Ajalugu Podcastid

Vladimir Majakovski

Vladimir Majakovski


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Vladimir Majakovski sündis Gruusias Bagdadis 7. juulil 1893. Neljateistkümneaastaselt osales Majakovski sotsialistlikel meeleavaldustel Kutaisi linnas.

1906. aastal kolis Majakovski koos emaga Moskvasse. Ta liitus ebaseadusliku Sotsiaaldemokraatliku Tööparteiga ja järgmise kümne aasta jooksul arreteeriti mitu korda ning veetis üksteist kuud vanglas. 1909. aastal Butyrka vanglas viibides hakkas ta luuletama.

Eugene Lyons, raamatu autor Ülesanne Utoopias (1937), on märkinud: "Majakovski oli alustanud oma kirjanduslikku elu tsaariaegse imagistina. Ta tervitas revolutsiooni kui vankumatuid loomingulisi energiaid ja andis õiguse kirjanduslikule eksperimenteerimisele. Kuid ta aktsepteeris ka selle sügavamaid eesmärke kui ühiskondlikke muutusi. Erinevalt paljudest teistest luuletajatest kasutas ta oma muusat uue ajastu vajadustele mitte ainult meelsasti, vaid ka vaimustusega. "

Vanglast vabanedes õppis ta 1909. aastal Moskva kunstikoolis, kus moodustas koos David Burlyukiga Cubo-Futurist Groupi. Majakovski üritas Esimese maailmasõja puhkemisel Vene armeega liituda. Selle asemel leidis ta tööd joonistajana Petrogradi sõjaväe autokoolis. Sel perioodil valmis tal kaks suurt luuletust, Pilv püksis (1915) ja Selgroo flööt (1916), luuletus, mis käsitles tema suhet abielunaise Lilya Brikuga ja sõja traumat.

Majakovski toetas täielikult Oktoobrirevolutsiooni ja see inspireeris selliseid luuletusi nagu Ood revolutsioonile (1918) ja Vasak märts (1919). Samuti tegi ta joonistusi ja teksti sadadele propagandaplakatitele, milles kutsuti üles bolševike võitu kodusõjas. Ta kirjutas ka 3000 rea eleegia Lenini surma kohta. Mitchell Abidor on väitnud, et: "Majakovski ... pani oma märkimisväärsed anded uue riigi teenistusse. Ta valmistas plakateid, filme ja poliitilisi luuletusi, et jõuda võimalikult laia massi. Lenini surm liigutas teda sügavalt, ja ta luges lugematuid lugemisi tehastes, klubides ja parteikoosolekutel kogu Nõukogude Liidus. "

Eugene Lyons kohtus temaga Moskvas ja kirjeldas teda kui "pikka laia õlaga meest, kes riietus nagu apache, Majakovski hiilgas karmide žestidega ja kandis omadussõna proletaarlane nagu väljakutse kogu maailmale. tema suhtumine olema täiesti veenev. Aeg-ajalt haruldase ilu nostalgilises reas, juhusliku ohke saatel, keset verd ja äikest üleskutsele, reetis ta allasurutud lüüriku ja romantiku. "

Majakovski muutus Jossif Stalini ajal üha kriitilisemaks Nõukogude valitsuse suhtes. Tema näidendid, Lutikas (1929) ja Saun (1930) olid õhukeselt maskeeritud satiirid Stalini autoritaarsuse kohta. Selle tulemusena rünnati teda Leon Trotski järgijana. Üha enam pettunud kommunismist ja keeldus välismaale reisimise viisalt, sooritas Vladimir Majakovski 14. aprillil 1930 Moskvas enesetapu.

Oma enesetapukirjas kirjutas ta: „Ära süüdista kedagi minu surmas ja palun ära lobise. Surnutele ei meeldi selline asi kohutavalt. Mamma, õed ja seltsimehed, andke andeks - see pole väljapääs (ma ei soovita seda teistele), aga mul pole ühtegi teist. Lily - armasta mind ... VAPPi seltsimehed - ärge pidage mind nõrga vaimuga. Tõsiselt - ma ei saanud midagi muud teha. ”

Võita ruudud mässuliste trampidega!

Kõrgemad, üleolevate peade valvurid!

Peseme maailma teise veeuputusega,

Nüüd on tund, kelle tulekut see kardab.

Liiga aeglane, aastate vagun,

Päevade härjad - liiga särtsakad.

Meie jumal on kiiruse jumal,

Meie süda - meie lahingutrumm.

Kas on olemas kulla ennustaja kui meie?

Milline herilane võib kuuli nõelata?

Laulud on meie relvad, meie jõudude jõud,

Meie kuld - meie hääled - lihtsalt kuuleme meid laulmas!

Heinamaa, lenda roheliselt maa peal!

Siidiga meie päevad meile rida!

Vikerkaar, anna värv ja ümbermõõt

Ajalaevastikule.

Taevad kurvastavad meid oma tähista glamuuri üle.

Bah! Ilma selleta võivad meie laulud õitseda.

Tere, Ursus major, kära

Et meid elusana taevasse viidaks!

Laula, naudi rõõmu sügavalt,

Tühjendage vedru tasside, mitte sõrmkübarate abil.

Süda kiirendab lööki!

Meie rinnad on taldrikute vask.

Sõja trumm müristab ja müristab.

See kutsub: suruge rauda elavatesse.

Igast riigist

ori orja järel

visatakse bajonettterasele.

Mille pärast?

Maa väriseb

näljane

ja riisutud.

Inimkond aurustatakse verevannis

ainult nii

keegi

kusagil

saab Albaania kätte.

Inimrühmad on seotud pahatahtlikkusega,

löök maailmale löögi järel

ainult

kellegi laevad

tasuta läbima

läbi Bosporuse.

Varsti

maailm

ribi pole terve.

Ja tema hing tõmmatakse välja.

Ja trampis alla

ainult kellegi jaoks,

asetama

käed külge

Mesopotaamia.

Miks küll

saabas

purustada Maa - lõhenenud ja karm?

Mis on lahingute taeva kohal -

Vabadus?

Jumal?

Raha!

Millal jääd täiskõrgusele seisma,

sina,

annad neile oma elu?

Millal esitate nende nägudele küsimuse:

Miks me tülitseme?

Kell üks. Sa läksid vist magama.

Linnutee voolab läbi öö hõbedat.

Mul pole kiiret; välgutelegrammidega

Mul pole põhjust teid äratada ega häirida.

Ja nagu öeldakse, on vahejuhtum suletud.

Armastuse paat purunes igapäevase vastu.

Nüüd oleme sina ja mina lõpetanud. Milleks siis vaeva näha

Tasakaalustada vastastikuseid muresid, valusid ja valusid.

Vaadake, milline vaikus valitseb maailmas.

Öö ümbritseb taeva tähtedest austusavalduses.

Selliste tundidega tõuseb pöördumine

Ajastud, ajalugu ja kogu looming.

Selle lämmatatud ja terava perioodi traagikat nõukogude kunstis rõhutas minu jaoks igal juhul luuletaja Vladimir Majakovski enesetapp.

Majakovski oli alustanud oma kirjanduslikku elu tsaariaegse imagistina. Erinevalt paljudest teistest luuletajatest kasutas ta oma muusat uue ajastu vajadustele mitte ainult meelsasti, vaid ka valju entusiasmiga.

Kui emotsioonide lüüriline playboy Sergei Jessenin esindas "puhast" luuletajat, vaba ja laulev, siis tegi Majakovski endast distsiplineeritud luuletaja, kes oli oma anded taltsutanud ja kasutanud neid nagu koduloomi revolutsioonitöö tegemiseks. Jessenin kirjutas hüvastijätukirja oma veres ja poos end 1925. aastal. Majakovski nuttis selle surma pärast, kuid karistas seda mõttetut žesti. "Selles elus on lihtne surra," kirjutas ta, "elu üles ehitada on raske."

Majakovski elas, elas kadedalt ja täielikult karmide aastate igapäevastes ülesannetes. Ta irvitas "vene hinge" ja romantiliste privaatsete emotsioonide üle. Ta haamris halastamatusele, masinatele, G.P.U. see oli tema riigi uus saatus ning ta kostis oma põlgust romantikute ja esteetide vastu. Tema luuletused olid staccato ja säravad, ta kahanes mitte vulgaarsusest, lohistas kuu ja tähed maa peale viie aasta plaani toorainena.

Pikk, laiade õlgadega mees, kes riietus nagu apache, Majakovski hiilgas karmide žestidega ja kandis omadussõna "proletaarlane" nagu väljakutse kogu maailmale. Aeg-ajalt haruldase ilu nostalgilises reas reetis ta juhusliku ohke saatel keset verd ja äikest ülesannetele kutsumist alla surutud lüüriku ja romantiku.

Mõnel tema lugejal puudus kõrva teravus, et tuvastada nutmine tema homerose naeru all; teised teesklesid, et ei kuule. Teda aktsepteeriti kõvasti keedetud ajastu kõvaks keedetud häälena.

Ja järsku, 1930. aasta aprillis, oli uudis väljas, et Majakovski on ennast tapnud; veelgi šokeerivam, tappis end abielus näitlejannaga rumala armusuhte tõttu. Ta jättis oma kaaslastele RAPP-is häbiväärselt lõbusa märkuse, mis näitas, et tema "armastuspaat" oli reaalsuse madalikule vajunud.

Mees, kes oli teinud endast isikupäratu, kollektiviseeritud emotsiooni sümboli, kelle pilk kodanlike elutoa- ja magamistoadraamade üle naerdi endiselt tema ümber, suri nagu Dostojevski tegelane. "Ma tean, et see pole väljapääs," palus ta vabandust, "ma ei soovita seda kellelegi - aga mul pole muud võimalust."

Kummalisel kombel ei pidanud seda keegi imelikuks. Vene rahvas polnud oma alateadvuses kunagi õieti uskunud tema löömist. Kremli poolt kehtestatud individuaalse õnne või individuaalse valu tähtsuse eitamine oli vaid pinnal. Väikesed kirjandusdiktaatorid teesklesid, et peavad enesetappu omamoodi hullumeelsuse hooguks, mis pole seotud tegeliku Majakovskiga; nad sõimasid teda meeleheite pärast. Ometi teadsid nad, mida vene rahvas instinktiivselt tundis: et Majakovski enesetapp oli vastus dehumaniseeritud jõhkrustele, mida ta ise oli tähistanud.

Ära süüdista kedagi minu surmas ja palun ära lobise. Tõsiselt - ma ei saanud midagi muud teha.


Vladimir Majakovski - ajalugu

Vladimir Majakovski

SÜNNITUD: 1893, Bagdadi, Georgia

Revolutsioon: luuletaja kroonika (1917)

Vladimir Iljitš Lenin (1925)

Vladimir Majakovski. Majakovski, Vladimir, foto. Kirjandusleht.

Vladimir Majakovskit peetakse Venemaa futuristliku liikumise keskseks tegelaseks ja 1917. aasta bolševike revolutsiooni esmakunstiliseks kunstiliseks hääleks. Vene futuristid nägid oma loomingus oma aja esteetilist väljendusviisi - perioodi, mida iseloomustab vägivaldne ühiskondlik murrang ja Venemaa väljakujunenud valitsuse kokkuvarisemine. Majakovskit peetakse üldiselt üheks uuenduslikumaks luuletajaks kahekümnenda sajandi kirjanduses.

Töötab eluloolises ja ajaloolises kontekstis

Lapsepõlv Bagdadis . Vladimir Majakovski sündis kolmest lapsest noorimana 7. juulil 1893 Gruusia lääneosas Bagdadi külas venelastele - Vladimir Konstantinovitš Majakovskile ja Aleksandra Aleksejevna Maiakovskajale. Tema isa oli metsavaht, Venemaa valitsuse ametnik, kelle töö viis ta Kaukaasia mägedesse. Noor Majakovski oleks aeg -ajalt temaga neil reisidel kaasas. Ülejäänud lapsepõlve veetis ta Bagdadis ja selle ümbruses mängides, kus ta valis gruusia keele, ainsa võõrkeele, mida ta kunagi valdas.

Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Töölispartei ja vangla . Pärast isa surma 1906. aastal kolis Majakovski ema pere Moskvasse. Seal käis ta avalikus keskkoolis. Ta oli intellektuaalselt varajane laps, kellel tekkis varajane kirjanduse hindamine, kuid ta näitas üles vähest huvi koolitöö vastu. Aastal 1908 liitus ta sotsiaaldemokraatliku töölisparteiga, mis on õõnestav ja tsaarivastane organisatsioon. Sel ajal oli Venemaa Nikolai II kontrolli all, viimane riigi tsaar. Tema valitsemisajal tulistas salapolitsei maha rahumeelseid meeleavaldajaid, kelle eesmärk oli esitada Nikolai II -le petitsioon, üritusel, mis lõppkokkuvõttes õõnestas tsaarirežiimi võimu Bloody Sunday. Viieteistkümne kuni kuueteistkümneaastaselt arreteeris Majakovski kolm korda salajane politsei, kes oli kogunud tõendeid, mis seostasid teda sellise kuritegeliku tegevusega nagu ebaseadusliku trükipressi pidamine, pangarööv ja poliitvangide jailbreak korraldamine. Ta oli vanglas kuus kuud pärast kolmandat arreteerimist seoses jailbreak -süüdistusega ning osutus teiste kinnipeetavate seas nii erutavaks, et teda liigutati sageli ja paigutati lõpuks üksikvangistusse.

Vanglast vabanemine ja luule esitamine . Vanglast vabanedes astus ta Moskva Kunstiinstituuti, lootes saada maalikunstnikuks. Seal kohtus ta vene kubistliku maalikunstniku David Burlyukiga, kes tutvustas talle avangardina tuntud kujutava kunsti ja luule uuenduslikke suundi. Riietatud ennekuulmatutesse rõivastesse, nagu tema kaubamärgiks saanud kollane tuunika, sai pikast ja karmilt nägusast Majakovskist peagi grupi domineeriv ja populaarseim luuletaja-esineja, kes köitis publikut sageli oma valjude ja dramaatiliste ettekannetega.

Esimene draama, mis kirjutati ja esitati . Aastal 1913 kirjutas ta ja esines oma esimeses draamas "lsquo & lsquotragey" 'Vladimir Majakovski, mis mängis täis uudishimulikke ja kohati hämmeldavaid pealtvaatajaid. Kaks aastat hiljem kohtus Majakovski Osipi ja Lilya Brikuga, alustades suhet, mis mõjutas suuresti tema isiklikku ja tööelu: Osak Brik, jõukas jurist, kellel olid tugevad kirjandushuvid, sai Majakovski väljaandjaks ja Lilya - Osipi naine - Majakovski armukeseks ja inspiratsiooniks enamiku tema kirglikust armastusluulest, sealhulgas „Lülisamba flööt” (1916) ja „Sellest” (1923).

Revolutsiooni luuletaja . Tsaarirežiimi kukutanud ja nõukogude võimu andnud bolševike revolutsiooni puhkemine 1917. aastal andis Majakovskile võimaluse ühendada oma poliitiline pühendumus ja kunstilised anded ning ta sukeldus pea ees uue režiimi edendamise eesmärgile. Venemaa juhtiv kriitik Victor Šklovski kirjutas oma memuaarides, & lsquo & lsquo Majakovski sisenes revolutsiooni nii, nagu ta sisenes oma koju. "Peagi pidas ta revolutsiooni ametlikuks luuletajaks ja rakendas oma luuleoskust laulude, loosungite ja seletuste kirjutamiseks. Bolševistlik ideoloogia ning kasutas ka oma võimeid maalikunstnikuna ja illustraatorina mahuka hulga propagandaplakatite ja koomiksite koostamiseks. Ta oli uhke oma võime üle luua utilitaarset kirjandust, luuletajana kompromisse tegemata, ja kriitikud imestavad ka tema saavutuse üle, viidates sageli tema kolme tuhande rea pikkusele luuletusele Vladimir Iljitš Lenin-kirjutatud juhi surmast 1924. aastal. parimaid teoseid, religioosse eepose kommunistlik vaste.

Nõukogude esindaja . 1920. aastate keskel ja lõpus reisis ta Nõukogude valitsuse ametliku esindajana Euroopas, Mehhikos ja Ameerika Ühendriikides. Nendel välisreisidel pidas ta kurnava avalike esinemiste ajakava ja salvestas oma muljed kapitalistlikest ühiskondadest, mida ta külastas. Ta avaldas imetlust Ameerika tehnoloogia ja arhitektuuri üle oma Ameerikatsüklis (1925), mis sisaldab üht tema kuulsamat luuletust ja & lsquo & lsquo

Pingelised suhted . Oma elu viimastel aastatel koges Majakovski järjestikku isiklikke pettumusi ja kriitilisi rünnakuid Nõukogude ametnike poolt, mis kõik vähendasid tema enesekindlust ja vastupidavust. Ta oli üha enam pettunud laienevast parteibürokraatiast ja kodanlike väärtuste imbumisest uude korda. Samal ajal süüdistasid konservatiivsed bolševike juhid, et Majakovski kirjutis on liiga individualistlik. Joseph Stalini viieaastane plaan pooldas põllumajanduse ja kunsti kollektiviseerimist ning bolševike juhid väitsid, et Majakovski revolutsioonieelsed futuristlikud veendumused ei sobi kokku nende ideoloogiaga. Äärmusliku poliitilise surve all oli ta sunnitud loobuma ajakirja Futurist ajakirja LEF taaselustanud New LEF toimetusest ning astus konservatiivse, riigi kontrolli all oleva kirjandusorganisatsiooni Venemaa Proletaarlaste Kirjanike Ühendusse (RAPP).

Depressioon, meeleheide ja enesetapp . Kasvav meeleheide ja kahepalgelisus, mida ta tundis oma elu ja oma rahva tuleviku suhtes, peegeldub selgelt tema satiirides nõukogude vilistlike bürokraatide - lutika (1929) ja saunamaja (1930) - kohta, mis on kirjutatud ja esitatud kahe viimase aasta jooksul. tema elu. Näidendid, mida peetakse riigile ennekuulmatuteks kuritegudeks, pälvisid karmid arvustused ja olid Nõukogude Liidus keelatud kuni aastani 1955. Kuigi oma elu viimastel kuudel säilitas Majakovski oma tavapärase rahvarohke avaliku ajakava, oli ta emotsionaalselt laastatud, võttes oma töö kriitilise tagasilükkamise. isikliku rünnakuna. Olles vahepeal oma kunsti hiilgava originaalsuse ja soovi partei teenistuses ande & nbsquo & lsquostamp kurku lüüa, mängis ta vene ruletti, ajaviide, mida ta meeleheitel soosis, ja suri 14. aprillil 1930 omal käel .

KIRJALIK JA AJALOOLINE KAASAEG

Majakovski kuulsate kaasaegsete hulka kuuluvad:

Igor Stravinsky (1882–1971): vene helilooja, kes on kuulus oma balletiteose, eriti Rite of Spring ja The Firebird, eest.

David Burlyuk (1882-1967): Ukraina futurismiga tihedalt seotud Ukraina kunstnik, kes oli Majakovski tuttav ja varane mõju.

Boris Pasternak (1890-1960): Nobeli auhinna võitnud vene romaanikirjanik, kes on kuulus oma eepose "Doktor Živago" poolest.

Joseph Stalin (1878-1953): Nõukogude Liidu kommunistlik juht aastatel 1922–1953, Stalin oli kurikuulus oma diktaatorliku valitsemise ja miljonite teisitimõtlejate korraldatud hukkamise poolest.

Töötab kirjanduslikus kontekstis

Mõju häälele ja revolutsioonilistele teemadele . Majakovskile avaldasid tugevat mõju tema armusuhe Lilya Brikuga, ulatuslikud reisid ning sõda ja revolutsioon. Tema lüürilised värsid räägivad sageli armastusest. Kuid tema poliitilised luuletused, mis näitavad muid mõjusid, hõlmavad suurt hulka: ta kirjutas Leninile pika, kõrge stiiliga austusavalduse, naljaka poliitilise satiiri ja poliitilised voldikud. Ta kirjutas laste luuletusi poliitilise alltekstiga, aeg -ajalt luuletusi selliste sündmuste jaoks nagu kanali ehitamine ja poliitilisi luuletusi, mis olid mõeldud poliitiliste otsuste mõjutamiseks, mitte mälestamiseks. Tema armastusluuletused ja isegi reklaamid näitasid poliitilist muret. Umbes sellest (1923) räägitakse sama palju poliitikast kui armastusest. Üks kummikallosireklaam näitab haamrit ja sirpi kalossimustril.

Ajalooliste ebaõnne ja vastuolude väljendamine . Nn revolutsiooni luuletajana väljendas Majakovski kahekümnenda sajandi Venemaa ajaloo ebaõnne ja vaidlusi. Oma luuletusi lugedes kui põnevaid verbaalse meisterlikkuse näiteid, püüdis ta leiutada tõeliselt revolutsioonilise hääle. Kõige tähelepanuväärsem on see luuletaja persooni või kõneleja hääl, mille ta arendas oma teemade väljaandmiseks. Tema poliitiliselt orienteeritud salmis on isiksuse roll ennastohverdav päästja, kes annab oma elu revolutsiooni eest. Teine roll, mida kõneleja sageli võtab, on ühiskonnakriitik ja revolutsiooni prohvet. Näiteks raamatus „Pilv püksis” (1915) karistab see luuletaja tegelane kodanlust (kapitalistlikku klassi) karmilt nende rahulolematuse pärast maailma eelseisva hävitamise suhtes. See kõneleja võrdsustab end demokraatlikult tuhandete & lsquo & lsquostreetidega - üliõpilaste, prostituutide, töövõtjatega - viisil, mis meenutab Walt Whitmanit, kelle luulet Majakovski oli tõlkinud.

Futuristi stiil . Futuristide luuletajate eesmärk oli hävitada traditsioonilised luuleviisid. Nad tegid seda konventsiooni eiramise, veidrate kujundite ja leiutatud sõnavara kasutamise ning avangardmaalingust laenatud tehnikate, sealhulgas ebaregulaarsete kirjatüüpide, ebaharilike illustratsioonide ja autori käekirja abil. Majakovski loobus oma luules praktiliselt meetermõõdustikust. Lehel on tema salm paigutatud ebakorrapärasteks ridadeks - sageli sellises astmelises vormis nagu tänapäeva Ameerika luuletaja William Carlos Williamsi loomingus - ja seda hoiavad üldiselt koos tugevad, kuid ettearvamatud sisemised riimiskeemid. Suur osa tema luuletaja originaalsusest on tingitud sellest, et ta kasutas hüperboolseid (liialdatud) kujutisi, sageli jumalateotust või vägivalda.

Individuaalselt polnud tal vene luuletaja järgijaid, kellest rääkida, ja tema erilist poeetilist stiili ei arendatud kunagi edasi. Leedus arvati aga, et Majakovski kui futuristlik luuletaja teavitab liikumise „Nelja tuule” kujunemisest - mis võttis esimesed mõjud tema futurismist.

Siin on mõned kirjanike teosed, kes on keskendunud ka vastamata armastuse või revolutsiooni või mõlema teemadele:

Seltsimees Tulajevi juhtum (2004), Victor Sergei romaan. See raamat stalinistlikust puhastusest on samuti salapära, põnevik ja lugu suurest julgusest ja õilsusest.

Pimedus keskpäeval (1940), Arthur Koestleri romaan. Selles loos on peategelane pensionil bolševik ja revolutsionäär, kes on vangistatud, piinatud ja riigireetmise eest kohtu all.

Raamatus Casa Azul: Revolutsiooni ja reetmise romaan (2003), Meaghan Delahunti romaan. Selles ajaloolises romaanis uurib autor nii revolutsiooni kui ka armastust Frida Kahlo ja Leon Trotski maailmas.

Mehe saatus (1933), Andre Malrauxi romaan. Selles väljamõeldud jutustuses Hiina revolutsioonist uurib autor selliste tegelaste, nagu südametunnistusega terrorismimõrvar Ch'en Ta Erh, meele sisemist tööd.

Töötab kriitilises kontekstis

Olenemata sellest, kas Majakovski seda kavatses või mitte, oli tema töö kohta paar kriitilist väärarusaama. Kuni tänaseni taanduvad temaga seotud arutelud kiiresti vanade kommunismimeelsete ja -vastaste seisukohtade juurde, mis domineerisid külma sõja ajal tema ja tema töö kriitilises käsitluses. Ometi on tähelepanuväärne, et luuletajast on hakanud tekkima uus kuvand, eriti stipendiumides, mis avaldati pärast Nõukogude Liidu lagunemist 1991. aastal.

See, et ta kirjandusõpingutes silma paistis juba üheksa -aastaselt, jääb kriitikute poolt üldiselt tähelepanuta, sest nad kipuvad teda tõlgendama populistliku kirjaoskamatuna. Sellele luuletaja kriitilisele väärarusaamale aitab veelgi kaasa asjaolu, et Majakovski kirjutas tahtlikult nii, nagu ta ei oskaks kirjutada. Ta eiras akadeemilist värsistruktuuri. Tema värsis domineerivad elemendid paljastavad kalduvuse suulisele ja eelistuse rõhutada luule kõla. Nagu kirjeldab vene kriitik DS Mirsky, & lsquo & lsquo loomulikult Majakovskile, kes kuulutaks valjult oma õitsva sametise häälega oma salme - igatahes ilus kuulda. See domineeriv suuline element suutis Majakovski kriitikud ära petta, pidades teda tõeliseks kirjaoskamatuks, ehkki mälestused temast on täis jutustusi tema voodis lamamisest või äsja loetud asjast rääkimisest.

1. Majakovski oli nn revolutsiooni luuletaja. Uurige 1917. aasta Vene revolutsiooni. Kuidas see Vene tsiviilisikuid mõjutas? Kuidas kajastub see mõju luuletaja loomingus?

2. Vene revolutsionäär Vladimir Iljitš Lenin avaldas Majakovskile sügavat mõju, kes kirjutas oma juhile isegi austuslaulu nimega a & lsquo & lsquopaean ’’. Uurige Lenini lühikest elulugu. Seejärel otsige määratlus ja uurige paeani komponente. Otsustage grupiarutelus, kui tähtis oli Lenin Majakovskile. Mida vihjab Vladimir Iljitš Lenin luuletaja suhtumisele ja tunnetele?

3. Vene revolutsioonist huvitatud peaksid lugema kümmet päeva, mis raputasid maailma (1919), esmakordset jutustust 1917. aasta oktoobrirevolutsioonist, mida koges Ameerika ajakirjanik John Reed. Lenin ise luges seda raamatut ja kirjutas 1922. aasta väljaandele helendava sissejuhatuse.

Markov, Vladimir. Vene futurism: ajalugu. Berkeley ja Los Angeles: California ülikooli press, 1968.

Šklovski, Viktor. Majakovski ja tema ring. Ed. ja trans. Lily Feiler. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1972.

Smith, Gerald Stanton, D. S. Mirsky: Vene-inglise elu, 1890-1939. New York: Oxfordi ülikooli kirjastus, 2000.

Terras, Victor. Vladimir Majakovski. Boston: Twayne, 1983.

Erlich, Victor. & lsquo & lsquoTuleviku surnud käsi: Vladimir Majakovski ennustus. ’’ Slavic Review, 21 (1962): 432-40.

Urbaszewski, Laura Shear. & lsquo & lsquoKanoniseerida & lsquoParimat, andekaimat 'nõukogude luuletajat: Vladimir Majakovski ja Nõukogude kirjanduspidu.' 'Modernism/modernsus, 9. (november 2002): 635-665.

Linux.org. Vladimir Majakovski pilv püksis. Välja otsitud 31. märtsil 2008, aadressilt http: // vmlinux.org/ilse/lit/mayako.htm.

Loosavor. Meyerhold ja Majakovski: biomehaanika ja kommunistlik utoopia. Välja otsitud 31. märtsil 2008 aadressilt http://loosavor.org/2006/08/biomechanics_social_engineerin.html. Viimati uuendatud 5. augustil 2006.

V. V. Majakovski riigimuuseum. Välja otsitud 31. märtsil 2008 aadressilt http://www.museum.ru/Majakovskiy/Expos1e.htm.

Kui olete meie saidil sisalduva materjali autoriõiguste omanik ja kavatsete selle eemaldada, võtke ühendust kinnitamiseks meie saidi administraatoriga.


MAJAKOVSKI, VLADIMIR (1893–1930)

Üks oma aja mõjukamaid luuletajaid ja dramaturge Vladimir Vladimirovitš Majakovski sündis Gruusias vene päritolu vanemate juures. Perekond kolis 1906. aastal Moskvasse ja enamlastega liitunud Majakovski arreteeriti peagi revolutsioonilise tegevuse eest. Pärast kolmandat vangistust astus Majakovski kunstikooli ning sattus maalikunstniku ja luuletaja David Burlyuki (1882–1967) ning kasvava futurismi liikumise mõju alla.

Majakovski liitus kubofuturismiga, mis on kõige olulisem neljast rühmast, mis moodustasid vene futurismi. Tema kaks esimest avaldatud luuletust "Päev" ja "Öö" ilmusid futuristide variandis Laks avaliku maitse ees (1912) ja ta allkirjastas kuulsa samanimelise manifesti. Seda tehes kiitis ta heaks futurismi mineviku tagasilükkamise ja kodanliku publiku provotseerimise nii trükis kui ka isiklikult: Majakovski osales varajastel futuristlikel tuuridel Venemaal ja reklaamitrikkidel, mis olulisel määral ootasid etenduskunsti. Isegi tema esimene värsidraama, pealkirjaga lihtsalt Tragöödia (1913), oli mõeldud teatri mineviku absoluutseks katkestuseks. Hoolimata Majakovski kavatsustest, näidend, mis vaheldus Võit päikese üle (1913), autoriks Aleksei Kruchonykh (1886–1968), võlgneb märkimisväärse võla Alexander Bloki lüüriliste draamade ja Nikolai Evreinovi monodraamade ees.

Suur osa Majakovski parimast luulest, tema maine kehtestanud ja kindlustanud teos, leidub lüürilistes luuletustes nagu "Lilichka !, kirja asemel", "Meie marss" (1917) ja "Head suhted hobustega", ja oma revolutsioonieelsetes jutustavates luuletustes. Sisse Pilv püksis (1915), Selgroo flööt (1916), Sõda ja maailm (1916) ja Mees (1918) töötas Majakovski välja jahmatava originaalsuse stiili. Majakovski kasutab rõhumõõtjaid, liberaalseid ja loomingulisi riime, süntaksi hämmastavaid kõrvalekaldeid ja uuenduslikku visuaalset esitlust koos hüperbooli ja metafoori ekstravagantsusega, mis võtavad sageli oma elu.

Majakovski võttis omaks 1917. aasta Vene revolutsiooni ja pani oma märkimisväärsed anded uue bolševike riigi jalamile. Tema looming revolutsiooni ajast kuni surmani osutus ebaühtlaseks, ulatudes poliitiliselt otstarbeka jutustava luuletuseni Vladimir Iljitš Lenin (1924) sellistele peenetele laulusõnadele nagu "Ma armastan" ja "Kiri Tatjana Yakovlevale", jutustav luuletus Sellest (1923) ja näidend Lutikas (1929). Majakovski loomingu ebaühtlus on suuresti võlgu luule autonoomia teadlikule ja teoreetiliselt läbitöötamisele riigi vajadustele ja nõudmistele. Majakovskit kõigutas tema lähedane sõber, kriitik Osip Brik, kelle ideed "heli kordamisest" aitasid kujundada luuletaja varajast loomingut ja kelle arusaam "sotsiaalsest nõudlusest" aitas suunata hilisemat teost. Pole üllatav, et Majakovski pühendas sel perioodil agitpropile tohutult energiat ja lõi isegi reklaame riigipoodidele.

Revolutsiooni esimese aastapäeva tähistamiseks kirjutas Majakovski Müsteerium-Bouffe (1918), mis ühendab müsteeriuminäidete elemendid madala komöödiaga, et kujutada "ebapuhta" proletariaadi võidukäiku "puhta" kodanluse üle. Vaatamata puudustele ja bolševike võimude kriitikale, Müsteerium-Bouffe oli oluline, sest see tähistas esimest koostööd Majakovski ja suure režissööri Vsevolod Meyerholdi (1874–1940) vahel. Majakovski, kes hakkas Nõukogude riigi suhtes üha enam meeleheitlikuks, pöördus taas oma järgmise näidendi, hammustava satiiriga, Meyerholdi poole Lutikas, mille lavastamine osutus teatri maamärgiks. Mõlemad tegid taas koostööd Majakovski viimasel näidendil, Saun (1930), mis satiriseerib nõukogude filinismi. Näidendi mahasurumine tähistas ajastu lõppu mitte ainult Majakovski ja Meyerholdi, vaid ka nõukogude kultuuri jaoks.

Majakovski töötas oma elu viimastel aastatel usinalt, et kujundada revolutsiooni ja Nõukogude riigi esteetikat. Sel eesmärgil liitus ta ja aitas luua arvukaid kultuuriorganisatsioone, millest tähtsaim oli kunstivastane vasakpoolne. Organisatsiooni ajakirja toimetajana Lef ja selle järeltulija Uus Lef, Majakovski püüdis revolutsioonilise ühiskonna jaoks kaitsta revolutsioonilist avangardistlikku kunsti. Hoolimata nendes ajakirjades avaldatud olulistest töödest, lõppesid Majakovski pingutused Nõukogude ühiskonna kujundamisel lõpuks ebaõnnestunult. Ta tegi veel ühe viimase katse, kui asutas Ref, revolutsioonilise kunstirinde, kuid pidi selle peagi loobuma. Poliitilise surve all kapituleeris Majakovski ja liitus oma elu viimasel aastal esteetiliselt konservatiivse Venemaa Proletaarlaste Kirjanike Ühinguga (RAPP). Koos mahasurumisega Saun ja isiklikke probleeme, aitas see ebaõnnestumine kaasa tema võimalikule enesetapule. Majakovski pärand sisaldab mitte ainult tema kirjutatud suurepäraseid luuletusi, vaid ka isiksust ja stiili, mis sulatas poliitika ja esteetika aktiivse luuletaja mõjukasse mudelisse.


Silmapaistvad venelased: Vladimir Majakovski

Pilt saidilt www.v-mayakovsky.com

"Ma olen luuletaja. See teebki mind huvitavaks. Sellest ma kirjutan."

Kuulutaja ja revolutsiooni laulja - seega on Vladimir Majakovski maailmale teada.

Mitte ainult luuletaja, kes kiitis uue elu saabumist ja peegeldas selle saatust, oli ta ka näitleja, maalikunstnik, propageerija ja satiirik. Paljude annetega mees lõi ta oma revolutsiooni kirjalikult. Vene luule “märatsev härg”, “riimivõlur”, “luule uuendaja”, “individualist ja mässumeelne väljakujunenud maitse ja standardite vastu” sai Majakovskist üks Venemaa futuristliku liikumise asutajaid. Nad ütlevad, et oktoobrirevolutsioonile järgnenud Vene avangardkunsti õitsengus ei olnud enam hiilgavat kuju. Pärast tema surma ülistas Stalin, kes kuulutas, et Majakovski "oli ja jääb meie nõukogude aja parimaks ja andekaimaks luuletajaks". Need sõnad kuulutasid Majakovski ametlikult pühakuks, kuid paljud nägid neid ka Kaini märgina ühel kaasaegse luule hiiglasel.

Kuid tal oli ka teine ​​külg - haavatav ja kirglik väljavalitu, kes tahtis meeleheitlikult olla armastatud ega olnud tegelikult kunagi. Kuna tema sünd ja surm olid ümbritsetud saladustest, ei osutunud kuulsaima “proletaarse” luuletaja elu päris selliseks, nagu see tundus.

Majakovski ja võimenda sünni saladust
"Mina ise"

Pilt saidilt www.mayak.cheb.ru

Vladimir Majakovski ametlikus elulooraamatus seisab, et väike Volodja sündis 19. juulil 1893. aastal Gruusias Bagdadi külas - tol ajal Vene impeeriumi koosseisus. Vaevalt oskas keegi toona ette kujutada, et tagasihoidliku metsavahi poeg saab nii kuulsaks, et tema sünnikoht isegi tema nime järgi ümber nimetatakse: Majakovski.

Volodya oli üks kolmest lapsest. Tal oli kaks õde - Olga ja Ljudmila. Tema vend Konstantin suri kolmeaastaselt. Isa poolt olid nad vene ja kasaka päritolu ning ema omad. Kodus rääkis pere vene keelt. Koos sõpradega ja koolis kasutas Mayakovky gruusia keelt. In 1927 in an interview to the Prague newspaper Prager Presse he said: “I was born in the Caucasus, my father is a Cossack, my mother is Ukrainian. My mother tongue is Georgian. Thus three cultures are united in me.”

Mayakovsky suffered his unreciprocated love. Lily knew how much Mayakovsky suffered but she would tell her friends, “It’s no harm. It’s good for Volodya. He will suffer and then he’ll write good poems.”

Instead, until early morning,
Horrified you were taken away to be loved
I rushed all around
engraving my cries into verses
already a half-mad diamond-cutter…
I don’t need you!
Don’t want you!
Anyway
I know
I will soon croak.

(“The Backbone Flute,” Vladimir Mayakovsky, 1915)

Image from www.beliy.ru: Mayakovsky and Tatyana Yakovleva

Lily zealously guarded her position as Mayakovsky’s only muse. However several of Volodya’s relationships went out of her control. Once, when Mayakovsky was on the brink of getting married, Lily called him back - he couldn’t resist.

Mayakovsky & the Revolution
“Long live the joyous revolution, soon to come!”

Vladimir Mayakovsky was rejected as a volunteer at the beginning of WWI, but from 1915 to August 1917 he served as a draftsman at the Petrograd Military Automobile School. Being in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) meant he was right at the heart of the October Revolution as it was happening. For the ex-Bolshevik schoolboy, "To accept or not to accept? There was no such question for me… My Revolution." (From “I Myself”).
This was the time of such poems as "Left March! For the Red Marines: 1918" that he would recite at naval theaters, with sailors as an audience, and “An Order to the Art Army”:

Image from www.pomidor.blox.ua

Enough of half penny truths!
Old trash from your hearts erase!
Streets for paint-brushes we’ll use,
our palettes - squares with their wide open space.
Revolution’s days have yet to be sung by the thousand year book of time.
Into the streets, the crowds among,
futurists,
drummers,
masters of rhyme!”

(“An Order to the Art Army,” Vladimir Mayakovsky, March 1918)

In the spring of 1919 Mayakovsky returned to Moscow and threw himself into the task of building and defending the infant workers' state, "the work of a poet of the Revolution is not confined to the writing of books." The propaganda posters known as the “Windows of ROSTA” (the Russian Telegraph Agency), which Mayakovsky and his Futurist colla¬borators produced, covered the country and brought information to a semi-literate population. During the defense of Petrograd in 1919 Mayakovsky worked day and night writing short propaganda poems and illustrating them. His popularity grew rapidly. In 1919, he published his first collection of poems “Collected Works 1909-1919.” Mayakovsky also wrote a large number of film scripts and played in four movies.

By the early 1920s bureaucracy was becoming entrenched within Soviet society. Mayakovsky wrote a scathing satire on the bureaucracy called “Re Conferences.” Lenin made a speech saying how much he agreed with Mayakovsky, and that bureaucracy was eating away at the workers’ state. In 1924 Mayakovsky composed a poem on the death of the leader of the Russian revolution Vladimir Lenin, which became a must for all Soviet school pupils to be learnt by heart.

From 1922 to 1928, Mayakovsky was a prominent member of the Left Art Front (LEF) and went on to define his work as “Communist Futurism” (“Comfut”). Together with Osip Brik he edited the LEF journal.

Mayakovsky continued to write, produce plays and design advertising posters. However, there came a time when experimental art was no longer welcome by the regime and the Bolsheviks became intolerant to the avant-garde. Mayakovsky was the country’s most famous poet but his work irritated a lot of people. His satire, especially the play “The Bathhouse,” evoked stormy criticism from the Russian Association of Proletarian Writers. By the late 1920s everything went downhill. The opening of his personal exhibition “20 Years of Work” in 1928 was ignored by his former colleagues from LEF as well as the Party leadership. On 9 April 1930 he read his poem “At the Top of My Voice” to students who shouted him down for being obscure.

Mayakovsky & the end
“The love boat has crashed against the everyday”

Image from www.fotikoff.net

Mayakovsky was one of the few writers allowed to travel abroad freely. He traveled in Europe, Mexico, Cuba and the United States, recording his impressions in "My Discovery of America." From his journeys he brought suitcases filled with books, periodicals, reproductions of art works and posters, and distributed the materials among his friends, who thus had an immediate contact to the daily affairs of the Western art world. And of course, from each journey he brought presents for his Lily who would unpack them, as happy as a child.

In the summer of 1925 he traveled to New York, where he met the immigrant Elli Jones – originally Elizaveta Petrovna Zibert. She emigrated from Russia after the Revolution and married an Englishman, with whom she separated. Mayakovsky and Jones fell in love but kept the affair a secret – it wasn’t proper of a Soviet poet to get involved with an émigré. Mayakovsky didn’t know that a daughter would be born to them in 1926, after he had left. He saw her only once – in Nice, France – in the autumn of 1928, when she was three years old.

Having learnt the true motive of his trip to Nice (Mayakovsky had claimed it was for health reasons) Lily became seriously concerned. She found a solution to the problem. In Paris her sister introduced Mayakovsky to the beautiful 22-year-old Tatiana Yakovleva, a model for the Chanel fashion house. Mayakovsky totally lost his head. His “Letter to Comrade Kostrov on the Essence of Love” and “Letter to Tatiana Yakovleva” were devoted to her. “You betrayed me for the first time,” announced Lily. The finale of this story is widely known: Mayakovsky was urging Tatiana to marry him and even considered moving to Paris. However he was denied a visa while Lily “accidentally” read out loud a letter from Paris alleging that Tatiana was getting married. Later it turned out the wedding wasn’t even on the agenda at that very moment.
“In January 1929 Mayakovsky said he was in love and would put a bullet to his brain if he didn’t see that woman any time soon,” remembered one of Mayakovsky’s former lovers and friends Natalia Bryukhanenko. He didn’t see “that woman” again. On 14 April 1930 he pulled the trigger. Many say there was no connection between the two events…

Mayakovsky & the mystery of death

Mayakovsky's death note reads, “To All of You. That I die – don’t blame anyone for it, and please do not gossip. The deceased terribly dislike this sort of thing. Mother, sisters, comrades, forgive me—this is not a good method (I do not recommend it to others), but there is no other way out for me. Lily - love me. Comrade Government, my family consists of Lily Brik, mama, my sisters, and Veronika Vitoldovna Polonskaya. If you can provide a decent life for them, thank you. The verses I have begun, give to the Briks. They’ll understand them.

And so they say-
"the incident dissolved"
the love boat smashed up
on the dreary routine.
I'm through with life
and [we] should absolve
from mutual hurts, afflictions and spleen.

Image from www.kino-teatr.ru


Vladimir Mayakovsky 12.IV.30.

Comrades of the Proletarian Literary Organization, don’t think me a coward.
Really, it couldn’t be helped. Tervitused! Tell Yermilov it’s too bad he removed the slogan we should have had it out.
V.M.
In the desk drawer I have 2000 rubles. Use them to pay my taxes. The rest can be gotten from the State Publishing House."

He allegedly shot himself with a revolver.

Having learnt about his death Lily Brik said, “It’s good that he shot himself with a big gun. It would have not been nice: such a poet – and shooting himself with a small Browning.”

A widely accepted version of his death says he pulled the trigger after having things out with the actress Veronika Polonskaya, with whom he had a brief but very stormy romance. Polonskaya was in love with the poet, but unwilling to leave her husband… She was the last one who saw Mayakovsky alive.

At the time of his death, he was dressed in a light blue shirt, a bowtie and well cut, good quality trousers. The Bolsheviks, who were eager to study the biological roots of geniality, removed his brain – the autopsy report recorded Mayakovsky's brain weighed 1700 grams (360 grams more than that of Lenin).

Mayakovsky's body lay in state for three days and was viewed by 150,000 mourners.

However for years too many questions surrounded the poet’s death to accept it was a suicide: why was a suicide note written two days before his death? Why were his close friends, Lily and Osip Brik, sent abroad hastily shortly before? Why didn't the bullet removed from his body match the model of his pistol? And why did his neighbors hear two shots? Many biographers of the poet suggest he was not the kind of a man to commit suicide because of a split with one more in a whole line of women.

Mayakovsky’s daughter, Patricia Thompson, who now uses her Russian name: Yelena Vladimirovna Mayakovskaya, is a professor of philosophy and women's studies at Lehman College in New York City. She believes that the circumstances of her father's death are still shrouded in mystery. "As a scholar and a veteran academic I don't dare to determine facts regarding his death without real proof. I only know that he did not commit suicide, and I will add that if he did so, he didn't do it because of a woman. After all, that has been the popular version for so many years."


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Research output : Contribution to journal › Review article › peer-review

T1 - Vladimir Mayakovsky and the Utopian imagination in the Russian revolution

N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2018 Saint Petersburg State University. Kõik õigused kaitstud. Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

N2 - This article - the third part of a three-part series that reinterprets the "utopianism" of Russian revolutionaries, especially the Bolsheviks - focuses on the perspectives of Vladimir Mayakovsky. Part 1 described the basic theoretical approach: an alternative definition of the utopian imagination developed after 1917 in the work of Ernst Bloch, Walter Benjamin, Theodor Adorno, and others. In brief, this sees utopia as a critical analysis of conventional constructions of reality, time, and the possible: as a critical negation of that which merely is in the name of what should be, as a radical challenge to assumptions about what is possible and impossible in the present, as a vision of time and history as containing the possibility of an explosive "leap in the open air of history" (Benjamin). Utopian consciousness breaks into the normativized world of knowledge and expectations about reality and possibility in history to reveal the new and unexpected. This is utopia as radical epistemology, hermeneutics, and praxis. This article focuses on Vladimir Mayakovsky (the previous articles discussed Alexandra Kollontai and Lev Trotsky). Mayakovsky's poetry visualized both the oppressive darkness of the lived present and a world of possibility greater than the normativized reality of his own time. He offered a counterreality of "Vladimir Mayakovsky" as utopian antithesis to the merely factual reality of the present. He explored the conventional linear temporality of the world as given and the possibility of an explosive leap into the future. Time was particularly important for Mayakovsky's poetic thought and is a central theme in all utopian thought. Like Kollontai and Trotsky, Mayakovsky's utopian impulse collided with the stubbornness of the present, with the tenacious force of necessity. But the focus in all three articles has been on the spirit that led them to attempt to leap into the clear, free, and unpredictable open air of history. This utopian impulse was central to the experience of the Russian revolution for so many. We must recognize their utopian "leap" even as we acknowledge the dystopian and catastrophic landing.

AB - This article - the third part of a three-part series that reinterprets the "utopianism" of Russian revolutionaries, especially the Bolsheviks - focuses on the perspectives of Vladimir Mayakovsky. Part 1 described the basic theoretical approach: an alternative definition of the utopian imagination developed after 1917 in the work of Ernst Bloch, Walter Benjamin, Theodor Adorno, and others. In brief, this sees utopia as a critical analysis of conventional constructions of reality, time, and the possible: as a critical negation of that which merely is in the name of what should be, as a radical challenge to assumptions about what is possible and impossible in the present, as a vision of time and history as containing the possibility of an explosive "leap in the open air of history" (Benjamin). Utopian consciousness breaks into the normativized world of knowledge and expectations about reality and possibility in history to reveal the new and unexpected. This is utopia as radical epistemology, hermeneutics, and praxis. This article focuses on Vladimir Mayakovsky (the previous articles discussed Alexandra Kollontai and Lev Trotsky). Mayakovsky's poetry visualized both the oppressive darkness of the lived present and a world of possibility greater than the normativized reality of his own time. He offered a counterreality of "Vladimir Mayakovsky" as utopian antithesis to the merely factual reality of the present. He explored the conventional linear temporality of the world as given and the possibility of an explosive leap into the future. Time was particularly important for Mayakovsky's poetic thought and is a central theme in all utopian thought. Like Kollontai and Trotsky, Mayakovsky's utopian impulse collided with the stubbornness of the present, with the tenacious force of necessity. But the focus in all three articles has been on the spirit that led them to attempt to leap into the clear, free, and unpredictable open air of history. This utopian impulse was central to the experience of the Russian revolution for so many. We must recognize their utopian "leap" even as we acknowledge the dystopian and catastrophic landing.


Vladimir Mayakovsky (1893-1930)

On July 19 1893 (July 7 on the Old Style Julian calendar) Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky, the great Russian poet, was born. Here’s Mayakovsky reading “An Extraordinary Adventure Which Happened To Me, Vladimir Mayakovsky, One Summer In The Country” (the English translation, along with several other Mayakovsky translations, may be found here). And here’s a shorter piece (in English translation: “And Could You?”). A recording of Mayakovsky’s great poem “At The Top of My Voice”, originally attributed to him, but now thought not to be him, is available here (Allen particularly admired this poem. As he declared in a NAROPA class on Mayakovsky and Russian “expansive” poetry, in July of 1981: “That piece that begins: “My verse will reach/ over the peaks of eras/ far over the heads/ of poets and governments”..that’s really one of the most powerful, heroic statements in the 20th century as prophecy – “My verse will reach…”

”So the title is “At The Top of My Voice”. So you’ve got to also dig it as, not merely wanting to address posterity (as (Percy Bysshe) Shelley did – “scatter my words, ashes and sparks among mankind” [Editorial notefrom the closing lines of “Ode To The West Wind” – actually, “Scatter, as from an unextinguish’d hearth/Ashes and sparks, my words among mankind”], but, also, he’s got to speak over the heads of the political critics and over the ring of iron that was beginning to slowly close around (him)”.

“I thought the reason for this course is (was) heroic, expansive poetry, and the touchstone poems, or highlight poems, that I had in mind were (Guillaume) Apollinaire’s “Zone”, (Federico Garcia) Lorca’s “Ode To Walt Whitman”… (Ezra) Pound’s “Usura Canto” (Canto XLV), which I think we went over, and this poem, which is both tragic and heroic at the same time.”

Ginsberg’s class (available as an audio document here) was taught in collaboration with Russian Futurist (and Beats) scholar, Ann Charters (her book, written in collaboration with her husband, Sam, I Love – The Story of Vladimir Mayakovsky and Lili Brik had been published just two years earlier – Brik’s readings of two of her lover’s poems, “From Street To Street” and “The Fop’s Blouse”, (giving their titles their English translations), can be heard here and here

Allen again: “We think about Mayakovsky and the perspective in which we hold him of course is the perspective of (Anna) Akhmatova, basically, which is after the realization of the Gulags – (Aleksandr) Solzhenitsyn’s account of the forced labor camp system which sent 20,000,000 people to their deaths. We’re trying to get our minds back, however, to remember Mayakovsky was writing his poems in, for example, 1920, 1922, before all of this, while (Vladimir Ilyich) Lenin was still alive. And he didn’t have the sense of failure in the revolution, to the extent that Akhmatova did, obviously because historical events had not yet moved on.”
“But, yes, remember the two voices speaking for the Russian people – Mayakovsky’s first, and then Akhmatova.”

“Mayakovsky’s elegy on the suicide of Esenin – “In this life it’s not difficult to die. To/ make life is more difficult by far”. So he reverses Esenin’s couplet – “In this life to die is nothing new. But of course to live is nothing newer”. I don’t know which was smarter. Actually, Esenin’s in a way..”


Vladimir Mayakovsky - History

Vladimir Myakovsky began writing poetry in one of the most tumultuous eras in modern history, the second decade of the twentieth century in Russia. When the revolutionary upheaval overthrew the Czar and established the U.S.S.R., Mayakovsky was among the strongest supporters of the Bolsheviks. A propagandist and visual artist, he was also one of the most radical and influential of modern poets. A new society seemed to demand a new voice, a new language, a new role for the poet: and Mayakovsky answered this demand. His poetry pushes at the borders of what was possible, and often transgresses those borders. Emotional, theatrical, sometimes rhetorical, Mayakovsky creates lyrics which are as likely to be shaped by wit as by anger, to celebrate life as to argue against its injustices. If there were to be a paradigm, and icon, of revolutionary poetry in the twentieth century, Mayakovsky would be it.

Vladimir Mayakovsky was the pre-eminent poet of the Russian Revolution and its immediate aftermath. Revolutionary in temperament — both in art and in politics — he was drawn to exploring new forms, taking new poetic postures, and building links between art and politics.

Mayakovsky was one of the small handful of artists, along with Baudelaire and Apollinaire, who defined what the avant-garde could be: experimental, transgressive, over the top at times. His energy is unparalleled, his exploration of new forms seldom matched. Because he wrote for a mass audience — he was a hero to the Russian people during and after the Russian Revolution — his poetry is accessible in a way that many other ‘modern’ poets are not. By turns introspective, witty, fantastical, self-dramatizing, satiric and hilarious, Mayakovsky is a pleasure to read, and one of the great ‘undiscovered’ poets, though he is undiscovered only by English-speaking readers.

In the RealAudio presentation which follows, you will encounter Maykovsky’s poems:

How I Became a Dog
On Being Kind to Horses
Sina
Order Number Two to the Army of the Arts
In Re: Conferences
An Extraordinary Adventure Which Befell Vladimir Mayakovsky in a Summer Cottage
The Cloud in Trousers (sections of Parts I and IV)
At the Top of My Voice (excerpts)
It’s Already Past One

To listen to the presentation, click on this photo of Myakovsky

All the photographs are from a featured exhibition of Howard Schickler Fine Art, which you can view at: http://photoarts.com/schickler/exhibits/mayakovsky/index.html.

This entry was posted on Tuesday, November 19th, 2013 at 3:44 pm and is filed under Russian. Sellele kirjele antud vastuseid saate jälgida RSS 2.0 voo kaudu. Responses are currently closed, but you can trackback from your own site.


Biographer Bengt Jangfeldt on “the battle for Mayakovsky”

I bought Vladimir Mayakovsky‘s Luuletused in the summer of 1978, in a small Chinese bookstore in Kathmandu that specialized in propaganda. I haven’t looked at it much in the years since the dust-jacket disappeared sometime in the subsequent decades, and I wouldn’t have recognized the slim, maize-colored hardcover as the one I bought way back then, except for my Islington address scribbled on the inside front cover. It is the second edition (1976) of the book, published by the state-run Progress Publishers in Moscow – therefore, the official Soviet version of the premier poet of the Russian Revolution.

The introduction is big on hyperbole and cant – “the fight for a better future for all mankind,” “a big step forward in world art in general,” with poems that accomplish “new feats in the name of communism.” But one succinct word is missing: suicide. Mayakovsky killed himself in 1930.

It wasn’t a truth that could be missed at Bengt Jangfeldt ‘s Piggott Hall lecture on “The Battle for Mayakovsky” last Thursday, which opened with a photograph of handsome young poet dead at 36, shot through the heart – or almost shot through the heart, as the eminent Swedish biographer, who is perhaps the world’s foremost expert on Mayakovsky, put it, “he missed a little because he was left-handed.” The face is in unearthly repose, the lips parted slightly – it resembles Jacques-Louis David ‘s hagiographic portrait of the dead Marat , another revolutionary who met a violent end. The poet’s death was “very un-Marxist, I would say,” according to Jangfeldt, and that was an immediate problem for the Soviets.

Mayakovsky was unusual in the annals of Soviet totalitarianism: he was victimized sest he was published, and a battle for his legacy has been mounted and his biography doctored, censored, and subjected to “awful, spiteful scrutiny,” Jangfeldt said. The news of his suicide was manipulated by the state, and presented as a response to romantic disappointment – the possibility that the revolutionary poet had become disillusioned instead with the revolution, and had “no longer believed in what he wrote and hated himself,” was officially unacceptable. In a macabre sign of the times, his brain was sent to the brain institute the Soviets were intent on discovering the “materialistic basis of genius.” Mayakovsky fared embarrassingly well: his brain was 360 grams heavier than Lenin’s (we wrote about the curious and complicated history of Lenin’s brain siin ). Later accounts gloss over his dramatic finale altogether: some say simply that he died in 1930, or, as the case with the Progress book in my hand, don’t say anything at all.

By 1935, his legacy was in jeopardy. His lover Lili Brik wrote a letter to Jossif Stalin complaining of the neglect. She was summoned to the Kremlin. Stalin took action: “Mayakovsky is still the best and the most gifted poet of our Soviet epoch. Indifference to his cultural heritage is a crime. Brik’s complaints are, in my opinion, justified,” he wrote. Was it the power of a woman? Jengfeldt thinks not. “Why did Lili Brik write this letter now and not before? … Why did Stalin act with the speed of lightening?” In retrospect, it looks like something of a put-up job, a letter concocted at higher levels, possibly by Stalin himself, to trigger a series of events.

One probable motive: The Alexander Pushkin centenary was fast approaching in 1937, and preparations were well underway. Pushkin was the great poet of Russia, yes – but what could the Soviet Union offer that was comparable? Stalin’s action reversed a reputation in decline, and suddenly Mayakovsky was inescapable. “Towns, streets, boats, squares were named after him. He was forcibly introduced like the potato under Catherine the Great. His canonization occurred at a time the party was manically naming heroes.” Mayakovsky and Maxim Gorky became the gods of literature, in poetry and prose, respectively. Soviet honor was saved amid a wash of unsuccessful socialist realism – at least for awhile.

Lili Brik soldiered on through the decades, carrying the torch as her lover’s poetic reputation oscillated. His life had been as messy as his death, and the Russians liked their poets to have ideal family lives – “a poet of the revolution is not supposed to have a complicated private life,” said Jangfeldt. Moreover, Lili was Jewish, and the Communist authorities did what they could to erase her memory, championing other candidates as the “true love” – he had been unfaithful to his married lover, and there were plenty of other candidates to choose from. Brik’s character and motivations were endlessly maligned. In 1970, Jangfeldt became fascinated by the story, and translated and published some of Mayakovsky’s letters to Brik into Swedish. He took photocopies to Brik’s Moscow apartment in 1972, as a sort of carte d’entrée. He never forgot her words of greeting to him.

“Tell me, is Stockholm still a beautiful city?” she asked. She hadn’t been to Sweden since 1906, and lived in the usual Soviet time warp. It was one of those moments, Jangfeldt said, “when you feel the wings of history beating you in the face.”

Jangfeldt later published translations of 416 letters between the couple, Love Is the Heart of Everything: Correspondence between Vladimir Mayakovsky and Lili Brik, 1915-1930. “When this was published, they could never say she hadn’t existed. … This process of forced oblivion had to be stopped. I defended her place in history, nothing else.” The authorities, he said, “must respect that Mayakovsky lived with her for 15 years and he dedicated his poems to her.”

Brik died at 87 in 1978, also by her own hand. “She will always have a difficult life – even after her death,” Jangfeldt said. She missed the fall of communism, and another death for Mayakovsky.

“When communism fell, he fell, too,” said Jangfeldt, like one of the statues pulled down by crowds at the times of revolution. “People had been force-fed his poems for years” and a backlash was inevitable.

Too often, he had been seen as “a high-pitched and vulgar mouthpiece for the regime” – yet many of his poems are very good, and no more than five or six poems have created the reputation of a great poet. “It’s difficult for people today to believe that people may have been honest in believing in the revolution. I don’t think Mayakovsky was cynical,”Jangfeldt said.

The first volume of Mayakovsky collected works was published in Russia this year, out of a project score of volumes in years to come. Meanwhile, enjoy the videos below. The first has archival footage, and I think that’s Mayakovsky’s voice reading briefly about one minute in. The second shows Mayakovsky in 1918’s The Lady and the Hooligan, the only film featuring Mayakovsky that has survived in its entirety.

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Poetry Corner: Conversation with Comrade Lenin by Vladimir Mayakovsky

Vladimir Mayakovsky (1893-1930) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and came to be one of the most celebrated communist poets in the Soviet Union and internationally. He was also a talented playwright, artist and actor who used art as a medium to convey the politics and ideals of the new socialist state.

Mayakovsky was born in the small Georgian village of Bagdadi, then part of the Russian Empire and renamed after its most famous son between 1940 and 1990. He had already started working with the local Social Democrats by the time of the 1905 Revolution, joining the Bolshevik faction when he moved to Moscow a couple of years later. He did propaganda work for the party until his arrest in 1908, which resulted in an 11-month imprisonment. After imbibing culture aplenty inside prison he became one of the most visible members of the Russian artistic scene.

Mayakovsky embraced the October Revolution, putting his talents at the service of the nascent state. Although a passionate revolutionary and communist, Mayakovsky did not shy away from pointing to the faults of the young Soviet system, writing The Bedbug, a 1928 play criticising the years of the New Economic Policy while holding out hope for a communist future. He went further in The Bathhouse two years later — originally falling foul of the censors, a reworked version was critically panned.

A fiery and passionate individual to the last, Mayakovsky sadly shot himself in 1930 following a dispute with his lover, though the circumstances of his death are disputed. Mayakovsky’s funeral on 17 April 1930, was attended by around 150,000 people, the third largest event of public mourning in Soviet history, surpassed only by those of Lenin and Stalin.

Vladimir Mayakovsky, 1893 – 1930

Awhirl with events,
packed with jobs one too many,
the day slowly sinks
as the night shadows fall.
There are two in the room:
Mina
and Lenin-
a photograph
on the whiteness of wall.

The stubble slides upward
above his lip
as his mouth
jerks open in speech.
The tense
creases of brow
hold thought
in their grip,
immense brow
matched by thought immense.
A forest of flags,
raised-up hands thick as grass…
Thousands are marching
beneath him…
Transported,
alight with joy,
I rise from my place,
eager to see him,
hail him,
report to him!
“Comrade Lenin,
I report to you –
(not a dictate of office,
the heart’s prompting alone)

This hellish work
that we’re out to do

will be done
and is already being done.
We feed and we clothe
and give light to the needy,

the quotas
for coal
and for iron
fulfill,
but there is
any amount
of bleeding
muck
and rubbish
around us still.

Without you,
there’s many
have got out of hand,

all the sparring
and squabbling
does one in.
There’s scum
in plenty
hounding our land,

outside the borders
and also
within.

Try to
count ’em
ja
tab ’em –
it’s no go,

there’s all kinds,
and they’re
thick as nettles:
kulaks,
red tapists,
and,
down the row,
drunkards,
sectarians,
lickspittles.
They strut around
proudly
as peacocks,
badges and fountain pens
studding their chests.
We’ll lick the lot of ’em-
aga
to lick ’em
is no easy job
at the very best.
On snow-covered lands
and on stubbly fields,
in smoky plants
and on factory sites,
with you in our hearts,
Comrade Lenin,
we build,
we think,
we breathe,
we live,
and we fight!”
Awhirl with events,
packed with jobs one too many,
the day slowly sinks
as the night shadows fall.
There are two in the room:
Mina
and Lenin –
a photograph
on the whiteness of wall.


Vladimir Maiakovski

S-a născut la 19 iulie 1893 în satul georgian Bagdadi care mai târziu în onoarea sa a fost numit Maiakovski. Tânărul Maiakovski încă din copilărie s-a obișnuit să respecte pe cei care muncesc, indiferent dacă erau de aceeași naționalitate cu el, sau de alta. Tatăl poetului, Vladimir Konstantinovici Maiakovski, a lucrat timp de 17 ani la Bagdadi, ca brigadier silvic, prin cinstea și iscusința sa precum și prin ideile lui democratice, atitudinea prietenoasă în relațiile cu cei din jur, și-a câștigat respectul și dragostea țăranilor localnici. „Din copilărie am înțeles limpede — își amintește sora poetului, Ludmila Vladimirovna Maiakovski — că munca este baza vieții. Familia noastră avea un mare respect pentru muncă. Dragostea pentru muncă, înțelegerea înaltei ei meniri, ne-a fost sădită și cultivată în suflet de părinți prin pilda lor".

În 1902 Maiakovski se înscrie la școala din Kutais unde va studia până în 1906 când tatăl său moare de septicemie. Astfel în 1906 se mută la Moscova împreună cu mama și cele două surori mai mari Olga și Ludmila unde-și va termina studiile până în 1908. În același an se înscrie în Partidul Social Democrat Rusesc și începe să scrie literatură marxistă. În 1909 este închis 6 luni pentru activități subversive. După eliberare abandonează politica pentru o perioadă și se înscrie la Școala de Arte din Moscova (singura instituție de învățământ superior în care studenții erau primiți fără a prezenta „certificatul de bună purtare" eliberat de poliție). Îndoindu-se de capacitățile sale de poet, el s-a avântat cu toată energia tinereții spre pictură. Succesele lui Maiakovski, în special în desen, au fost excepționale. Dacă ș-ar fi dorit, ar fi putut deveni pictor. Dar încă din 1911, el se întoarce de data aceasta definitiv, la vechea lui pasiune, poezia. Tot în 1911 îl cunoaște pe David Burliuk pe care în autobiografia sa IA SAM (Eu însumi) îl numește “adevăratul meu profesor”. În 1912 debutează în almanahul O palmă gustului public cu poeziile Noci (Noaptea) și Utro (Dimineața), semnând totodată și manifestul colectiv al noii mișcări futuriste (întreaga creație maiakovskiană va purta urmele acestei orientări). În 1913 apare VLADIMIR MAIAKOVSKI: TRAGEDIIA ( Tragedia Vladimir Maiakovski) pusă în scenă la Moscova.

În 1915 o cunoaște pe cea care avea sa devină iubirea vieții sale Lili Brik (soția lui Osip Brik, editorul și colaboratorul său literar) cu care începe o aventură ce va dura până în 1928. Tot în 1915 scrie și publică OBLAKO V SHTANAKH (Norul cu pantaloni) și FLEYTA POZVONOCHNIK (Flautul vertebrelor). Norul cu pantaloni - dedicat Liliei Brik - este una din operele sale programatice, poem „în patru strigate”- „Jos cu iubirea voastră”, „Jos cu arta voastră”, „Jos cu orânduirea voastră”, „Jos cu religia voastră” . Încheie anii premergători apropiatei revoluții cu Voina i Mir (Războiul si lumea) - o reacție la ororile războiului și Chelovek (Omul) - impresionat cosmic de zădărnicia dragostei. Între anii 1915 și 1917 a lucrat ca proiectant pentru Școala Militară de automobile din Petrograd.

În 1918 a fost editor al revistei Gazeta futuristov. În 1919 se întoarce la Moscova unde atmosfera agitată a revoluției rusești îl inspiră să scrie poeme populare - încurajatoare pentru bolșevici. Din 1919 până în 1921 scrie piese scurte de propagandă pentru cunoscutele Vitrine Rosta. În 1923 ca urmare a unor neînțelegeri cu Lili Brik pleacă într-o călătorie la Berlin și Paris unde scrie poemul liric PRO ETO (Despre asta) . Aici are o idilă cu Tatyana Jakovleva în vârsta de 18 ani, prietenă a scriitoarei Elsa Triolet stabilită în Franța din 1918. Întors la Moscova întemeiază împreună cu Osip Brik în 1923 gruparea literară dadaistică LEF (Levii front iskusstva – Frontul de stânga al artei) pe care o va conduce până în 1928, unde va publica Pro Eto. În 1924 scrie elegia morții lui Vladimir Lenin care-l va face cunoscut în toată Rusia. Călătorește în Europa, Statele Unite, Mexic, Cuba Maiakovski fiind unul din puținii scriitori cărora li s-a pe permis sa călătorească liberi în străinătate.

Frustrat în dragoste, îndepărtat de societatea sovietică, atacat de critici în presă și interzicându-i-se să mai călătorească în străinătate Maiakoski se sinucide la Moscova pe 14 aprilie 1930.

Deși cu putini ani în urmă condamna, într-un poem, sinuciderea lui Serghei Esenin, la un cenaclu în 1929 îi spune unui prieten: „Pentru a scrie un poem excelent și pentru a putea fi citit aici - acela trebuie să moară." În biletul lui de adio Maiakovski scria:”Mama, surori, prieteni, iertați-mă - nu este bine (nu recomand altora), dar pentru mine nu se poate altfel. / Lili – iubește-mă. ” Trupul său a fost incinerat pe data de 17 aprilie 1930 Mai târziu Maiakovski a fost elogiat de Stalin care declara că este “cel mai bun și talentat poet al epocii noastre sovietice” În 1935 a fost ridicată statuia lui Maiakovski în Piața Triumfalnaya Ploshad –aceasta devenind loc semnificativ pentru cultura moscovită.

Lirica sa este impetuoasă și transpune în plan universal revolta sa individuală antiburgheză. Se remarcă structura formală dinamică, abruptă, construcția surprinzătoare a ritmului, apelul la oralitate și la asociații metaforice sugestive.

Dacă la început a fost influențat de futurism, ulterior a evoluat spre o lirică militantă, dominată de concepția sa estetică, bazată pe ideea angajamentului social și astfel scrierile sale devine dedicate acțiunii, mișcării, vieții revoluționare. A scris și teatru satiric de o deosebită virulență, în care predomină stilul publicistic.

    : Ночь ("Noaptea") : Утро ("Dimineața") POSHCHOCHINA OBSHCHESTVENNOMU VKUSU (O palma gustului public) : Владимир Маяковский ("Vladimir Maiakovski"), tragedie : Облако в штанах, Oblako v ștanah ("Norul cu pantaloni") : Флейта-позвоночник, Fleita-pozvonočnik ("Flautul vertebrelor") PROSTAE KAK MYCHANIE VOINA I MIR, (Războiul si lumea) Человек, Celovek ("Omul") ODA REVOLYUTSI (Oda revoluției) /1921: Мистерия Буфф, Misteria buff ("Comediile Misterul buf") POET ROBOCII (Poetul muncitor) : Левый марш (Матросам), Levii marș (Matrozam) ("Marșul de stânga (Matrozii)") 150.000.000, poem Люблю, Liubliu ("Iubesc"), poem : Как работает республика демократическая?, Kak rabotaet respublika demokraticeskaia? ("Cine făurește o republică democrată?") : (Париж (Разговорчики с Эйфелевой башней), Parij (Razgovorčiki c Eifelevoi bajnei) ("Paris, Convorbiri cu Turnul Eiffel") Про это, Pro eto ("Despre asta") LIRIKA VLADIMIR ILYITSH LENIN Maiakovski si poeziile sale -1925 PARIZ: Владимир Ильич Ленин ("Vladimie Ilici Lenin") SOBRANIE SOCHINENII (4 kd) Как д Kak delat stihi ("Cum se fac versurile?"): Мое открытие Америки, Moe otkrtie Ameriki ("Descoperirea mea, Ameerika") Хорошо !, Horoșo ("Foarte bine!"): Письмо Татьяне Яковлевой, Pismo Tatjana Iakovlevoi ("Scaryoare către Tatiana Iakovlevna") KON-OGON: Клоп, Klop ("Ploșnița") Баня, Bania ("Baia") VO VES GOLOS (În gura mare) -1938 POLNOE SOBRANIE SOCHINENII, (13 kd) SEMYA MAIAKOVSKII V PISMAKH V.V. MAIAKOVSKII I. L.IU. BRIK - korrespondent Vladimir Maiakovski ja Lili Brik intre anii 1915-1930

Maiakovski a condus revistele Krokodil, Lef, Novti.

„See on kaasaegne ja XX-lea-aegne looming, mille loomine on maiakovskian-erootiline, traagiline ja satiiriline-see on retseptiga, mis on esitatud ja originaalne. Luuletaja al revoluției, luuletaja, poliitiline prints excelență, Maiakovski ja influenzaat hotărâtor evoluția poeziei kaasaegsed. ”


Vaata videot: Vladimir Majakovski, Passport (Mai 2022).


Kommentaarid:

  1. Maunfeld

    suurepärane idee

  2. Reuel

    I apologise, but it does not approach me.

  3. Shakahn

    Autor, kas olete Moskvast mingil juhul?

  4. Eliazar

    Sorry, but this option does not suit me. Kes veel oskab soovitada?

  5. Faegor

    Minu arvates pole teil õigus. Olen kindel. Soovitan sellel arutada. Kirjutage mulle PM -is, me räägime.

  6. Fenricage

    Pole halb teema

  7. Tenos

    Thank you for answering all the questions. Actually, I learned a lot of new things. It's just that I haven't figured out what and where to the end.



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