    Migration of the Richmond family to Ireland

    Some of the Richmond family moved to Ireland, but this topic is not covered in this excerpt.
    Another 60 words (4 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.

    Richmond migration +

    Some of the first settlers of this family name were:

    Richmond Settlers in United States in the 17th Century
    • William Richmond, who landed in Virginia in 1622 [4]
    • John Richmond, who settled in Virginia in 1654 with Eleanor his wife
    • Tho Richmond, who arrived in Virginia in 1663 [4]
    • George Richmond, who arrived in Maryland in 1678 [4]
    • Daniel Richmond, who landed in Maryland in 1678 [4]
    Richmond Settlers in United States in the 18th Century
    • Robert Richmond, who settled in Philadelphia in 1754
    • Ann Richmond, who arrived in America in 1760-1763 [4]
    • Anne Richmond, who settled in Virginia with her husband in 1761
    • John Richmond, who settled in Philadelphia in 1774
    Richmond Settlers in United States in the 19th Century
    • Robert Richmond, who landed in America in 1810 [4]
    • Archibald Richmond, aged 28, who landed in New York in 1812 [4]
    • John Richmond, who arrived in Allegany (Allegheny) County, Pennsylvania in 1844 [4]
    • H E Richmond, who landed in San Francisco, California in 1850 [4]
    • Charles B Richmond, who arrived in San Francisco, California in 1850 [4]
    • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

    Richmond migration to Australia +

    Emigration to Australia followed the First Fleets of convicts, tradespeople and early settlers. Early immigrants include:

    Richmond Settlers in Australia in the 19th Century
    • Miss Elizabeth Richmond, English convict who was convicted in East Riding, Yorkshire, England for 7 years, transported aboard the "Canada" in March 1810, arriving in New South Wales, Australia[5]
    • Nathaniel Richmond, English convict from Staffordshire, who was transported aboard the "Arab" on July 3, 1822, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia[6]
    • Mr. William Richmond, British convict who was convicted in Middlesex, England for life, transported aboard the "Asia" on 29th September 1831, settling in New South Wales, Australia[7]
    • Peter Richmond, English convict from Middlesex, who was transported aboard the "Andromeda" on November 13, 1832, settling in New South Wales, Australia[8]
    • Thomas Richmond, English convict from Southampton, who was transported aboard the "Arab" on February 22, 1834, settling in Van Diemen's Land, Australia[9]
    • . (More are available in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible.)

    Richmond migration to New Zealand +

    Emigration to New Zealand followed in the footsteps of the European explorers, such as Captain Cook (1769-70): first came sealers, whalers, missionaries, and traders. By 1838, the British New Zealand Company had begun buying land from the Maori tribes, and selling it to settlers, and, after the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, many British families set out on the arduous six month journey from Britain to Aotearoa to start a new life. Early immigrants include:


    RICHMOND, TEXAS

    1822: First settlers arrived, closely followed by members of Austin's "Old 300" The settlement was named after a log fortification on a bend of the Brazos River - the location was an important ford on the river.
    1836: Evacuated during "The Runaway Scrape"
    1837: The town is platted, promoted and named after Richmond, England. Incorporated in May of 1837 and becoming county seat when Fort Bend County was organized later in the year.
    1839: First newspaper - the Richmond Telescope and Texas Literary Register, was published
    1842: First courthouse built
    1853: Yellow Fever epidemic hits Richmond
    1855: The Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado Railroad arrives
    1866: Freedman's Bureau opens when enamcipated slaves leave plantations and move to the city
    1867: Union occupation troops stationed at Richmond
    1871: New Courthouse
    1878: The Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe RR bypasses Richmond by 3 miles - giving birth to Rosenburg, Texas
    1888: First bridge across the Brazos is built
    1893: First steel bridge is built
    1899: Brazos floods
    1908: Fourth County Courthouse
    1920s: Population is 1,273. Oil discoveries add to the economy - rice, sugar and cotton are main crops
    After WWII, the more mobile population moved to Houston for better jobs. The population was stagnant until people started commuting from Houston in the 1970s.

    Richmond, Texas Landmarks/Attractions

    Fort Bend County Jail

    Railroad Thru Truss Bridge
    Photo courtesy Barclay Gibson , February 2009


    Juhatus

    Bonnie Jo Cullison, president
    Heinz Lankford, Asepresident
    Kathe Kiehn, Varahoidja
    Caitlin Hibma , sekretär
    Pam Wilson, Liikmelisus
    Gary Shows, Newsletter Editor

    Our museum hours:
    Neljapäev
    11:30 a m to 2:00 pm
    Laupäev
    11:30 am to 2:00 pm


    Visit Haunts of Richmond Online

    RVA Hidden History Storytellers was founded in 2018 to help bring forth some of the overshadowed aspects of Richmond’s past. It sprung forth from a desire to share fascinating details that came to light while conducting research for Haunts of Richmond. While those details didn’t quite fit into the paranormal realm, they found a home with RVA Hidden History Storytellers. RHH has grown to include four unique themed tours, special history dinner events and professional city guide services.


    Vaata videot: RICHMOND VIRGINIA HOODS (Mai 2022).


Kommentaarid:

  1. Tor

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  2. Caddaric

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  3. Bredon

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  4. Lornell

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  5. Cecrops

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