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Jacob Riis

Jacob Riis


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Jacob Riis, kolmas viieteistkümnest lapsest, sündis 3. mail 1849. aastal Taanis Ribe'is. Ta töötas enne Ameerika Ühendriikidesse emigreerumist 1870. aastal Kopenhaagenis puusepana. Töö leidmata jätmise tõttu oli ta sageli sunnitud öö politseimajas öömajades.

Riis tegi erinevaid abitöid, enne kui leidis tööd New Yorgi uudistebüroos 1873. aastal. Järgmisel aastal võttis ta tööle South Brooklyn News. 1877 sai Riisist politseireporter New York Tribune. Olles teadlik vaesuses elamisest, oli Riis otsustanud kasutada seda võimalust oma ajakirjandusoskuste rakendamiseks, et seda avalikkusele edastada. Ta vaidles pidevalt, et "vaesed olid pigem oma saatuse ohvrid kui tegijad".

1888. aastal töötas Riis fotoajakirjanikuna New Yorgi õhtupäike. Riis kasutas esimeste fotograafide seas välgupulbrit, mis võimaldas tal öösel pildistada slummide sise- ja välisilmet. Teda hakati siduma ka sellega, mida hiljem hakati nimetama muckraking journalismiks.

1889. aasta detsembris ilmus fotodega illustreeritud ülevaade linnaelust Scribneri ajakiri. See tekitas suurt huvi ja järgmisel aastal täispikk versioon, Kuidas teine ​​pool elab, avaldati. Seda raamatut nägi New Yorgi politseikomissar Theodore Roosevelt ja ta sulges raamatus esitatud öömajad.

Harold Evans, raamatu autor Ameerika sajand: inimesed, võim ja poliitika (1998) on rõhutanud: "Jacob Riis hindas, et Dickensiani Londonis elas 175,816 inimest igal ruutmiilil oma halvimatest slummidest, kuid New Yorgi Lower East Side'il oli üheksakümnendateks seevastu umbes 290 000 ruutmiili kohta, mis teeb sellest võib -olla halvima slumm läänemaailma ajaloos .... Ta salvestab üürimaja, milles elab 1324 itaalia immigranti, kes elavad kokku 132 toas. Ühest 12x12-jalasest ruumist leidis ta viis perekonda, 20 inimest, kahe voodiga Üks kolmandik kogu linna elanikkonnast - umbes 1,2 miljonit - elas 43 000 sellises üürimajas, ilma voolava vee ja siseruumides asuvate loputuskäimlateta ... Umbes 40 protsendil neist oli tuberkuloos. Üks kolmandik nende lastest suri enne lapse sündi esimene sünnipäev. "

Järgmise kahekümne viie aasta jooksul kirjutas ja pidas Jacob Riis vaeste probleemidest loenguid. See hõlmas võlulaternate saateid ja üks vaatleja märkis, et "tema vaatajad oigasid, värisesid, minestasid ja isegi rääkisid tema projitseeritud fotodega, reageerides slaididele mitte piltidena, vaid virtuaalse reaalsusena, mis viis New Yorgi slummimaailma otse loengusse saal. "

Riisi looming inspireeris Lincoln Steffensit, meest, keda peeti uuriva ajakirjanduse "ristiisaks". Autobiograafia (1931): "Ta (Riis) mitte ainult ei saanud uudiseid; ta hoolis uudistest. Ta vihkas kirglikult kõiki türanniaid, kuritarvitamist, viletsusi ja võitles nendega. Ta oli vastutavate ametnike ja mõisnike jaoks hirm, nagu ta nägi. see oli vaeste elanike üürikorterite meeleheitliku olukorra tõttu. Ta oli neid avaldanud artiklites, raamatutes ja avalikes kõnedes ning tulemustega. Kõik linna filantroobid tundsid ja toetasid Riisi, kes oli siis võimeline reformija ja ka reporter, et sundida nimetama üürimajade komisjoni, mida ta õrnalt juhtis ja sõitis ägedalt uurimisele ja raportile, mille tagajärjel - pärast seda kohutavat reporterit - hävitati terved rookeries plokid, väikesed pargid ja üüride reguleerimine. "

Kui leiate, et see artikkel on kasulik, jagage seda julgelt veebisaitidel nagu Reddit. Saate John Simkinit jälgida Twitteris, Google+ ja Facebookis või tellida meie igakuise uudiskirja.

Riis kirjutas ka üle tosina raamatu, sealhulgas Vaeste lapsed (1892), Mulberry tänavast välja (1898), autobiograafia, Ameeriklase tegemine (1901), Lahing slummiga (1902) ja Üürniku lapsed (1903).

Jacob Riis suri 26. mail 1914 Massachusettsi osariigis Barrie linnas.

Mis on üürimaja? Seadus määratleb selle kui maja, kus elavad veel kolm või neli perekonda, kes elavad iseseisvalt ja teevad oma toitu kohapeal, või rohkem kui kaks perekonda ühel korrusel, nii et elamine ja söögitegemine ning ühine õigus saalides, treppidel , hoovid jne. "

Üürkorter on tavaliselt nelja kuni kuuekorruseline telliskivihoone tänaval, sageli esimesel korrusel asuv kauplus, millel on alkoholimüügiks kasutatav külgmine ava kinnipeetavate hüvanguks ja pühapäevaseaduse vältimiseks. ; igal korrusel on neli perekonda ja tubade komplekt koosneb ühest või kahest tumedast kapist, mida kasutatakse magamistubadena, elutuba kaheteistkümne jalaga. Trepp on liiga sageli maja keskel pimekaev ja otsene ventilatsioon pole võimalik, iga perekond on teisest eraldatud vaheseinaga.

Bandits 'Roosti kitsa sissepääsu mõlemal küljel on "Bend". Kuritarvitamine on "Bendi" normaalne seisund, mõrv on igapäevane põllukultuur, kusjuures üürnikud ei ole alati kurjategijad. Selles kvartalis Bayardi, Parki, Mulberry ja Baxteri tänava vahel, päris "Bend", luges hiline üürimaja komisjon 155 laste surma ühel näidisaastal (1882). Nende protsent kogu suremusest kvartalis oli 68,28, samas kui kogu linna puhul oli see osa vaid 46,20. Bandiitide roosti kõrval nr 59 suri sel aastal neliteist inimest ja neist üksteist olid lapsed; aastal nr 61 üksteist ja kaheksa neist veel viieaastased.

Alates kodusõjast on New York saanud lõunapoolsetest linnadest ülevoolavat värvilist elanikkonda. Viimase kümnendi jooksul on see ränne kasvanud nii suureks, et hinnanguliselt on meie mustanahaliste arv pärast kümnendat loendust üsna kahekordistunud. Kas vahetusest on neegrile kasu olnud, võib küsida. Siin ei ole talle avatud tehingud, mille üle tal oli lõunakodus praktiline kontroll. Ma tean, et sellele võib vastata, et puudub tööstuslik värvipiirang; et see on valiku küsimus. Võib -olla nii. Igal juhul ei vali ta neid. Kui palju värvilisi tislereid või müürseppe on keegi New Yorgis tööl näinud?

Puhtus on neegrile iseloomulik uues ümbruses, nagu see oli tema voorus vanas kohas. Selles osas on ta tohutult ülem valgete madalaimast, itaallased ja Poola juudid, kellest ta on üürnike skaalal varem klassifitseeritud. Seda näitas kinnisvararekordi eelmisel aastal tehtud päring. See osutus, et agendid olid neegri kui puhta, korrapärase ja kasumliku üürniku heakskiitmisel praktiliselt üksmeelsed.

Nii vaesus, kuritarvitamine kui ka ebaõiglus nõustuvad neegriga segamatult rõõmsalt. Tema filosoofia on selline, millel pole ruumi parandamiseks. Ükskõik, kas ta elab kaheksandas koguduse kasarmus või üürikorteris, millel on pruunikivine esikülg ja pretensioonid "lameda" plaadile, vaatab ta elu päikeselist poolt ja naudib seda. Ta armastab häid riideid ja head elamist palju rohkem kui pangakontot.

Heebrea kvartali kodud on ka selle töötoad. Te saate sellest täielikult teada enne, kui olete ühe kvartali pikkuse läbinud ühelgi neist East Endi tänavatest tuhande õmblusmasina virisemise tõttu, mis töötasid kõrgel rõhul varajasest koidikust kuni mõistus ja lihased annavad välja. Iga pereliige, alates noorimast kuni vanimani, hoiab kätt, suletud kvaliteetsetes tubades, kus süüa tehakse ning riideid pestakse ja kuivatatakse. Pole ebatavaline, kui ühest toast leitakse tööl tosin inimest - mehed, naised ja lapsed.

Laste julmuse ennetamise ühing peab linnas viis poiste öömaja ja üks tüdrukute majutust. Ainuüksi Duane tänava öömaja on varjutanud alates asutamisest 1855. aastal ligi veerand miljonit erinevat poissi. Kõigis öömajades oli eelmisel aastal peavarju ja õpetatud 12 153 poissi ja tüdrukut. Lisaks on selts asutanud ja tegutseb üüripiirkondades kakskümmend üks tööstuskooli, mis on kooskõlastatud ametiasutustega, vaeste laste jaoks, kes ei leia ruumi linna koolimajades või on liiga räsitud. sinna minna; kaks tasuta lugemissaali, kleitide valmistamise ja kirjutusmasinate kool ning pesumaja tüdrukute juhendamiseks; haigete laste missioon linnas ja kaks mere kaldal, kuhu vaesed emad võivad oma lapsed viia; suvila mere ääres halvatutele tüdrukutele ja pintslitehas invaliidistunud poistele neljakümne neljandal tänaval.

Ainuüksi Leonard Streeti Itaalia koolis käis eelmisel aastal keskmiselt üle kuuesaja õpilase. Igapäevane keskmine külastatavus oli neil kõigil 4 105, samal ajal registreeriti ja õpetati 11 331 last. Kui asjaolu, et nende 1132 purjus vanemate vanematest oli lapsi ja 416 tänavalt kerjamas, on vastuolus 1745 õpilase poolt kooli hoiukassadesse deponeeritud 1337,21 dollari suuruse summaga, saab midagi adekvaatset. seltsi töö ulatust linnas.

Jake Riis oli Taani ameeriklane, kes "kattis" politsei peakorteri, tervishoiuosakonna, mis asus siis samas hoones, ja "East Side", mis oli vaeste ja linna välismaiste kvartalite lühinimi. Ja ta ei saanud ainult uudiseid; ta hoolis uudistest. Ta oli "terror" ametnikele ja mõisnikele, kes vastutasid, nagu ta seda nägi, nende üüride meeleheitliku olukorra pärast, kus vaesed elasid. Ta oli neid "paljastanud" artiklites, raamatutes ja avalikes kõnedes ning tulemustega. Kõik linna filantroobid tundsid ja toetasid Riisi, kes oli siis ka reformija ja reporterina sunnitud nimetama üürimajade komisjoni, mida ta õrnalt juhtis ja sõitis ägedalt uurimisele ja aruandele, mis järgnes selle kohutava reporteri poolt-selle tulemusel kustutati terved rookery plokid, tehti väikesed pargid ja reguleeriti üürimaju. Ta oli need pahed avastanud reporterina, teatades näiteks enesetapust, tulekahjust või mõrvast. Need olid uudised, mille said kõik reporterid; ainult Riis kirjutas need lugudena, südame, huumori ja mõistmisega. Ja olles „näinud” kuriteo või katastroofi inimlikku poolt, oli ta võtnud teadmiseks ka maja, kvartali või tänava, kus see juhtus. Ta läks tagasi ja kirjeldas ka seda; kutsus ta üles tingimusi lubanud ohvitsere ja mõisnikke ning "šantažeeris" neid reformidesse.


Jacob Riis Parki, "inimeste ranna" ajaloo uurimine

Kõige uuemast rõhuvast suvesoojast piisab, et tekitada New Yorgi elanikel soov lõõgastavat mereäärset sihtkohta otsides linnast vabaneda - ja õnneks on selline idülliline põgenemine olemas just Queensis. Sajandi jooksul on Jacob Riis Park olnud paljudele linnaelanikele teretulnud põgenemine ja praegu on see taaselustumas, mis on toonud kaasa rekordilised rahvahulgad. Kuid see on rohkem kui lihtsalt rand, see on ka artefakt NYC-i arengu sageli vastuolulisest Robert Moosese ajastust, mis kõlab tänapäevalgi.

Riis Parkis praegu asuv maa oli kunagi USA mereväe algse jaama Rockaway laevastiku koduks. Esimene Atlandi-ülene lend lõppes siin 1919. aastal, seda juhtis USA merevägi, kasutades Curtiss NC lendavat paati (NC-4). NAS Rockaway jäi tööle kuni 1930. aastani, mil see lammutati, et võimaldada pargi rajamist. NAS -i ei likvideeritud, vaid see viidi üle Jamaica lahe sissevoolu Floyd Bennetti väljale.

Park on nime saanud Taanis sündinud fotoajakirjaniku ja sotsiaalreformija Jacob Riisi järgi, kes dokumenteeris linna vaeseimate elanike kehvad elutingimused. Tema kuulsaimad teosed - väljaanded Kuidas teine ​​pool elab (1890) ja Vaeste lapsed (1892)-inspireeris tollane politseikomissar Theodore Roosevelt "sulgema halvimaid öömaju ja innustas linnaametnikke linna elamispoliitika reformimiseks ja jõustamiseks". Riis oli ka mänguväljakute ja avatud ruumi eestkõneleja, samuti lähedal asuv Jamaica elanik Queensis. Ta mängis silmapaistvat rolli omandamises, mis oli kunagi tuntud kui Telawana park, ja ruum nimetati tema jaoks ümber pärast tema surma 1914. aastal.

Park on ehk kõige paremini tuntud oma 1932. aastal avatud Art Deco vanni poolest. Selle kujundas John L. Plock Stoughton & amp; Stoughtoni arhitektuuribüroole, hoone ehitati paekivist, tellistest ja valatud kivist ning see valmis 530 000 dollari eest. Paviljon mahutas 8000 rannaskäijat ning esimesel korrusel ja teisel korrusel oli kohvik, terrassile avanev restoran (Ballon ja Jackson, 2007).

Moosese kaasamine sai alguse 1934. aastal, kui ta viis parki renoveerimise ja täiendamise lõpule summas 1,7 miljonit dollarit. Ilusat supluspaviljoni uurides jõudis ta järeldusele, et see ulatub rannale liiga kaugele, märkides, et tõusulaine ajal lõi vesi hoone esikülge. Tema lahendus: eemaldada sada jalga konstruktsiooni esiosast ja mõnest hoone arhitektuurilisest detailist. Hillary Balloni ja Kenneth Jacksoni raamatus Robert Moses ja kaasaegne linn: New Yorgi ümberkujundamine, kirjeldavad nad Moosese lahutamisi ja liitmisi järgmiselt:

"Ta kõrvaldas rannast väljaulatuva hooneosa ja asendas selle silmatorkavalt ebajärjekindla betoonfassaadiga, mille kükitatud sambad toetasid kumerat ülemist korrust, mida tähistas lintaken. Ta lisas kaks tiiba riietusruumide jaoks mõlemal pool paviljoni ja rikkus esialgsete tornide delikaatsust, lisades need 15 jalga sünge ilustamata tellisega. Rasked tellistest lisandid näivad purustavat originaalide kerget ja keerulist kivitööd. "

Mooses tellis uue vannimaja ehitamise olemasolevast renoveeritud konstruktsioonist lääne poole. Selle kujundas Aymar Embury II, kes tegi sageli Moosesega koostööd avalikes projektides. See 1937. aastal valminud ühekorruseline tellis- ja betoonkonstruktsioon kujutas endast lihtsustatud ja lamestatud klassikalisi vorme, milles Embury "imiteeris mänguliselt klassikaliste kivisammaste traditsiooni, püüdmata varjata oma ökonoomse materjali olemust", Ballon ja Jackson. . Lisati ka kellatorn hoone läänepoolsel küljel.

Moosese plaan hõlmas ka 40 jala laiust laudteed ja avarat parklat 14 000 sõidukile. Lisaks lisati rannas käijatele mitmesuguseid mugavusi ja meelelahutuslikke tegevusi, sealhulgas mänguväljakud lauatennise, käsipalli ja shuffleboardi jaoks ning väljaku ja puttimise golfiväljak. Maastikuarhitekt Gilmore Clarke, kes tegi sageli koostööd Moosesega, istutas koos puhkevõimalustega kõrrelisi ja põõsaid, et luua laudteelt selge tõke. Pargide osakond vastutab ainuisikuliselt kõigi järeleandmiste ja teenuste eest, valmistades suurt pettumust kohalikele ettevõtetele, kellel oli varem lubatud piiranguteta oma teenuseid müüa.

Riis oli kavandatud meenutama Moosese isiklikku lemmikprojekti - Jones Beach, Long Island -, kuid selle eeliseks oli see, et see oli New Yorgi elanikele paremini kättesaadav. Kuna Marine Parkway sild avati 1937. aastal, oli rannakülastus vaid autosõidu või bussisõidu kaugusel. Samuti soovis Mooses, et Riis Beach oleks rahvarohke ja lõbustuspõhise Coney Islandi vastand. Nagu Balloni ja Jacksoni raamatus öeldud, New York Times kirjeldas seda järgmiselt:

"Kuigi Riis Park asub Coney Islandist vaid kuus miili ida pool, jääb see miljonist miilist eemale niinimetatud Coney Islandi traditsioonist. Ranna põhimuusikat teeb ragisevate rullnokkade asemel äike."

New York City säilitas pargi omandiõiguse kuni 1974. aastani, mil linna raske finantskriis viis selle üle rahvuspargi teenistusse. Riis imendus Gateway riiklikku puhkepiirkonda, mis hõlmab 27 000 aakrit rannikuala, sealhulgas naabruses asuv Jamaica Bay looduskaitseala, Fort Tilden ja Floyd Bennett Field. 21. sajandil on Riis Parki populaarsus taas tõusnud, seda osaliselt tänu Riis Parki rannaturule, mis on asunud elama osade olemasolevate ajalooliste hoonete juurde. Ettevõtmine on muutnud Riisi kadestusväärseks, kuid siiski saavutatavaks suvekohaks.

Riis, kes kasvas üles Brooklynis üle Marine Parkway silla, oli suvine ekskursioon. Aastaid hiljem on mul hea meel tõdeda, et see on ikka nii. Iga aastaga muutub minu kodulinna ranna kasvav populaarsus üha ilmsemaks. Selle maaliline loodusmaastik ja taastavad omadused, mida olen alati tõena teadnud, on nüüd saanud teiste jaoks tõeks.


Riisi majaks muutunud piirkond hävis linna uuendamise käigus, mis algas 1943. aasta augustis, kuid ehitamine lükkus II maailmasõja tõttu edasi. [4] [5] Riisi majad valmisid 17. jaanuaril 1949 ja said nime fotograaf Jacob Riisi järgi, kes paljastas Alam -Ida poole üürnike elutingimused. [3]

Mänguväljak oli kavandatud nelja "välitoaga" erinevateks tegevusteks ja selle kujundas Pomerance & amp; Breines koos maastikuarhitektidega M. Paul Freidberg & amp Associates. [6] Seda rahastati Victor Astori fondi toetuse kaudu ja see avati 1966. aastal, kui selle avamisel osales Ladybird Johnson. [7] Hiljem samal aastal pälvis see eluaseme- ja linnaarengu osakonna disaini tipptaseme eest esimese auhinna. [6] Sellest modelleeriti 1967. aastal neli uut mänguväljakut kogu linnas. [8] 2018. aastal kontrollis NYCHA selle mänguväljakut ja leidis, et see on ohtlik. [9]

2012. aasta orkaani Sandy ajal tabas arendust tormihoog, mis jättis selle ilma elektri ja muude teenusteta. [10] [11] 2018. aastal sai NYCHA 7,1 miljoni dollari suuruse toetuse, et rahastada Sandylt vajalikke infrastruktuuri remonditöid, mis algavad eeldatavasti aastal 2022. Uuenduste hulka kuuluvad: avariigeneraatorid, elektrijaotusseadmed, konstruktsioonide ja viimistlusmaterjalide veekindlus, kanalisatsiooni/tormi uuendamine juhtimissüsteemid, uued sõiduteed, jalakäijate valgustus, hoonete sissepääsude ja fuajeede taastamine. [12]

  1. ^"Jacob Riis majade elanikkond".
  2. ^
  3. "Jacon Riisi majade piirkond". Välja otsitud 7. novembril 2019.
  4. ^ ab
  5. "MyNYCHA arenduste portaal". minu.nycha.info . Välja otsitud 23. juulil 2019.
  6. ^
  7. "ALA -Ida pool muutused". New York Times . Välja otsitud 23. juulil 2019.
  8. ^
  9. "RIIS HOUSES MÜÜDI NURKIV Föderaalse abi uuendamine, mis viidi läbi viimati siin käimasoleva projekti raames FPHA abiga". New York Times . Välja otsitud 23. juulil 2019.
  10. ^ ab
  11. "USA arendusasutuse JACOB RIIS HOUSES poolt auhinna saanud 7 arenduse disainerid saavad auhinna SIIT". New York Times . Välja otsitud 23. juulil 2019.
  12. ^
  13. "Proua Johnson avab Riis mänguväljaku Proua Johnson tuleb siia, et aidata avada eksperimentaalset Riis mänguväljakut". New York Times . Välja otsitud 23. juulil 2019.
  14. ^
  15. "Linn ehitab 12 teisaldatavat mänguväljaku kujundust, mis võimaldavad kujundamisel vabadust". NY Times. 28. jaanuar 1967. Välja otsitud 23. juulil 2019.
  16. ^
  17. Otterman, Sharon (4. aprill 2018). "Audit leiab mänguväljaku ohud elamuehituse arendamisel". The New York Times. ISSN0362-4331. Välja otsitud 23. juulil 2019.
  18. ^
  19. Buckley, Cara Wilson, Michael (2. november 2012). "Avalikus elamumajanduses pärast orkaani Sandy, hirm, viletsus ja kangelaslikkus". The New York Times. ISSN0362-4331. Välja otsitud 23. juulil 2019.
  20. ^
  21. "Elu pärast Sandyt on New Yorgi vaestele raske." The Independent. 2. november 2012.
  22. ^
  23. "WDF kuulutab välja 71 miljoni dollari suuruse Jacob Riis'i majade taastamise projekti". www.businesswire.com. 5. detsember 2018. Välja otsitud 23. juulil 2019.
  24. ^
  25. Kleinfield, N. R. Sengupta, Somini (8. märts 2012). "Projektide häkker, informaator ja parteipoiss". The New York Times. "Hector Xavier Monsegur ehk Sabu elas korteris 6F aadressil 90 Avenue D Manhattani Jacob Riis kompleksis."

See artikkel Manhattani hoone või rajatise kohta on tükk. Saate Vikipeediat aidata, laiendades seda.


Jacob Riis - ajalugu

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Paljudest fotodest, mis väidetavalt on "maailma muutnud", on neid, mis lihtsalt pole seda teinud (uimastavad, kuigi need võivad olla), neid, millel see on, ja siis neid, mis tõesti on.

Fotod, mis muutsid maailma, muutsid seda tõenäoliselt nii palju, kui nad meid kõiki tegid tunda midagi. Fotod, mis muutsid maailma tõeliselt praktilisel ja mõõdetaval viisil, tegid seda seetõttu, et need tegid meist piisavalt teha midagi.

Ja vähesed fotod muutsid maailma tõeliselt nagu Jacob Riis.

New York City, kuhu vaene noor Jacob Riis 1870. aastal Taanist rändas, oli uskumatult õitsev linn. Tema saabumisele eelnenud kolme aastakümne jooksul oli linna elanikkond, keda intensiivne sisseränne halastamatult ülespoole tõstis, rohkem kui kolmekordistunud. Järgmise kolme aastakümne jooksul suureneks see peaaegu neljakordseks.

Pole üllatav, et linn ei suutnud sujuvalt korraga nii palju uusi elanikke vastu võtta. Sama üllatav oli see, et need, kes jäid ääremaadele võitlema igasuguste sissetulekute eest, olid linna vaesed sisserändajad.

New Yorgi vaesed sisserändajad elasid võitluslikku elu-kuid võitlust, mis piirdus slummidega ja seega laiema avalikkuse eest varjatud, olles piiratud rahvarohketes, haigustest räsitud linnaosades, mis on täis räsitud üürikortereid, kus võib olla 12 täiskasvanut ruumis, mille läbimõõt on 13 meetrit. silm.

Jacob Riis muutis seda kõike. Töötab politseireporterina New Yorgi tribüün ja ei olnud rahul sellega, kuivõrd ta suudab linna slumme sõnadega jäädvustada, leidis Riis lõpuks, et fotograafia on see tööriist, mida ta vajab.

Alates 1880ndatest seikles Riis New Yorgis, et vähesed pöörasid sellele tähelepanu ja dokumenteerisid selle karmi reaalsust kõigile vaatamiseks. Aastaks 1890 suutis ta avaldada oma ajaloolise fotokogu, mille pealkiri kajastas suurepäraselt, kui ilmutuslikuks osutub tema töö: Kuidas teine ​​pool elab.

Jahmatav pilk maailmale, mida on raske mõista neile, kes pole sellele hukule määratud, Kuidas teine ​​pool elab esitasid fotosid New Yorgi sisserändajatest vaestest ning üürimajadest, higipoodidest, tänavatest, dokkidest, prügimägedest ja tehastest, mida nad nimetasid karmilt üksikasjalikult koju.

Ja nii vapustavad kui need pildid olid, ei peitu nende tõeline pärand nende esteetilises jõus ega dokumentaalses väärtuses, vaid hoopis nende võimes muutusi tegelikult ellu viia.

"Ma lugesin teie raamatut ja tulin appi," ütles toonane New Yorgi politseikomissaride juhatuse liige Theodore Roosevelt Riisile kuulsalt 1894. aastal. Ja Roosevelt oli oma sõnale truu.

Ehkki mitte ainus ametnik, kes Jacob Riisi päevavalgele toonud asjaga tegelema hakkas, tegeles Roosevelt eriti aktiivselt vaeste kohtlemisega. Linnaametnikuna ning hiljem osariigi kubernerina ja riigi asepresidendina lasti Rooseveltil maha mõned New Yorgi halvimad üürikorterid ja loodi komisjon, mis tagaks, et elamiskõlbmatuid enam ei ehitataks.

Selle uue valitsusosakonna ja Jacob Riisi ja tema kodanikureformijate bändi püstitamisel tõusis uus ehitus, puhastati tänavad, aknad nikerdati olemasolevatesse hoonetesse, loodi pargid ja mänguväljakud, pandi kinni ebakvaliteetsed kodutute varjupaigad ja edasi ja edasi ja edasi.

Kuigi New Yorgi üüriprobleem sellega kindlasti ei lõppenud ja kuigi me ei saa kõiki ülaltoodud reforme omistada Jacob Riisile ja Kuidas teine ​​pool elab, vähesed fotograafiatööd on maailmale nii selgelt mõjunud. Pole üllatav, et Roosevelt ütles kunagi, et tal on kiusatus nimetada Riisi "parimaks ameeriklaseks, keda ma kunagi tundnud olen".

Veel Jacob Riisi fotosid ajastust Kuidas teine ​​pool elab, vaadake seda viie punkti jõukude visuaalset ülevaadet. Seejärel vaadake, milline oli elu 20. sajandi vahetuse paiku New Yorgi sisserändajate asustatud slummides.


New Yorgi tänavalaste karm elu, mille jäädvustas - hetkega - Jacob Riis (The Alienist)

AJALUGU Stseeni taga Milline on teie lemmik -telesaate või mängufilmi ajaloolise stseeni tegelik lugu? Bowery Boysi ajaveebi poolenisti tavaline funktsioon, taaselustame selle sarja koos TNT piiratud seeriaga Alienist. Otsige siit teisi artikleid teiste ajalooliste teemadega telesaadete kohta (Hullud mehed, The Knick, Deuce, Boardwalk Empire ja Vask). Ja järgige koos Bowery Boysiga Twitteris aadressil @Boweryboys oma lemmiksaadete ajaloolise konteksti jaoks.

Vaadake sarja neljanda osa päris lõppu Alienistja näete üllatavat kummardust ikoonilisele, südantlõhestavale fotole.

Nimetati "Tänava araablased Mulberry tänava piirkonnas1889. aastal tehtud pilt kujutab kolme kodutut poissi, kes magavad üürikorruse alumisel korrusel asuva soojendusava kohal (tänapäeva Väike -Itaalia piirkonnas).

Nende nimed on teadmata. 19. sajandi lõpus elasid New Yorgi tänavatel sajad lapsed, kes pöördusid kodust välja või olid lähedastest lahus. Paljudel olid tegelikult armastavad pered, kuid elamistingimused üürimajades olid nii kehvad, et mõned otsustasid tänaval magada.

Meil on selline kuvand - ja palju -palju sarnaseid - tänu ajakirjanikule ja sotsiaalreformijale Jacob Riis.

12. veebruaril 1888 avaldas Jacob Riis oma esimese uurimise New Yorgi päike, paljastades New Yorgi halvimate slummide naabruskondade armetud tingimused, kasutades eksperimentaalset tehnoloogiat - välklampi. Riisi ja teiste fotograafide meeskonna jahmatavad pildid olid esialgu joonistatud joonistel, kuid efekt oli siiski sügav.

Kogu artikkel on Internetis saadaval, kuid siin on ülaltoodud fotoga seotud lõik:

Veel üks härra Riisi heatahtliku eesmärgi paljastamine… on see, et ta näitab puudutavat pilti tänava araablastest magamisruumides, mille avastamiseks pidi ta jahtima. Need noorukid on näitusel ilmselt kulutanud ööbimisraha galeriikohtade jaoks ja leidnud peavarju vana üürimaja tagatoal. ”

Allpool: illustratsioon 12. veebruari 1888. aasta ajalehest ja Riis foto (Bandit's Roost), mida see kujutab.

Pildid on midagi enamat kui ühiskondlik aktivism, nad on ise ajalugu, esimene välklambiga pildistamine, mida sel moel on kasutatud. Riis näitas New Yorgi elanikele elavat pilku vaesusest - orbud vihmaveerennil, tänavajõugud alleel - kasutades tehnikat, millega peale portreede regulaarselt kokku puutusid vähesed.

Riis ei pidanud end kunagi professionaalseks fotograafiks. Hiljem oma karjääri jooksul tegeles ta isegi fototööga teistele, kuna keskendus kirjutamisele ja ühiskondlikule aktiivsusele. Ja ometi poleks tänapäevane fotoajakirjandus tegelikult see, mis ta oli täna, kui tema esimesed ründamised slummidesse, oopiumikohtadesse ja õllesaalidesse oma mahuka ja kuluka varustusega ei oleks. Tema varajane töö mõjutas tervet sotsiaalfotograafide valdkonda, kes püüdis tõestada vanasõna „pilt on tuhande sõna väärt” (fraas, mis debüteeris Riisi eluaja lõpus).

MCNY

Tema teos avaldatakse lõpuks raamatuna 1890. aastal - Kuidas teine ​​pool elab: Uuringud New Yorgi korterite vahel - ja Riis veedaks kümnendi praktiliselt linna abivajajate nimel prohvetlikuna.

Selles raamatus selgitab ta „tänava araablase”, teise nimega tänavatihase, olukorda.

"Neid leidub kogu linnas, neid tänava araablasi, kus naabruskond pakub võimalust päevasel ajal elatist hankida ja öösel" sisse pöörduda ", lubades üllatusest turvalisust. Soojal ajal teevad tänaval veoauto, mugav kõrvalhoone või kai ääres heinapargas välja kaevatud heas korras narid. Kaks leiti oma pesa tegemas Harlemi silla juurest suure raudtoru otsast ja vana jõgi East Riveris oli teise paari jaoks elegantne korter. ”

Allpool: kaks poissi magavad kell 2 öösel ajalehe New York Sun pressiruumis.

Enamik tänavalapsi on ajalehepoisid või saapad, kes võitlevad sissekannete ja mõne sendi eest. Riis kirjutab teises osas:

„Meil on kuus,” ütles kaheteistkümne- või kolmeteistkümneaastane siilik, kellega Newsboysi öömajas kokku puutusin, „ja meil pole isa. Mõned meist pidid minema. ” Ja nii ta läks, saabaste mustamisega elatist teenima. Minek on piisavalt lihtne. Üürikorteris on väga vähe seda poissi, kes pole kunagi midagi muud teadnud kui kodu. Varsti hoiab metsik elu tänavatel teda kiiresti kinni ja sealt edasi oma jõududega pääsu pole. Jättes üksi omaette, leiab ta peagi koha politseiraamatutes ja teisele küsimusele: “mis saab poisist?” Poleks muud vastust. kui see, mida kriminaalkohtud annavad iga päev nädalas. ”

"Ei elanud kusagil." MCNY

Allpool on rohkem pilte Riisi ja tema kaaslaste tehtud New Yorgi tänavatel lastest 1880. aastate lõpus ja 1890. aastate alguses, viisakalt New Yorgi linna muuseumiga.

MCNY
"Shooting Craps: The Game of the Street", Bootblacks ja Newsboys, 1894 "MCNY Poiste rivistus Mulberry Streeti alleel. 1890, MCNY Noor poiss, kes hoiab last käes, sirutab naine nende poole. 1890, MCNY 1890, MCNY Mott Street Boys, “Hoidke rohu eest”. 1890. MCNY

See artikkel katkestab osa meie ülevaatusest New Yorgi linna muuseumi 2015. aasta Riisi näituse kohta.


Teerajaja sotsiaalne reformija Jacob Riis paljastas “Kuidas teine ​​pool elab ja#8221 Ameerikas

1870. aastal, kui Jacob August Riis rändas aurulaeval Taanist Ameerikasse Iowa, ta sõitis juhtimises ilma riietega seljas, 40 laenatud dollarit taskus ja medaljon, mis sisaldas armastatud tüdruku juukseid. 21-aastasel Riisil pidi olema raske ette kujutada, et vaid mõne lühikese aasta pärast on ta tulevase presidendiga koos palling, temast saab fotoajakirjanduse teerajaja ja ta aitab reformida New Yorgi eluasemepoliitikat .

Jacob Riis, kes suri sel kuul 100 aastat tagasi, nägi oma esimesed paar aastat USA -s vaeva. Kuna ta ei suutnud leida püsivat tööd, töötas ta põllumehe, rauatöölise, telliskivikihi, puusepa ja müügimehena ning koges ameerika linnastumise halvimaid külgi-kuritegevust, haigusi, viletsust-üürikorterites ja öömajades. mis lõpuks inspireeriks noort Taani immigranti pühenduma linna alamklassi elutingimuste parandamisele.

Väikese õnne ja suure tööga sai ta tööle ajakirjanikuna ja platvormina alamklassi kogukonna häda paljastamiseks. Lõpuks sai Riisist politseireporter The New York Tribune, hõlmates linna kõige kuritegelikumate linnaosade tööd, mis tooks kaasa kuulsuse ja sõpruse politseikomissari Theodore Rooseveltiga, kes nimetas Riisi "parimaks ameeriklaseks, keda ma kunagi tundsin". Riis teadis, mida tähendab kannatada, nälgida ja kodutu olla, ja kuigi tema proosa oli mõnikord sensatsiooniline ja isegi aeg -ajalt eelarvamustega, oli tal Roosevelti sõnul "suur kingitus panna teised nägema seda, mida ta nägi, ja tundma, mida ta tundis" . "

But Riis wanted to literally show the the world what he saw. So, to help his readers truly understand the dehumanizing dangers of the immigrant neighborhoods he knew all too well, Riis taught himself photography and began taking a camera with him on his nightly rounds. The recent invention of flash photography made it possible to document the dark, over-crowded tenements, grim saloons and dangerous slums. Riis’s pioneering use of flash photography brought to light even the darkest parts of the city. Used in articles, books, and lectures, his striking compositions became powerful tools for social reform.

Riis’s 1890 treatise of social criticism How the Other Half Lives was written in the belief “that every man’s experience ought to be worth something to the community from which he drew it, no matter what that experience may be, so long as it was gleaned along the line of some decent, honest work.” Full of unapologetically harsh accounts of life in the worst slums of New York, fascinating and terrible statistics on tenement living, and reproductions of his revelatory photographs, How the Other Half Lives
was a shock to many New Yorkers - and an immediate success. Not only did it sell well, but it inspired Roosevelt to close the worst of the lodging houses and spurred city officials to reform and enforce the city’s housing policies. To once again quote the future President of the United States: “The countless evils which lurk in the dark corners of our civic institutions, which stalk abroad in the slums, and have their permanent abode in the crowded tenement houses, have met in Mr. Riis the most formidable opponent every encountered by them in New York City.”


How the Other Half Lives

Jacob August Riis, “Knee-pants” at forty five cents a dozen—A Ludlow Street Sweater’s Shop, c. 1890, 7 x 6″, from How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York, 1890 (The Museum of the City of New York)

The slums of New York

Jacob Riis documented the slums of New York, what he deemed the world of the “other half,” teeming with immigrants, disease, and abuse. A police reporter and social reformer, Riis became intimately familiar with the perils of tenement living and sought to draw attention to the horrendous conditions. Between 1888 and 1892, he photographed the streets, people, and tenement apartments he encountered, using the vivid black and white slides to accompany his lectures and influential text, How the Other Half Lives, published in 1890 by Scribner’s. His powerful images brought public attention to urban conditions, helping to propel a national debate over what American working and living conditions should be.

Jacob August Riis, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York, 1890

A Danish immigrant, Riis arrived in America in 1870 at the age of 21, heartbroken from the rejection of his marriage proposal to Elisabeth Gjørtz. Riis initially struggled to get by, working as a carpenter and at various odd jobs before gaining a footing in journalism. In 1877 he became a police reporter for The New York Tribune, assigned to the beat of New York City’s Lower East Side. Riis believed his personal struggle as an immigrant who “reached New York with just one cent in my pocket”¹ shaped his involvement in reform efforts to alleviate the suffering he witnessed.

As a police reporter, Riis had unique access to the city’s slums. In the evenings, he would accompany law enforcement and members of the health department on raids of the tenements, witnessing the atrocities people suffered firsthand. Riis tried to convey the horrors to readers, but struggled to articulate the enormity of the problems through his writings. Impressed by the newly invented flash photography technique he read about, Riis began to experiment with the medium in 1888, believing that pictures would have the power to expose the tenement-house problem in a way that his textual reporting could not do alone. Indeed, the images he captured would shock the conscience of Americans.

Jacob August Riis, The Mulberry Bend, c. 1890, 7 x 6″, from How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York, 1890 (The Museum of the City of New York)

Midnight rounds

At first Riis engaged the services of a photographer who would accompany him as he made his midnight rounds with the police, but ultimately dissatisfied with this arrangement, Riis purchased a box camera and learned to use it. The flash technique used a combination of explosives to achieve the light necessary to take pictures in the dark. The process was new and messy and Riis made adjustments as he went. First, he or his assistants would position the camera on a tripod and then they would ignite the mixture of magnesium flash-powder above the camera lens, causing an explosive noise, great smoke, and a blinding flash of light. Initially, Riis used a revolver to shoot cartridges containing the explosive magnesium flash-powder, but he soon discovered that showing up waving pistols set the wrong tone and substituted a frying pan for the gun, flashing the light on that instead. The process certainly terrified those in the vicinity and also proved dangerous. Riis reported setting two fires in places he visited and nearly blinding himself on one occasion.

Jacob August Riis, “A man atop a make-shift bed that consists of a plank across two barrels,” c. 1890, 7 x 6″, from How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York, 1890 (The Museum of the City of New York)

Home and work

While it is unclear if Riis’ pictures were totally candid or posed, his agenda of using the stark images to persuade the middle and upper classes that reform was needed is well documented. A major theme of Riis’ images was the terrible conditions immigrants lived in. In the 1890s, tenement apartments served as both homes and as garment factories. “Knee-Pants at Forty-Five Cents a Dozen—A Ludlow Street Sweater’s Shop” depicts the intersection of home and work life that was typical. Note the number of people crowded together making knickers and consider their ages, gender, and role. Each worker would be paid by the piece produced and each had his/her own particular role to fill in the shop which was also a family’s home.

Detail, Jacob August Riis, “Knee-pants” at forty five cents a dozen—A Ludlow Street Sweater’s Shop, c. 1890, 7 x 6″, from How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York, 1890 (The Museum of the City of New York)

While Riis did not record the names of the people he photographed, he organized his book into ethnic sections, categorizing the images according to the racial and ethnic stereotypes of his age. In this regard, Riis has been criticized for both his bias and reducing those photographed to nameless victims. “Knee-Pants,” appears in the chapter Jewtown and one can assume that the individuals are part of the large wave of Eastern European Jewish migration that flooded New York at the turn of the twentieth century.

Detail of the “Table of Contents,” Jacob August Riis, How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York, 1914

They are likely conversing in Yiddish and share some type of familial or neighborly connection. Some of the workers depicted might have lived in a neighboring New York City apartment or next door back in the old country. Home life, family relations and business relations, are intertwined. Just as it is impossible to know the names of the people captured in Riis’ image, and what Riis actually thought of them, one also cannot know their own impressions of the workplace, or their hopes and day-to-day challenges.

Jacob August Riis, 󈫼 year old boy at work pulling threads. Had sworn certificate he was 16—owned under cross-examination to being 12. His teeth corresponded with that age,” c. 1890, 7 x 6″, from How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons: New York, 1890 (The Museum of the City of New York)

The work performed in tenements like these throughout the Lower East Side made New York City the largest producer of clothing in the United States. Under the contracting system, the tenement shop would be responsible for assembling the garments, which made up the bulk of the work. By 1910, New York produced 70% of women’s clothing and 40% of men’s ready-made clothing. That meant that the knee-pants and garments made by the workers captured in this Ludlow Street sweatshop were shipped across the nation. Riis’ photographs helped make the sweatshop a subject of a national debate and the center of a struggle between workers, owners, consumers, politicians, and social reformers.

The Progressive Era

Riis’ photographs are part of a larger reform effort undertaken during the Progressive Era, that sought to address the problems of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Progressives worked under the premise that if one studies and documents a problem and proposes and tests solutions, difficulties can ultimately be solved, improving the welfare of society as a whole. Progressives like Riis, Lewis Hine, and Jessie Tarbox Beals pioneered the tradition of documentary photography, using the tool to record and publicize working and housing conditions and a renewed call for reform. These efforts ultimately led to government regulation and the passage of the 1901 Tenement House Law, which mandated new construction and sanitation regulations that improved the access to air, light, and water in all tenement buildings.

Jessie Tarbox Beals, Child on Fire Escape, c. 1918, for the New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor (Columbia University Libraries)

In the introduction to the How the Other Half Lives, Riis challenged his readers to confront societal ills, asking “What are you going to do about it? is the question of to-day.” It was a question of the past, but one that endures.

Go deeper

Bonnie Yochelson and Daniel Czitrom, Rediscovering Jacob Riis: Exposure Journalism and Photography in Turn-of-the-Century New York ( Chicago University Press, 2014).


Jacob Riis - History

H e arrived on America's shores in 1870 virtually penniless. Twenty-one-year-old Jacob Riis had traveled from his native Denmark to find a better life. He spent the next few years on the brink of starvation as he went from job to job, never finding anything lasting. His big break came in 1877 when he was hired as a police reporter by the New York Tribüün newspaper.

In 1887 Riis learned of a new photographic method that ignited flash powder to provide enough illumination to take photos in darkness. Soon he was incorporating this method in his coverage of the city, first employing other photographers and then taking the photos himself. His objective was to document the conditions he saw in order to change them. In 1891 he published How the Other Half Lives. The force of his words combined with the stark reality of his photos did much to sway public opinion to cleaning up the squalled conditions in the tenements

"I found the patient on the top floor stretched upon two chairs. . ."

"That ignorance plays its part, as well as poverty and bad hygienic surroundings, in the sacrifice of life is of course inevitable. They go usually hand in hand.

A message came one day last spring summoning me to a Mott Street tenement in which lay a child dying from some unknown disease. With the 'charity doctor' I found the patient on the top floor stretched upon two chairs in a dreadfully stifling room. She was gasping in the agony of peritonitis that had already written its death-sentence on her wan and pinched face. The whole family, father, mother, and four ragged children, sat around looking on with the stony resignation of helpless despair that had long since given up the fight against fate as useless.

The father's hands were crippled from lead poisoning. He had not been able to work for a year. A contagious disease of the eyes, too long neglected, had made the mother and one of the boys nearly blind. The children cried with hunger. They had not broken their fast that day and it was then near noon. For months the family had subsisted on two dollars a week from the priest, and a few loaves and a piece of corned beef which the sisters sent them on Saturday.

The doctor gave direction for the treatment of the child, knowing that it was possible only to alleviate its sufferings until death should end them, and left some money for food for the rest.

An hour later, when I returned, I found them feeding the dying child with ginger ale, bought for two cents a bottle at the peddler's cart down the street. A pitying neighbor had proposed it as the one thing she could think of as likely to make the child forget its misery. There was enough in the bottle to go round to the rest of the family. In fact, the wake had already begun before night it was under way in dead earnest."

Viited:
Riis Jacob, How the Other Half Lives (1891) Lane James B., Jacob A Riis and the American city (1974).


Jacob Riis - History

Have you ever heard the saying that a picture is worth a thousand words? Jacob Riis, an immigrant from Denmark, proved the truth of this saying. His photographs of the terrible living and working conditions of immigrants made Americans realize that the American Dream was not coming true for some people. Something had to be done.

Riis was born in Ribe, Denmark. He sailed for the United States in 1870. He lived in poverty in New York City for several years before he found a job with a newspaper in 1873. His work as a police reporter took him into the slums. There he saw the horrible conditions in which immigrants lived. He taught himself how to use a camera and began to take photographs to accompany his news articles.

People who saw Riis' pictures were horrified at the nasty conditions in the dark tenement housing, the unhealthy factories and overcrowded schools. Riis earned the title "Emancipator of the Slums" because his work on behalf of the city poor led to reforms in education, child labor, and housing.


Jacob Riis: Revealing &ldquoHow the Other Half Lives&rdquo Riis and Reform

As governor of New York, Riis&rsquos friend Theodore Roosevelt appointed a Tenement House Commission, which led in 1901 to the creation of the Tenement House Department, headed by another Riis friend, Robert de Forest of the Charity Organization Society. Riis and this circle of municipal citizen-reformers, which included social welfare activists Josephine Shaw Lowell and Lillian Wald, worked to gather statistical evidence and raise public awareness. They advocated for new housing designs to ease crowding and improve fire safety, sanitation, and access to air and light. Riis described the evolution of tenement house reform as a forty-year effort, which included demolishing the Five Points and Mulberry Bend neighborhoods, initiating new construction, cleaning the streets, creating parks and playgrounds, tearing down rear tenements, and cutting more than 40,000 windows through interior walls to let in light.

Jacob Riis. &ldquoThe Tenement House Exhibition.&rdquo Harper&rsquos Weekly, February 3, 1900, page from Riis&rsquos scrapbook. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (006.00.00)

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Flat in Hell’s Kitchen on the West Side

Riis wrote in his 1889 article for Scribner&rsquos Magazine, &ldquoHow the Other Half Lives:&rdquo &ldquoNot that all the tenements above Fourteenth Street are good, or even better than those we have seen. There is Hell&rsquos Kitchen and Murderers&rsquo Row in the region of West-side slaughter-houses and three-cent whiskey. . . . &rdquo The couple in this photograph taken by Riis lived on New York City&rsquos West 38th Street in a barracks that covered an entire city block and lacked interior windows, ventilation, and indoor plumbing.

Jacob Riis. Flat in Hell&rsquos Kitchen, &ldquoRuin,&rdquo 1887&ndash1889. Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis, 199 (90.3.4.155) (003.00.00)

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Fire Insurance Map

During the first half of the nineteenth century, most fire insurance companies were small and based in a single city. The underwriters could personally examine properties they were about to insure. As insurance companies became larger and expanded their coverage to numerous cities, a mapping industry developed to support the greater need. Insurance maps provided block-by-block inventories of existing buildings&ndashsuch as the map of the New York City&rsquos Hell&rsquos Kitchen, home to a large population of Irish immigrants in Riis&rsquos time. The outline or footprint of each building is indicated, and the buildings are color coded to show the construction material: pink for brick, yellow for wood, and green indicated &ldquospecially hazardous risks&rdquo for insurers.

Perris & Browne. West 42nd to West 37th Streets, between 10th Avenue and the Hudson River from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map], 1889. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (004.00.00)

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Public Health

Disease, sanitation, garbage and hygiene issues were constant concerns in crowded impoverished tenement districts, where vital statistics were alarming. Jacob Riis wrote frequently to urge measures to protect public health and to alert wealthy residents of the city to slum conditions that put everyone at risk. Poor water quality, filth, vermin, and compromised living conditions meant typhus and cholera outbreaks were common, as were high rates of child mortality and tuberculosis. Rag pickers and petty thieves made city dumps their homes, while unemployed &ldquotramps&rdquo lived in shack housing in back alleyways. The Tenement House Committee of 1894 (known as the &ldquoGilder Committee) called rear tenements &ldquoinfant slaughter-houses,&rdquo where as many as one in five babies died. Riis collaborated with health and hygiene department officials to compile and report sources of disease and seek remedies to improve public health.

Jacob Riis. &ldquoExtra: Real Wharf Rats,&rdquo Evening Sun, March 18, 1892, page from Riis&rsquos scrapbook. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (012.00.00)

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Children of the Dump

In the winter of 1892, Riis visited eleven of the city&rsquos sixteen riverside dumps to investigate the enforcement of two public health laws: one required that old rags be washed before resale, and the other forbade rag pickers from living in the dumps. He learned that neither law was enforced. Riis interviewed the rag pickers and took seven photographs, five of which were reproduced as line engravings in the Evening Sun. Riis saw women and children working and living in the dumps. He wrote: &ldquoI found boys who ought to have been at school, picking bones and sorting rags. They said that they slept there, and as the men did, why should they not? It was their home. They were children of the dump, literally.&rdquo

Jacob Riis. A Child of the Dump, 1892. Gelatin printing out paper on board [vintage print]. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.3.116) (008.00.00)

Jacob Riis. In Sleeping Quarters, Rivington Street Dump, 1892. Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.208) (007.00.00)

Perris & Browne. Piers along the East River from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map], 1889. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (009.00.00)

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Public Space

As older dense buildings gave way to new tenement design, Riis advocated for open-air parks for children, who previously had nowhere but the streets or the dark hallways and cramped back spaces of tenements to play. Riis helped raise support for small public parks and thought that every public school should have a playground. He believed in the right of boys and girls to play as part of healthy early child development, and as an outlet for energies that could instead be turned to lives of vice or crime. One of Jacob Riis&rsquos triumphs as a reformer was the creation of Mulberry Bend Park where crime-ridden housing had once been. Riis believed in the benefits of exposure to nature and also supported the idea of excursions for city kids to farms and meadows in the countryside.

&ldquoPlaygrounds as a Cure for City Crime,&rdquo Brooklyn Times, April 27, 1900, from page in Riis&rsquos scrapbook. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (017.00.00)

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Establishing Parks and Playgrounds

Riis photographed a privately funded, experimental playground at West 28th Street between 11th and 12th Avenues, the block pictured in the map above, where equipment was installed, and a janitor and two teachers were hired to watch the children. Riis described the park: &ldquoIt was not exactly an attractive place. . . . But the children thought it lovely, and lovely it was for Poverty Gap, if not for Fifth Avenue.&rdquo Riis helped establish several small public parks in tenement neighborhoods including a park on Rivington Street. This petition, signed by 300 school girls &ldquoto make the corporation yard at the foot of Rivington St. into a public play-ground,&rdquo succeeded. Hamilton Fish Park opened in 1900.

Jacob Riis. Children&rsquos Playground, Poverty Gap, 1892.Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.121) (013.00.00)

Petition for Rivington Street Park, 1897, page of signatures. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (026.00.00)

Perris & Browne. West 32nd to West 17th Streets, between 10th Avenue and the Hudson River from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map], 1889. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (015.00.00)

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Crime

As a young new immigrant, alone, homeless, and struggling to find work&mdashwith only a stray dog as a companion on the street&mdashJacob Riis was the victim of crime at a police lodging house. A locket bearing an image of his beloved Elisabeth was stolen from him in his sleep. Reporting the crime, he was thrown from the premises by a disbelieving policeman, who clubbed his dog to death when it snarled in his defense. Riis never forgot either the theft or the brutality, and his crusade against conditions in police lodging houses became his vendetta. Claiming the true crime was the lack of action on the part of municipal authorities to institute reform, Riis campaigned for the establishment of city-run lodging houses as an alternative, both to alleviate public menace and provide decent habitation for men and women in crisis.

Jacob Riis. &ldquoVice Which is Unchecked in Police Lodging Houses,&rdquo New York Tribune, January 31, 1892, page from Riis&rsquos scrapbook. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (025.00.00)

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Bandits’ Roost

Bandits&rsquo Roost was an alley on Mulberry Street on New York&rsquos Lower East Side, where Italian immigrants paid excessive rent to live in &ldquorear tenements,&rdquo ramshackle structures that were added onto old houses. Riis, working with amateur photographers Richard Hoe Lawrence and Henry G. Piffard, took this photograph with a stereoscopic camera, which produced two side-by-side images: on the left is a woman with two small children on the right, young &ldquotoughs&rdquo look warily at the camera. Riis led a ten-year crusade to clean up the area in which this photograph was taken called &ldquoMulberry Bend,&rdquo it was notorious as a haven for gangs and criminal activity.

Jacob Riis, Richard Hoe Lawrence, and Henry G. Piffard, photographers. Bandits&rsquo Roost, 1887&ndash1888. Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York. Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.104 & .105) (018.00.00)

Perris & Browne. &ldquoMulberry Street&rdquo from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map of Lower East Side], 1880. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (021.00.00)

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Labor

Jacob Riis worried about sweatshop labor taking place within tenement apartments and in small factory locations in the Lower East Side. Whole families, including children, as well as hired help, would often be involved in various levels of piecework. Garment making (cutting, sewing, tailoring, pressing), cigar making, millinery, and artificial flower assembly, were among the forms of production at which immigrant laborers worked in crowded hot conditions inside residences and were paid by the &ldquopiece&rdquo or the lot. Sweatshop labor meant health risks, including high rates of consumption and shortened life spans. Riis was dismayed about child labor in particular&mdashin homes and in factories. Adolescent girls tended younger siblings while parents worked, or took on heavy domestic jobs like laundry and scrubbing. Out in the streets, newsboys roamed at night and vice beckoned boys and girls alike. Riis lamented that many of these little children appeared old before their time from taking on adult forms of labor.

Jacob Riis. How the Other Half Lives, Studies Among the Tenements of New York. New York: Charles Scribner&rsquos Sons, 1890. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (030.00.00)

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Piece Work&mdashCigar-Making

Riis devoted a chapter of How the Other Half Lives to &ldquoThe Bohemians&mdashTenement-House Cigar Making.&rdquo Riis described these Eastern European immigrants as working seventeen-hour days, seven days a week, inside their apartments rank with toxic fumes, making pennies an hour by stripping and drying piles of tobacco leaves and rolling finished products. In the Riis photograph, the parents work at the cigar mold and their oldest child, at the center of the frame, prepares the tobacco leaves for rolling.

Jacob Riis. Bohemian Cigar Makers at Work, 1889&ndash1890. Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.149) (027.00.00)

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Fire Insurance Map

During the first half of the nineteenth century, most fire insurance companies were small and based in a single city. The underwriters could personally examine properties they were about to insure. As insurance companies became larger and expanded their coverage to numerous cities, a mapping industry developed to support the greater need. Insurance maps provided block-by-block inventories of existing buildings&mdashsuch as the map above of an area east of the Bowery where there was a dense concentration of Jewish tenement sweatshops. The outline or footprint of each building is indicated, and the buildings are color coded to show the construction material: pink for brick, yellow for wood, and green indicated &ldquospecially hazardous risks&rdquo for insurers.

Perris & Browne. Plate 24 ½ Lower East Side from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map], 1889. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (028.00.00)

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Haridus

Jacob Riis honored education, especially for children, as a way up and out of slum life. The son of a schoolmaster, Riis had been a rebellious student nevertheless, he loved to read as a child. He believed that education was not just a pathway to better employment and a more fulfilled and informed life, it made good naturalized citizens. Riis was a strong supporter of industrial schools, which imparted practical job-related skills and taught civics lessons to children whose families originated from many nations. Though work was almost always a necessity, some first-generation immigrants recognized the better chances that literacy in English could bring to their children, and supported their sons and daughters in their desire to learn to read and write. Riis also worked with the New York Kindergarten Association and settlement house workers to promote early child education.

&ldquo&lsquoA Message from the Slums,&rsquo Jacob Riis of New York Addresses the Congregational Club,&rdquo Hartford [CT] Courant, May 22, 1895, from Riis&rsquos scrapbook. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (035.00.00)

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Educating the Young

Pietro worked as a bootblack before he was hit by a streetcar and maimed. Riis made two photographs of the boy at his home on Jersey Street, where he was learning to write English, “in the hope of his doing something somewhere at sometime to make up for what he had lost.” In the photograph above, the thirteen-year-old Pietro is shown with his mother and young sibling.

Riis believed that introducing immigrant children to the principles of American democracy would go a long way toward making them proud citizens. The administrator of the Beach Street Industrial School on the Lower East Side of New York asked the students to vote on whether the school day should begin with a salute to the American flag. Riis’s photograph shows the students casting their ballots, monitored by the student election inspectors

Jacob Riis. Pietro Learning to Write, 1891&ndash1892. Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.163) (032.00.00)

Jacob Riis. The First Patriotic Election in the Beach Street Industrial School, 1891&ndash1892. Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.172) (033.00.00)

Perris & Browne. Beach Street from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map], 1889. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (034.00.00)

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Homelessness

Jacob Riis, himself once homeless as a young man new to the United States, wrote sympathetic vignettes about those who fell on hard times and became homeless&mdashoften due to the loss of a job or an injury or, because they were evicted from their tenement homes when they could not afford escalating rents. Riis lamented the indifference of employers and the greed of landlords. But he reserved particular venom for those who begged for a living or who did not actively seek work, a category of homeless he referred to as &ldquotramps.&rdquo His campaign against police lodging houses, which acted as nightly homeless shelters, was due to their poor conditions and their role in the spread of crime and disease, but also because they perpetuated this form of homelessness. With the help of then Police Commissioner Theodore Roosevelt, the police station lodging houses were closed in 1896, with the intent that those displaced were to be served by improved charitable and civic services.

Jacob Riis. &ldquoPolice Lodging Houses: Are They Hotbeds for Typhus?&rdquo Christian Union, January 14, 1893, from Riis&rsquos scrapbook. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (038.00.00)

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Eldridge Street Station

In 1892 and 1893, Riis took photographs of the deplorable conditions of the police lodging houses, which served as the city&rsquos homeless shelters. These images illustrated his articles and a lecture at the Academy of Medicine in February 1893&mdasha lecture Riis gave to garner support for closing the houses and replacing them with a municipal wayfarer&rsquos lodge. The police station lodging rooms at 87/89 Eldridge Street, located on the lower right portion of the map above, sheltered only women. When a sick man asked to stay for the night, he was placed in an empty room and laid down on the bare plank floor. It was soon discovered that he had typhus. Riis wrote:

Jacob Riis. The Single Typhus Lodger in Eldridge Street, 1893.Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.247) (036.00.00)

Perris & Browne. &ldquoEldridge Street, north of Grand Street&rdquo from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map of Lower East Side], 1880. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (037.00.00)

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Immigration

Ellis Island served as the gateway for more than twelve million immigrants from many nations between its opening as the U.S. immigration inspection station at the port of New York in 1892 to its closing in the 1950s. When Riis emigrated from Denmark in 1870 to seek &ldquoan honest dollar,&rdquo the German, Irish, and Chinese immigration of the mid-century was ebbing. Most Scandinavian immigrants headed to farmland and cities in the West and Midwest. As Riis gained fame in his career&mdashbetween 1890 and his death in 1914&mdasha &ldquothird&rdquo or &ldquonew&rdquo wave of immigrants arrived in New York. Of many nationalities and faiths, they came primarily from Russia, Italy, and Eastern Europe. When featuring New York&rsquos immigrant groups and their neighborhoods in his articles and bestselling books, Riis expressed personal religious and ethnic prejudices, but he steadfastly championed immigrants he perceived to be of good character and drive.

Jacob Riis. &ldquoThe Gateway of All Nations,&rdquo Christian Herald, October 11, 1905. Jacob A. Riis Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (041.00.00)

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In Jersey Street

An Italian family lived in this one-room, windowless home on Jersey Street, a few blocks from Riis&rsquos Mulberry Street office. Jersey Street in the map above is sandwiched between Prince and East Houston Streets and is crammed with the back-to-back tenements that Riis railed against. In Riis&rsquos photograph the family&rsquos possessions and furnishings, which includes a rolled mattress, barrel, and piles of clothes a dustpan, a basin, a wooden pallet that may have served as a bed, and a cast iron stove and various containers, fill the frame. Riis commented on the Italian custom of swaddling: &ldquoYou can see how they wrap [their babies] around and around until you can almost stand them on either end and they won&rsquot bend, so tightly are they bound.&rdquo

Jacob Riis. Italian Mother and Her Baby in Jersey Street, 1888&ndash1889. Modern gelatin printing out paper. Museum of the City of New York, Gift of Roger William Riis (90.13.4.160) (039.00.00)

Perris & Browne. Plate 24 showing Jersey Street, between Prince and East Houston Street from Insurance Maps of the City of New York [fire insurance map], 1880. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress (040.00.00)


Vaata videot: A Laymans Sermon: Jacob A. Riis on How the Other Half Lives u0026 Dies in NY (Juuni 2022).


Kommentaarid:

  1. Kevron

    mitte päris

  2. Damien

    Lause suurepärane

  3. Salim

    Thank you !, to the quote pad!

  4. Shaithis

    Kinnitan. Ja ma sattusin sellesse. Arutame seda küsimust.

  5. Fenrira

    Vabandust, aga ma arvan, et te eksite. Ma olen kindel. Arutame. Saada mulle e -kiri kell.



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