Ajalugu Podcastid

Ida TBM-1 Avenger

Ida TBM-1 Avenger

Ida TBM-1 Avenger

Ida TBM-1 Avenger oli selle õhusõiduki esimene versioon, mille tootis General Motorsi Ida-lennukite osakond, ja seda toodeti rohkem kui Grumman TBF-1.

Avengeri (ja Wildcati) tootmiseks General Motorsiga tehti palju vaeva. Pärast Ameerika sisenemist Teisse maailmasõja lõpetas General Motors autotootmise kõigis viies suures autotehases ja hakkas otsima lepinguid lennukite varuosade tootmiseks. Mereväel ja Grummanil oli ambitsioonikam idee, selle asemel tahtsid nad kasutamata tehastes avada tootmisliinid tervetele õhusõidukitele. Viiest tehasest kolme kasutataks Wildcati ja Avengeri osade ja alakoostude tootmiseks, GM-i Lindoni New Jersey tehas aga valminud FM-1 Wildcats'i ja nende Trenton, New Jersey toodaks TBM-1 Avengerit. Vastloodud lennukitootjast sai GM idalennukite osakond.

Easternile anti kümme täiskomplekti Avengeri alakoostusid ja hulk lennukeid, mis olid neetide asemel ehitatud Parker-Kalon (PK) kinnitusdetailidega. Neid saab soovi korral eemaldada ja asendada, võimaldades näidislennukit korduvalt demonteerida ja kokku panna.

Pärast esimesi kohtumisi 1942. aasta kevadel allkirjastati tootmisleping 23. märtsil 1942. Esimene täielik TBM-1, mis ehitati Grummani ehitatud alakoostudest, tarniti novembris 1942, millele järgnes veel kaks detsembris. 1943. aasta alguses hakkas Ida kokku panema oma koostest valmistatud õhusõidukeid ja märtsis 1943 tarniti kolmkümmend üks lennukit. Pärast seda toodeti kiiresti, juunis 75, juulis 100, novembris 1943 215 ja märtsis 400 1945. Viimased Grummani kättemaksjad ehitati detsembris 1943, jättes Ida kahe viimase sõja aasta ainsaks tootjaks.

Ajavahemikus 1942. aasta novembrist kuni sõja lõpuni ehitas Ida kokku 7546 kättemaksjat, mis moodustas kolmveerand koguarvust. Nendest lennukitest oli 550 TBM-1 ja 2332 TBM-1C, kokku 2882 lennukit.

Esimesed 550 lennukit liinilt olid TBF-1 täpsed koopiad, mis olid tähistatud TBM-1-ga ja millel oli sama .30-tolline püstol. Neile järgnesid 2332 TBM-1C, mis olid identsed Grummani TBF-1C-ga. 334 -1C astusid Fleet Air Arm teenistusse Tarpon II/ Avenger II.

TBM-1 Avenger

TBM-1 Avenger oli identne Grummani ehitatud TBF-1-ga. Neid kahte tüüpi võiks eristada mõned sisemised värvivärvid, kusjuures Ida ei kasutanud Grummani enda värve, vastasel juhul eraldasid need ainult büroonumbrid.

TBM-1C Avenger

TBM-1C oli identne TBF-1C-ga, relvastatud kahe 0,50-tollise kuulipildujaga tiivas .30-tollise püstoli asemel TBM-1 korpuses.

TBM-1CP

TBM-1CP oli trimetrogeenikaameraga varustatud fotograafiline luurelennuk, mis on võimeline tegema ühe kaadriga panoraampilte, mis levivad horisondist horisondi.

TBM-1D

TBM-1D oli ööpommitaja, mis oli toodetud standardse TBM-1 või -1C komplekti paigaldatud ASD-1 (õhuotsinguradar) abil. Radarit kanti parema tiiva esiservale paigaldatud kaunas. Nendel -1C -st ümberehitatud õhusõidukitel eemaldati tiibrelvad, teised relvad eemaldati mõnikord kaalu säästmiseks. -1D -d kasutati öölennukite juhtlennukina, õhutranspordi varajase hoiatamise ülesannetes ja allveelaevade vastastes patrullides.

TBF -1E/ -3E

Väikesele arvule TBM-1-dele anti täiendav radariseade ja tähis TBM-1E.

TBM-1J

TBM-1J muudeti Arktika tingimuste jaoks, saades kõikidele esiservadele jäätõrjejalatsid ja lisakütteseadmed. BuNo.06031 muudeti selle standardiks.

TBM-1L

TBM-1L kandis pommilahes sissetõmmatavat prožektorit ja seda kasutati allveelaevade vastases sõjas ja õhu-mere päästetöödel.

TBM-1P

Määratlus on antud vähestele fotode tutvustuskonversioonidele -1 või -1C.


TBF Avenger, USA vedaja Torpeedopommitaja

-1C lisas 2 0,50 kuulipildujat (tiiba) ja riiulid kaheksa 30 kg kaaluva raketi jaoks. Samuti lisati liitmikud 1 275 galloni (1041 l) pommilahtri paagi ja 2 58 galloni (220 l) tiivapaakide jaoks, mille praamikütuse kogumaht on 2748 liitrit ja parvlaevaulatus 3758 km .

-3-l oli radar ja R-2800-20 mootor, mille võimsus oli 1900 hj (1417 kW), mis tõstis teeninduse ülemmäära 27 100 '(8230 m) -ni.

-3P oli fotoretsessiooni versioon, mille kaamerad olid paigaldatud pommiruumi

-3W oli CADILLACi mudelinumber, mis toodeti tootmisse 1943-3, kuid mille üleandmise ajal käisid veel välikatsetused.


TBF Avenger tegi oma võitlusdebüüdi Midway lahingus, kus Midway saarelt alustati kuue TBF -i streiki. Ainult üks tuli tagasi, puruks lastud, püssimees surnud ja raadiomees haavatud. Enamik TBF -i poolt läbiviidud missioone olid palju edukamad, see tüüp osutus sõja kõige paindlikumaks kandepommitajaks. See võib pakkuda torpeedosid või kasutada horisontaalseks pommitamiseks ning avastati, et see on üllatavalt tõhus libisemispommitaja. Nagu kõik Grummani lennukid, oli see väga vastupidav. Erinevalt eelkäijast, TBD Devastatorist, oli sellel sisemine torpeedolaht, mis vähendas oluliselt takistust.

Esimene tootmistellimus, 286 lennukit, esitati 1940. aasta detsembris, isegi enne esimese prototüübi lendamist 7. augustil 1941. See peegeldas nii rahulolematust oma eelkäija, TBD Devastatori, kui ka Devastatorsi puudust. Aasta juuniks oli toodetud 130 ja alles 40 olid veel töövalmis. Merevägi oli taotlenud konstruktsiooni tippkiirusega 300 miili tunnis (483 km/h), sisemist torpeedolahte ja vahemikku 3000 miili (4800 km), kuid Grumman suutis sõita vaid 275 miili tunnis. Merevägi otsustas, et seda tuleb teha, ja ainus suurem muudatus TBF -i prototüübis oli seljauime lisamine stabiilsuse tagamiseks.

Pärast esimese 2290 lennuki ehitamist andis Grumman tootmise üle General Motorsile, et keskenduda F6F Hellcatile, ja General Motorsi Ida -lennukite divisjon tootis veel 7546 Avengersit kui TBM. Mõni varajase tootmise TBM kannatas tiibade struktuurse rikke tõttu ja lõpuks leiti see neetide ümberpaigutamisest tootmise kiirendamiseks, mis tahtmatult vähendas tiiva tugevust. Üldiselt oli Grummani lennundustehniliste teadmiste ja General Motori masstootmise tehnikate kombinatsioon siiski edukas partnerlus.

Katsed Avengeri kui liugpommitajaga viidi läbi 1942. aasta juulis, võib -olla seetõttu, et merevägi oli pettunud Nordeni pommipilduja abil tehtud horisontaalse pommitamise täpsuses. Avastati, et Avenger võib sukelduda 6500 '(1980 m) nurga alt 45-60 kraadini, visata oma pommi 760 m (2500') kaugusele ja jõuda 12 m kaugusele liikuvast sihtmärgist. Selle suhteliselt madala sukeldumise jaoks ei olnud vaja pommiparket, nagu seda kasutati sukeldumispommitajates. Kuna Avenger ei olnud algselt mõeldud liugpommitamiseks, tuli Avenger aeg -ajalt purilennupommirünnaku ajal laiali ja on teateid, et mõned meeskonnad üritasid seda ohtu vähendada, lastes alla teliku, et see toimiks omamoodi sukeldumispidurina. Hiljem toodetud õhusõidukeid tugevdati mõnes kriitilises punktis ja varustati kiirendusmõõturitega, mis hoiatasid piloote, kui lennuk hakkas ümbrikku suruma, kuid tõeline Avengeri libiseva pommitaja versioon, mis kasutab ülitugevaid sulameid ja tugevdatud tiivahingesid, TBM-4 ei jõua tootmisse enne sõja lõppu.

Arvestades Avengeri tõhusust liugpommitajana, kaalus merevägi Nordeni pommipildu ära viskamist, kuid kõhkles loobumast Avengeri horisontaalsest pommitusvõimest. 1944. aastaks oli selge, et Avenger oli horisontaalse pommitaja rinnapartii ja et enamik meeskondi kasutas Nordeni ainult autopiloodina. Nordeni hakati sel aastal asendama tavalise autopiloodiga.

Märtsis 1943 hakkasid kättemaksjad lendama miinide ladumise missioone Saalomoni keskosas. Avengersit kasutati lõpuks laialdaselt miinide paigutamiseks Jaapani sadamates kogu Vaikse ookeani piirkonnas. Mõnel juhul kaevandati sadamaid vaikselt vahetult enne üldisemat õhu- või pinnarünnakut, et hävitada sadamast põgenev laevandus.

Alates 1943. aasta lõpust alustas USA merevägi öiseid lahingulennupatrulle, mis koosnesid radariga varustatud Avengerist, millega kaasnes paar tavalist Hellcatsi, kusjuures Avenger tegutses õhutõrjejuhina, et suunata oma võitlejad vaenlasele. See nõudis üsna hoolikat koordineerimist. Sõja hilisemal ajal töötati välja radar, mis oli piisavalt väike ja lihtne, et seda saaks kasutada ühekohalistest hävitajatest, vabastades kättemaksjad vaenlase sõjalaevade otsimiseks.

Sõja lõpuks koosnes tüüpiline Ameerika kerge lennuettevõtja või saatjalennukirühm täielikult hävitajatest ja kättemaksjatest, kusjuures Avengers moodustas saatekandjate lennukigruppides umbes kolmandiku ja kergkandjatel umbes neljandiku lennukitest. . Laevastikukandjad kandsid end tõrjumiseks üha rohkem võitlejaid kamikaze rünnak, kusjuures üks eskadrill (umbes 15 lennukit) on igaüks Avengers ja sukeldumispommitajad. Peaaegu kogu Avengeri toodang läks Vaiksesse ookeani.

Britid said Lend-Lease'ina 402 ja Uus-Meremaa 63. Lennuk jätkas sõjajärgset teenistust, kuningliku mereväe laevastiku õhuvägi kasutas veel 1953. aastal allveelaevade vastase lennukina 100 kättemaksjat.


Ida TBM -1 Avenger - ajalugu

Lennukite ajalugu
Ehitanud General Motors, Ida lennundusdivisjon. Tarniti Ameerika Ühendriikide mereväele (USN) TBM-1C Avengeri büroo numbriga 45810.

Sõjaaja ajalugu
Määratud USS San Jacinto (CVL-30) juurde Torpeedo-eskaadrisse 51 (VT-51). Pole teada hüüdnime, nina kunsti ega eskadroni numbrit.

Missiooni ajalugu
27. juulil 1944 kell 8.30 tõusis õhust USS San Jacinto (CVL-30), mida juhtis leitnant Ronald R. Houle "Operatsiooni hetktõmmise" ajal, relvastatud nelja 500-naelase pommiga, mis viis nelja kättemaksja koosseisu pommitamisel ladude vastu, laohooned Palakal Malakali saarel (Ngemelachel) (sihtpiirkonnad 43,1-37,9 kuni 43,3-38). See koosseis hõlmas ka kaheksat F6F Hellcat VF-51 pluss kandelennukit USS Bunker Hillist (CV-17), sealhulgas kaheksa SB2C Helldiverit VB-8-st ja kaheksat F6F Hellcatit VF-8-st ja kaheksat TBM Avengersi.

Moodustus lähenes sihtpiirkonnale kagust 9000 'kõrgusel, kui Arorumaldoni saarest lõuna pool täheldati laeva. Laeva märgates pöördus leitnant Houle lõunasse ja tungis üle liugpommitamise, kuid märkas VT-8 kättemaksjaid juba sukeldudes ja katkestas rünnaku põhja poole, kuni Arakabesani saarest (Ngerekebesang) loodesse. õigus rünnata Malakali saart.

Ülejäänud lennu eel alustas leitnant Houle üksi liugpommitusrünnakut 7000 'kaugusel loodest kagusse, ülejäänud kolm lennukit jäid umbes 3-5 miili kaugusele, kui nad viimati teda sukeldumisel üleval või loodes jälgisid. Malakali saarel 4000 pilve kõrval. Seda Avengerit ei nähtud enam kunagi ja kui see ei tulnud tagasi, kanti see teadmata põhjustel ametlikult kadunuks (MIA).

Kui ülejäänud kolm lennukit sukeldumistesse sisenesid, märkasid nad avatud langevarju, mille all rippus keegi laskumas Malakali sadamasse umbes 200 jardi kagust kagus. Samaaegselt märgati vee kohal mitusada jardi lõuna pool tulekahju, võib -olla kukkus lennuk. Kui ülejäänud kolm lennukit sukeldumisest välja tõmbusid, märkasid nad ruudukujuliste tiivaotstega lennukit (võib-olla Avenger) 6–8 miili kaugusel Malakali kõrgusest. Hiljem täheldas teine ​​lend ruudukujulist tiivaotsaga lennukit, mis kukkus madalas vees otse välise rifi sisse 8-10 miili Malakali saarest lääne poole. Tol ajal puudus teave, et teha kindlaks, kas kumbki neist nähtustest oli seotud selle Avengeri kaotusega. Kui see lennuk ei tulnud tagasi, kanti see ametlikult kadunud tegevuses (MIA).

Meeskonna saatused
Tegelikult lendas Avenger pärast pommi vabastamist madalalt sihtmärgi kohal, plahvatus õhusõidukit ja põhjustas selle merre kukkumise. Piloot jäi ellu, samal ajal kui laskur ja raadiooperaator õnnetuses hukkusid. Piloot Houle pääses sellest Avengerist enne selle kukkumist välja, kuid tema saatus on teadmata.

Vrakk
See Avenger kukkus Malakali saare lähedal Malakali sadamasse.

24. märtsil 2014 asus selle Avengeri õnnetuspaigas umbes 100 'sügavusel Project Recoveri meeskond, kuhu kuulusid Bent Prop pluss töötajad ja Scripps'i okeanograafiainstituudi üliõpilased, sealhulgas dr Eric Terrill ja Delaware'i ülikool . Õnnetuspaigas on liivane põhi, mis on kaetud pehme koralliga. Üks propelleri labadest on püsti ja painutamata ning täheldati puutumatut pitotoru vasakut tiiba.

Neli päeva hiljem leidsid nad ka F6F Hellcat 41881 vrakid. 31. märtsil 2014 viidi õnnetuskoha kohal läbi USA ja Palau lippudega liputseremoonia.

Jäänuste taastamine
2014. aasta aprillis viis ühine sõjavangide/MIA raamatupidamise juhtkonna (JPAC) meeskond läbi oma uurimise. 20. aprillil 2014 tegi Avengeri õnnetuspaigas dokumentatsiooni sukeldumine sonari ja fotograafia abil.

Veebruaris 2018 võttis USA merevägi ühendust Kozaki vennatütrega, et saada DNA -proov, mis võimaldaks kontrollida, kas lennuki tükkidest leitud jäänused on DNA POW/MIA raamatupidamisagentuuri (DPAA) poolt testitud.

25. juulil 2018 teatas kaitseministeerium (DoD), et raadiooperaator Walter E. Mintus on arvel.

Mälestusmärgid
Kolm meeskonda kuulutati ametlikult surnuks 4. veebruaril 1946. Kõik kolm said postuumselt lilla südame. Kõik kolm on mälestatud Manila Ameerika kalmistul kadunute tahvlitel.

Houle'il on ka mälestusmärk Fort Snellingi rahvuskalmistul jaotises MA, sait 28-2.

Ingramil on ka mälestusmärk Barrancas rahvuskalmistul jaotises 36, saidil 2778.

Mintus maeti 2018. aasta novembris Portage'i osariigis Püha Südame kalmistule.

Sugulased
Rikas Kozak (Mintuse vennapoeg)
Caroline Kozak (Mintuse õde)
Agnes Phillips (Mintuse õde)

Viited
Mereväe seerianumbri otsingutulemused - TBM -1C Avenger 45810
USN ülemerelennukite kaotuste nimekiri juuli 1944-TBM-1C 45810 VT-51 USS San Jacinto (CVL-30)
NARA & quot; VT-51 ACA aruanded #1 kuni #8-Lennuoperatsioonid Palau saarte vastu, periood 7/25-27/44 & quot; leheküljed 22-25
NARA & quot; Sõjaajalugu, 5/3/44 kuni 15/8/45 Lisa -6 In Memoriam - kadunud tegevuses & quot; lehekülg 87
& quot; Houle, Roland R. Lietu. 7-27-44
Ingram, Otis E. ACOM 7-27-44
Mintus, Walter E. ARM3c 7-27-44 & quot
Ameerika lahingumälestiste komisjon (ABMC) - Roland R. Houle
Ameerika lahingumälestiste komisjon (ABMC) - Walter E. Mintus
& quotthe Lennundusraadioni 3. klassi Walter E. Mintuse jäänuseid arvestati 2018. aastal & quot
Ameerika lahingumälestiste komisjon (ABMC) - Otis E. Ingram
& quotthe Lennundusraadioni 3. klassi Walter E. Mintuse jäänuseid arvestati 2018. aastal & quot
FindAGrave - leitnant Roland R Houle (kadunud tabletid)
FindAGrave - Lieut Roland Richard Houle (mälestusmärk)
FindAGrave - ARM3 Walter E Mintus (kadunud tabletid)
FindAGrave - Walter E “Bert” Mintus (foto, haud)
FindAGrave - ACOM Otis E Ingram (kadunud tabletid)
FindAGrave - Otis Earl Ingram (mälestusmärk)
President G. H. W. Bushi kiri 2003 Agnes Phillipsile (õde)
& quot; Teie onu läks 27. juulil 1944. aastal komandeeringusse Palau's koos Roland Eichard) Houle'iga ja nad ei tulnud enam tagasi. nad mõlemad tulistati maha. Mind tulistati 2. septembril 1944 ja kaotasin mõlemad meeskonnaliikmed, ”kirjutas Bush. „Kui ma töötasin Valges Majas, püüdsime üles leida kõik elavad VT-51 eskadroni liikmed ja surnud liikmete sugulased. kui teil on küsimusi, andke meile sellest teada. Barbara ja mina hindame teie lahkete sõnade eest meie poja (president George W. Bush) eest kõige rohkem. Palun hoidke teda ja meie vapraid vägesid oma palvetes. ”
BentProp & quot; P-MAN VII värskendus 5. märts 2005 & quot; (fotod) Waybacki kaudu 30. märtsil 2016
BentProp "P-MAN VII värskendus 15. märts 2005" (fotod) Waybacki kaudu 30. märtsil 2016
BentProp & quot-MAN VII 2005 lõpparuanne Waybacki kaudu 20. oktoobril 2010
BentProp & quot; MAN-XVI värskendus # 12-edu, TBM-stiilis! & Quot; 25. märts 2014 Waybacki kaudu 2. aprill 2016
BentProp & quot; MAN -XVI värskendus # 13 - Seani fotod suurele leiule. & Quot; 24. märts 2014 Waybacki kaudu 2. aprill 2010 legend ja teise ringi sulgemine. SEE on põhjus, miks me kunagi alla ei anna. & Quot; 26. märts 2014 Waybacki kaudu 31. märts 2016
FoxNews & quot; Grupp jahib Vaikse ookeani džungleid Teise maailmasõja võitlejate, lennukite jäänuste järele & quot; 3. aprill 2014
Joyce ütles, et rusud pärinesid General Motorsi TBM Avengerilt, kes kukkus pärast elektrijaama pommitamist ookeani alla. Lennuk lendas nii madalale, et kui pomm plahvatas, raputas plahvatus lennukit ja põhjustas lennuõnnetuse. Jaapani sõdurid võtsid piloodi kinni ja hukkasid ta kohe. Lennuki kaks teist sõitjat läksid lennukiga alla.
"Üheksa aastat tagasi näitas Palauan meile kättemaksja tiiba, mis asus sügaval mangroovisoodes," ütles BentProp & rsquos Flip Colmer Palaust otsingutest aru andes. & ldquo Mangroovipuud olid piisavalt kasvanud, et kogu tiib veest välja tõsta. Kuid muid osi ei leitud ja varasemad otsingud tulid tühjaks. "Siis ütles BentProp & rsquose sõber Paulauust meile paar aastat hiljem, et isa rääkis talle, et ta vaatas, kuidas lennuk rannikul alla kukub ja alla kukub," ütles Colmer. "Ta osutas isegi piirkonnale, kust me lõpuks lennuki leidsime."
CNET "Kuidas BentProp ja veealused robotid leidsid ammu kadunud II maailmasõja aegseid pommitajaid", 20. aprill 2014
(Foto) Hiljem samal päeval [31. märtsil 2014] viiks Scannon sarnase tseremoonia ka 1944. aastal maha lastud TBM Avengeri rusude kohal. "
Science Daily "Vaikse ookeani saartel 72 aasta jooksul kadunud II maailmasõja aegne lennuk" - 25. mai 2016
Ocean News & amp Technology & quot; Tagasipöördumine sügavusest: II maailmasõja õhusõidukid avastati Palau rannikult & quot; mai 2014
Scripps & quot; Uus tehnoloogia võimaldab ajaloolisi leide & quot; 6. november 2014
"Eelmisel kevadel leitud kahe lennuki - TBM Avenger ja F6F Hellcat - puhul oli BentProp neid otsinud ligi 10 aastat. Selleks, et näha neid rohkem kui 100 jala sügavusel, oli merepõhja pidev hägusus varjatud tavalise vaate eest, kulus REMUS-seadmele.
Science Daily "Teise maailmasõja lennumehed, kes kadusid Palau lähedal asuvates vetes", 10. november 2014
& quot; Rühmitus kitsendas oma otsingupiirkonda ja 2014. aasta märtsis leidsid AUV -d järelejäänud Avengeri pommitaja, kes oli 70 aastat tegevuses kadunud. Mõni päev hiljem aitasid sonaripildid paljastada teises kohas teise lennuki F6F Hellcat. & Quot
DPAA "Teise maailmasõja ajal tapetud meremees arvel (Mintus, W.)" 25. juuli 2018
The Times & quot; Teise maailmasõja kadunud raadiomehe perekond võib saada oma saatusele kinnituse & quot; Tom Davidson 27. märts 2018
Täname lisateabe eest Reid Joyce / Bent Prop ja Katherine Rasdorf

Andke teavet
Kas olete sugulane või seotud mõne mainitud isikuga?
Kas teil on fotosid või lisateavet lisada?


ette valmistanud Forest Garner

USA merevägi tellis maailma esimese monoplaneeritud torpeedopommitaja Douglas TBD Devastator prototüübi 1934. aastal. Esmakordselt lennatud järgmisel aastal alustati selle täiustatud õhusõiduki tootmist 1937. aastal. Twin Wasp, TBD-1 oli võimeline kiiruseks 206 miili tunnis. Lennundustehnoloogia muutus aga kiiresti ja 1939. aastaks mõistis merevägi, et jõudlust on vaja parandada. Sama aasta 25. märtsil palus merevägi töövõtjatel vastata täiustatud torpeedolennuki nõudele. See otsus oli õnnelik, sest 1942. aastaks oli TBD aegunud.

25. tuul ja takistuskiirus torpeedoga mitte üle 70 miili tunnis. Lisaks nõuti, et torpeedot või pomme tuleb kanda sees. Vastuseks sai merevägi 13 disainilahenduse ettepanekut kuuelt tootjalt. 3. novembriks 1939 oli merevägi keskendunud kahele neist disainilahendustest, millest üks oli Vought, mida toidab Pratt & amp; Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp, ja teine ​​Grummanilt, mille toiteallikaks on Wright R-2600. Kuigi merevägi teatas kavatsusest tellida iga disain, kulus lepingute sõlmimiseks kuus kuud.

Grumman sai tellimuse kahe XTBF-1 näite saamiseks 8. aprillil 1940. See oli kolmetiibiline konsoolkonstruktsioon, mille meeskond oli kolmeliikmeline. Väliselt nägi see välja nagu Grummani F4F Wildcat, kuid suurema kõhuga. TBF oli algusest peale kujundatud kokkuklapitavate tiibadega, pärast seda kujundatud voltimismehhanism on välja töötatud Martlet II ja F4F-4 Wildcat jaoks. Relvastus koosnes ühest sünkroniseeritud "50 -kaliibrilisest" (12,7 mm) Browning -kuulipildujast ülemises mootorikattes, mis tulistas läbi sõukruvi, veel ühest 50 -kaliibrilisest relvast, mis tulistati väikese tornist pika võrastiku tagumises otsas, ja ventraalsest painduvast 30 -kaliibrist (7,62 mm) kuulipilduja, mis tulistab tagurpidi pikast relvalaevast tagapool asuvast asendist. Relvalaht oli piisavalt suur, et mahutada neli 500-naelast pommi või ühte 22,4-tollist 2000-naela Mark 13 torpeedot. Nordeni pommipildi kandmiseks oli ette nähtud, kuid Avengeri piloodid leidsid, et see ei ole nii täpne kui teised sihtimismeetodid.

USA merevägi esitas kiireloomulise nõude TBD asendamiseks, kuna 30. detsembril 1940 esitati tellimus 285 TBF-1 lennukile ja ühele TBF-2-le, enam kui seitse kuud enne XTBF-1 prototüübi lennutestideks valmisolekut. Need kaks alamtüüpi erinesid selle poolest, et TBF-1 toiteallikaks oli kaheastmeline üheastmeline R-2600-8, samas kui TBF-2 pidi saama toite üheastmelisest kaheastmelisest R-2600 -10.

Prototüüp lendas 7. augustil 1941. Tuvastati mitmeid olulisi probleeme, kuid need lahendati kiiresti. TBF -i arengut ei mõjutanud oluliselt see, kui esimene prototüüp kukkus pärast lendamist 28. novembril 1941 põlema, kuna teine ​​prototüüp oli selleks ajaks peaaegu valmis.

Esimene tootmine TBF-1 valmis 3. jaanuaril 1942. TBF-1 ulatus oli veidi üle 54 jala (17 jalga tiivad kokku pandud), pikkus 40 jalga, kaalus tühjalt 10 080 naela, laaditi 13 667 naela ja Maksimaalselt 15 905 naela. 1600 hj Wright R-2600-8 jõul saavutas TBF-1 maksimaalse kiiruse 271 mph kiirusel 12 000 jalga, kuigi see sõitis rahulikult 145 miili tunnis. Sisemine kütuse maht oli 335 gallonit, andes lennuulatuse (torpeedoga) 1215 miili.

Grumman kogus 1524 näidet TBF-1-st, samas kui General Motorsi Ida-lennukite osakond ehitas 550 praktiliselt identset TBM-1.

Nimetus TBF-1B kehtis 402 kuningliku mereväe jaoks ehitatud õhusõiduki kohta, mida britid nimetasid esialgu Tarpon T.R. Mark I, kuid hiljem helistas Avenger T.R. Mark I. Briti kättemaksjaid muutis Blackburn Aircraft mõnikord Briti spetsifikatsioonidele, sealhulgas Briti hapnikusüsteemide ja relvade paigaldamiseks.

TBF-1C kustutas nina külge kinnitatud kuulipilduja ja paigaldas selle asemel igasse tiiba ühe 50-kaliibrilise relva. Selle variandi torustikus kanti kuni 391 gallonit lisakütust lisakütusepaakides. Grumman ehitas 764, GM aga 2332 oma praktiliselt identsest TBM-1C-st.

TBF-1D oli modifikatsioon TBF-1-st, mis sobitub ASD- või ASB-radariga pinna allveelaevade või pinnalaevade asukoha määramiseks.

Esimene kahest XTBF-3 prototüübist lendas 20. Grumman ei ehitanud aga ühtegi tootmist TBF-3. Selleks, et Grummani tehas saaks keskenduda kriitilise tähtsusega F6F Hellcati tootmisele, oli Avengersi tootmine täielikult General Motorsi Ida -lennukite osakonna käes, kes valmistas lennuki osi mitmes linnas ja tegi lõpliku kokkupaneku Trentonis, New Jersey. GM ehitas selle variandi, nimega TBM-3, 4657 ajavahemikus aprillist 1944 kuni augustini 1945.

TBM-3 oli vähemalt 15 varianti, sealhulgas palju modifitseeritud erinevat tüüpi pinnaotsinguradarite või õhus leviva varajase hoiatamise radari kandmiseks.

Esimeses lahingutegevuses 4. juunil 1942 Midwayl läks TBF halvasti. Kuus TBF-1 lennukit ründasid võimsa ekraaniga nelja lennukipargi lennukikandja jaapanlast Kido Butai (Striking force). Viis kättemaksjat tulistati maha ja kuues, raskelt kahjustatud, jõudis vaevu tagasi Midway saarele. See rünnak, nagu enamik sel päeval, ei saavutanud midagi. Siiski tegid Douglas SBD Dauntless sukeldumispommitajad samal päeval edukaid rünnakuid, põhjustades surmavat kahju kõigile neljale Jaapani lennuettevõtjale.

Järgnevatel kokkupõrgetel Jaapani mereväega takistas Avengerit selle esmase relva Mark 13 torpeedo ebaefektiivsus. Selle relva üldiselt halb tootmine oli tõsine probleem, kuid seda varjutasid selle paljud disainivead. See oli aeglane ja liiga habras, et vabastada kiirusi üle 130 km / h (suurenes hiljem sõjas). Kuigi see aeglane vabastuskiirus muutis TBF -i õhutõrje suhtes haavatavaks, olid piloodid tänulikud, et Avenger oli kõva lennuk, nagu kõik selle aja Grummani lennukid. See ja Jaapani vilets õhutõrjekahur päästsid paljud Ameerika lendurid. Hiljem täiustati torpeedot Mark 13, paigaldades torpeedo nina ümber "hapukurgi" korpuse, et võimaldada palju kiiremaid kukkumisi. Lõhkepea, algselt 401 naela TNT, tõsteti 1943. aastal palju tugevama Torpexi 600 naelani. Hilisemate, tõhusamate Mark 13 variantidega mängisid Avengers esmatähtsat rolli tohutute lahingulaevade Yamato ja Musashi uputamisel, ja mitmed Jaapani lennukikandjad, ristlejad, hävitajad ja muud sõjalaevad.

Teenindus Atlandi ookeanis

Atlandi ookeanis oli Avenger ilmne valik Briti ja Ameerika saatekandjate pardal kasutamiseks kolonnide sõelumisel ja U-paatide jahtimisel. Kättemaksjad näeksid pinnapealseid U-paate ja hüppasid neile alla libiseva pommitamise meetodil, lastes välja mitu 250-naelist, 325-naelast või (enamasti) 500-naelist sügavpommi. Kui U-paat paneb täpse klapi, võib Avengeri piloot otsida ringraadiusest väljas ringi, oodates teiste lennukite abi. Grumman Wildcat võitlejad, kas nelja või kuue raskekuulipildujaga, olid sageli tõhusad U-paadi klapppatarei alistamisel, et kättemaksjad saaksid oma rünnakuid ohutumalt sooritada. Hiljem hõlmas Avengeri arsenal pinnakattega U-paatidel kasutatavaid rakette ja pärast 1943. aasta keskpaika ülisalajast allveelaevade vastast torpeedot, mida tunti Mark 24 Fido nime all (nimetatakse ka Zombiks). Avengeri erinevad versioonid olid varustatud radariga allveelaevade või pinnalaevade leidmiseks, sonobuoidega veealuste allveelaevade jälgimiseks ning raketid ja prožektorid võimalike sihtmärkide valgustamiseks öösel. Kättemaksjad kandsid teadaolevalt nende seadmete kombinatsioone, nagu kaks 500-naelast sügavpommi, üks Fido, radar, raketid ja sonopuud.

Ameerika saatekandjate lennugrupid uputasid Atlandi ookeani 35 allveelaeva või aitasid seda uputada. Enamiku, võib -olla kõik neist tapmistest pidid toime panema kättemaksjad. Sellele summale tuleb lisada Briti Avengersi saavutused. Lisaks lendasid Avengers maa-alustest allveelaevavastaseid patrulle ja lasid miinid.

Kokku pandi kokku 9839 kättemaksjat, sealhulgas Grummani ehitatud 2293 TB ja Eastern Aircraft (General Motors) ehitatud 7546 TBM. Pärast sõda kadusid nad teenistusest järk-järgult kui enamik ajastu lennukeid, teenides kasulikke rolle 1950ndate keskpaigani.

Selle lennukitüübiga uputatud paadid (Avenger)

1942
Sept U-589 +,

1943
Mai U-569, Juuni U-217, U-118, Juuli U-487 +, U-160, U-509, U-67,
U-527, U-43, Aug U-117 +, U-664 +, U-525 +, U-185, U-847 +, Okt U-422 +,
U-460 +, U-402, U-378 +, U-220 +, U-584, Dets U-172 +, U-850 +,

1944
Jaan U-544 +, Märts U-575 +, U-801 +, U-1059 +, Apr U-288 +, U-515 +, U-68 +, Mai
U-66 +, Juuni U-860 +, Juuli U-543 +, Aug U-1229 +,

1945
Mai U-711 +,

35 U-paati kaotasid Avengeri lennukid. + tähendab, et Avenger jagas uppumise eest au.

Allikad:

  • Francillion, R. J. (1989) "Grummani lennuk alates 1929."
    Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, MD.
  • Gunston, W. (1986) "Ameerika sõjalennukid"
    Crescent Books, New York, NY.

Valitud meedialinkid


Ida TBM -1 Avenger - ajalugu



























Ida (Grumman) TBM-3 Avenger
Teise maailmasõja vedajapõhine ühe mootoriga kolme meeskonna keskmise tiivaga torpeedopommitaja, USA

Fotode arhiivimine [1]

[Ida TBM-3 & ldquoAvenger & rdquo (BuNo 53835, c/n 3897, N3967A) eksponeeritud (10.10.2012) CAF muuseumis, Falcon Fieldi lennujaamas, Mesa, Arizona (foto. Kolonelleitnant Marc Matthews, MD) ]

Ülevaade [2]

  • Grumman TBF/Ida -TBM ja ldquoAvenger & rdquo
  • Roll: Torpeedopommitaja
  • Tootja: Grumman (TBF) General Motors/Eastern Aircraft (TBM)
  • Esimene lend: 7. august 1941
  • Sissejuhatus: 1942
  • Pensionil: 1960ndad
  • Staatus: pensionil
  • Esmased kasutajad: Ameerika Ühendriikide merevägi, Kuninglik merevägi Kuninglik Kanada merevägi Kuninglik Uus -Meremaa õhujõud
  • Ehitatud number: 9 839

Grumman TBF & ldquoAvenger & rdquo (TBM, General Motors) oli torpeedopommitaja, mis oli algselt välja töötatud Ameerika Ühendriikide mereväe ja merejalaväe jaoks ning mida kasutasid lõpuks mitmed õhu- või mereväe relvad üle maailma.

& LdquoAvenger & rdquo asus USA teenistusse 1942. aastal ja nägi esmakordselt tegevust Midway lahingu ajal. Vaatamata viiele kuuest & ldquoAvengers & rdquo võitlusdebüüdist jäi ta teenistuses ellu, et saada üheks Teise maailmasõja silmapaistvaks torpeedopommitajaks. Pärast sõda suuresti muudetud, kasutati seda kuni 1960ndateni.

Disain ja arendus [2]

Douglas TBD & ldquoDevastator & rdquo, USA mereväe peamine torpeedopommitaja, mis võeti kasutusele 1935. aastal, oli 1939. aastaks aegunud. Pakkumised võeti vastu mitmetelt ettevõtetelt, kuid Grummani TBF -disain valiti TBD asendajaks ja kaks prototüüpi tellis merevägi aprillis 1940. Leroy Grumman, esimese prototüübi nimi oli XTBF-1. Esimest korda lendas see 1. augustil 1941. Kuigi üks kahest esimesest prototüübist kukkus alla New Yorgis Brentwoodi lähedal, jätkus kiire tootmine.

Grummani esimene torpeedopommitaja oli Teise maailmasõja raskeim ühemootoriline lennuk ja ainult USAAF-i vabariik P-47 & ldquo Thunderbolt & rdquo jõudis peaaegu ühemootoriliste hävitajate maksimaalse koormuseni, olles vaid umbes 181 kg. kergemaks kui TBF, II maailmasõja lõpuks. & LdquoAvenger & rdquo oli esimene disain, millel oli Grummani loodud uus & ldquocompound nurga ja rdquo tiiva voltimismehhanism, mille eesmärk oli maksimeerida lennukipaiga Grumman F4F-4 & ldquoWildcat & rdquo ning hilisemate & ldquoWildcat & rdquo & rdquo kasutas ka seda mehhanismi. Mootoriks oli Wright R-2600-20 & ldquoCyclone & rdquo 14 kaherealine radiaalmootor (mis tootis 1900 hj/1417 kW). Lennuk võttis 25 gallonit õli ja kasutas käivitamisel ühe galloni minutis. There were three crew members: pilot, turret gunner and radioman/bombardier/ventral gunner. One 0.30 caliber machine gun was mounted in the nose, a 0.50 caliber (12.7 mm) gun was mounted right next to the turret gunner's head in a rear-facing electrically powered turret, and a single 0.30 caliber hand-fired machine gun mounted ventrally (under the tail), which was used to defend against enemy fighters attacking from below and to the rear. This gun was fired by the radioman/bombardier while standing up and bending over in the belly of the tail section, though he usually sat on a folding bench facing forward to operate the radio and to sight in bombing runs. Later models of the TBF/TBM dispensed with the nose-mounted gun for one 0.50 caliber gun in each wing per pilots' requests for better forward firepower and increased strafing ability. There was only one set of controls on the aircraft, and no access to the pilot's position from the rest of the aircraft. The radio equipment was massive, especially by today's standards, and filled the whole glass canopy to the rear of the pilot. The radios were accessible for repair through a &ldquotunnel&rdquo along the right hand side. Any &ldquoAvengers&rdquo that are still flying today usually have an additional rear-mounted seat in place of the radios, allowing for a fourth passenger.

The &ldquoAvenger&rdquo had a large bomb bay, allowing for one Bliss-Leavitt Mark 13 torpedo, a single 2,000 pound (907 kg) bomb, or up to four 500 pound (227 kg) bombs. The aircraft had overall ruggedness and stability, and pilots say it flew like a truck, for better or worse. With its good radio facilities, docile handling, and long range, the Grumman &ldquoAvenger&rdquo also made an ideal command aircraft for Commanders, Air Group (CAG's). With a 30,000 ft (10,000 m) ceiling and a fully loaded range of 1,000 mi (1,610 km), it was better than any previous American torpedo bomber, and better than its Japanese counterpart, the obsolete Nakajima B5N &ldquoKate&rdquo. Later &ldquoAvenger&rdquo models carried radar equipment for the ASW and AEW roles. Although improvements in new types of aviation radar were soon forthcoming from the engineers at MIT and the electronic industry, the available radars in 1943 were very bulky, because they contained vacuum tube technology. Because of this, radar was at first carried only on the roomy TBF &ldquoAvengers&rdquo, but not on the smaller and faster fighters.

Escort carrier sailors referred to the TBF as the &ldquoturkey&rdquo because of its size and maneuverability in comparison to the F4F &ldquoWildcat&rdquo fighters in CVE airgroups.

Operatsiooni ajalugu [2]

On the afternoon of 7 December 1941, Grumman held a ceremony to open a new manufacturing plant and display the new TBF to the public. Coincidentally, on that day, the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked Pearl Harbor, as Grumman soon found out. After the ceremony was over, the plant was quickly sealed off to guard against possible sabotage. By early June 1942, a shipment of more than 100 aircraft was sent to the Navy, ironically arriving only a few hours after the three carriers quickly departed from Pearl Harbor, so most of them were too late to participate in the pivotal &ldquoBattle of Midway&rdquo.

Six TBF-1's were present on Midway Island, as part of VT-8 (Torpedo Squadron 8), while the rest of the squadron flew &ldquoDevastator&rdquos from the USS Hornet. Unfortunately, both types of torpedo bombers suffered heavy casualties. Out of the six &ldquoAvengers&rdquo, five were shot down and the other returning heavily damaged with one of its gunners killed, and the other gunner and the pilot injured. Nonetheless, the US torpedo bombers were credited with drawing away the Japanese combat air patrols so the American dive bombers could successfully hit the Japanese carriers.

Author Gordon Prange posited in &ldquoMiracle at Midway&rdquo that the outdated &ldquoDevastator&rdquos (and lack of new aircraft) contributed somewhat to the lack of a complete victory at Midway (the four Japanese fleet carriers were sunk directly by dive bombers instead). Others pointed out that the inexperienced American pilots and lack of fighter cover were responsible for poor showing of US torpedo bombers, regardless of type. Later in the war, with improving American air superiority, attack coordination, and more veteran pilots, &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were able to play vital roles in the subsequent battles against Japanese surface forces.

On 24 August 1942, the next major naval battle occurred at the Eastern Solomons. Based on the carriers &ldquoUSS Saratoga&rdquo and &ldquoUSS Enterprise&rdquo, the 24 TBF's present were able to sink the Japanese light carrier &ldquoRyujo&rdquo and claim one dive bomber, at the cost of seven aircraft.

The first major &ldquoprize&rdquo for the TBF's (which had been assigned the name "&ldquoAvenger&rdquo" in October 1941, before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor) was at the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in November 1942, when Marine Corps and Navy &ldquoAvengers&rdquo helped sink the battleship &ldquoHiei&rdquo, which had already been crippled the night before.

After hundreds of the original TBF-1 models were built, the TBF-1C began production. The allotment of space for specialized internal and wing-mounted fuel tanks doubled the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo's range. By 1943, Grumman began to slowly phase out production of the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo to produce F6F &rdquoHellcat&rdquo fighters, and the Eastern Aircraft Division of General Motors took-over, with these aircraft being designated TBM. The Eastern Aircraft plant was located in North Tarrytown (re-named Sleepy Hollow in 1996), NY. Starting in mid-1944, the TBM-3 began production (with a more powerful powerplant and wing hardpoints for drop tanks and rockets). The TBM-3 was the most numerous of the &ldquoAvengers&rdquo (with about 4,600 produced). However, most of the &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in service were TBM-1's until near the end of the war in 1945.

Besides the traditional surface role (torpedoing surface ships), &ldquoAvengers&rdquo claimed about 30 submarine kills, including the cargo submarine I-52. They were one of the most effective sub-killers in the Pacific theater, as well as in the Atlantic, when escort carriers were finally available to escort Allied convoys. There, the &ldquoAvengers&rdquo contributed in warding off German U-Boats while providing air cover for the convoys.

After the &ldquoMarianas Turkey Shoot,&rdquo in which more than 250 Japanese aircraft were downed, Admiral Marc Mitscher ordered a 220-aircraft mission to find the Japanese task force. At the extreme end of their range, 300 nm (560 km) out, the group of &rdquoHellcats&rdquo, TBF/TBM's, and dive bombers took many casualties. However, &ldquoAvengers&rdquo from &ldquoUSS Belleau Wood&rdquo torpedoed the light carrier &ldquoHiyo&rdquo as their only major prize. Mitscher's gamble did not pay off as well as he had hoped.

In June 1943, future-President George H.W. Bush became the youngest naval aviator at the time. While flying a TBM with VT-51 from the &ldquoUSS San Jacinto&rdquo (CVL-30), his TBM was shot down on 2 September 1944 over the Pacific island of Chichi Jima. Both of his crewmates died. However, he released his payload and hit the target before being forced to bail out he received the Distinguished Flying Cross.

Another famous &ldquoAvenger&rdquo aviator was Paul Newman, who flew as a rear gunner. He had hoped to be accepted for pilot training, but did not qualify because of being color blind. Newman was on board the escort carrier &ldquoUSS Hollandia&rdquo roughly 500 mi (800 km) from Japan when the Boeing B-29 &ldquoEnola Gay&rdquo dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima.

The &ldquoAvenger&rdquo was the type of torpedo bomber used during the sinking of the two Japanese super battleships &ldquoMusashi&rdquo and &ldquoYamato&rdquo.

The &ldquoAvenger&rdquo was also used by the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm where it was initially known as the &ldquoTarpon&rdquo however this name was later discontinued and the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo name used instead, as part of the process of the Fleet Air Arm universally adopting the U.S. Navy's names for American naval aircraft. The first 402 aircraft were known as &ldquoAvenger&rdquo Mk 1, 334 TBM-1's from Grumman were the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo Mk II and 334 TBM-3 the Mark III.

The only other operator in World War II was the Royal New Zealand Air Force which used the type primarily as a bomber, operating from South Pacific Island bases. Some of these were transferred to the British Pacific Fleet.

During World War II, the US aeronautical research arm NACA used a complete &ldquoAvenger&rdquo in a comprehensive drag-reduction study in their large Langley wind tunnel. The resulting NACA Technical Report shows the impressive results available if practical aircraft did not have to be &ldquopractical&rdquo.

In 1945 &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were involved in pioneering trials of aerial topdressing in New Zealand that led to the establishment of an industry which markedly increased food production and efficiency in farming worldwide. Pilots of the Royal New Zealand Air Force's 42 Squadron spread fertilizer from &ldquoAvengers&rdquo beside runways at Ohakea air base and provided a demonstration for farmers at Hood Aerodrome, Masterton, NZ.

The postwar disappearance of a flight of American &ldquoAvengers&rdquo, known as &ldquoFlight 19&rdquo, was later added to the &ldquoBermuda Triangle&rdquo legend.

100 USN TBM-3E's were supplied to the Fleet Air Arm in 1953 under the US Mutual Defense Assistance Program. The aircraft were shipped from Norfolk, Virginia, many aboard the Royal Navy aircraft carrier &ldquoHMS Perseus&rdquo. The &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were fitted with British equipment by Scottish Aviation and delivered as the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo AS.4 to several FAA squadrons including No. 767, 814, 815, 820 and 824. The aircraft were replaced from 1954 by Fairey &ldquoGannets&rdquo and were passed to squadrons of the Royal Naval Reserve including No. 1841 and 1844 until the RNR was disbanded. The survivors were transferred to the French Navy in 1957-1958.

One of the primary postwar users of the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo was the Royal Canadian Navy, which obtained 125 former US Navy TBM-3E &ldquoAvengers&rdquo from 1950 to 1952 to replace their venerable Fairey &ldquoFireflies&rdquo. By the time the &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were delivered, the RCN was shifting its primary focus to anti-submarine warfare (ASW), and the aircraft was rapidly becoming obsolete as an attack platform. Consequently, 98 of the RCN &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were fitted with an extensive number of novel ASW modifications, including radar, electronic countermeasures (ECM) equipment, and sonobuoys, and the upper ball turret was replaced with a sloping glass canopy that was better suited for observation duties. The modified &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were designated AS3. A number of these aircraft were later fitted with a large magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) boom on the rear left side of the fuselage and were redesignated AS3M. However, RCN leaders soon realized the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo's shortcomings as an ASW aircraft, and in 1954 they elected to replace the AS3 with the Grumman S-2 &ldquoTracker&rdquo, which offered longer range, greater load-carrying capacity for electronics and armament, and a second engine, a great safety benefit when flying long-range ASW patrols over frigid North Atlantic waters. As delivery of the new license-built Grumman CS2F &ldquoTracker&rdquos began in 1957, the &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were shifted to training duties, and were officially retired in July 1960.

Camouflage Research [2]

TBM &ldquoAvengers&rdquo were used in wartime research into counter-illumination camouflage. The torpedo bombers were fitted with Yehudi lights, a set of forward-pointing lights automatically adjusted to match the brightness of the sky. The planes therefore appeared as bright as the sky, rather than as dark shapes. The technology, a development of the Canadian navy's diffused lighting camouflage research, allowed an &ldquoAvenger&rdquo to advance to within 3,000 yards (2,700 m) before been seen.

Civilian Use [2]

Many &ldquoAvengers&rdquo have survived into the 21st century working as spray-applicators and water-bombers throughout North America, particularly in the Canadian province of New Brunswick.

Forest Protection Limited (FPL) of Fredericton, NB once owned and operated the largest civilian fleet of &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in the world. FPL began operating &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in 1958 after purchasing 12 surplus TBM-3E aircraft from the Royal Canadian Navy. Use of the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo fleet at FPL peaked in 1971 when 43 aircraft were in use as both water bombers and spray aircraft. The company sold three &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in 2004 (C-GFPS, C-GFPM, and C-GLEJ) to museums or private collectors. The Central New Brunswick Woodsmen's Museum has a former FPL &ldquoAvenger&rdquo on static display. An FPL &ldquoAvenger&rdquo that crashed in 1975 in southwestern New Brunswick was recovered and restored by a group of interested aviation enthusiasts and is currently on display. FPL was still operating three &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in 2010 configured as water-bombers, and stationed at Miramichi Airport. One of these crashed just after takeoff on April 23, 2010, killing the pilot. The last FPL &ldquoAvenger&rdquo was retired on July 26th, 2012 and sold to the Shearwater Aviation Museum in Dartmouth Nova Scotia.

There are several other &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in private collections around the world today. They are a popular airshow fixture in both flying and static displays.

Variandid [2]

  • XTBF-1: Prototypes each powered by a 1,700 hp (1,300 kW) R-2600-8 engine, second aircraft introduced the large dorsal fin. (2 built)
  • TBF-1: Initial production model based on the second prototype. (1,526 built)
  • TBF-1B: Paper designation for the &ldquoAvenger&rdquo I for the Royal Navy.
  • TBF-1C: TBF-1 with provision for two 0.5 in (12.7 mm) wing guns and fuel capacity increased to 726 gal (2,748 l). (765 built)
  • TBF-1CD: TBF-1C conversions with centimetric radar in radome on starboard wing leading edge.
  • TBF-1CP: TBF-1C conversion for photo-reconnaissance.
  • TBF-1D: TBF-1 conversions with centimetric radar in radome on starboard wing leading edge.
  • TBF-1E: TBF-1 conversions with additional electronic equipment.
  • TBF-1J: TBF-1 equipped for bad weather operations.
  • TBF-1L: TBF-1 equipped with retractable searchlight in bomb bay.
  • TBF-1P: TBF-1 conversion for photo-reconnaissance.
  • XTBF-2: TBF-1 re-engined with a 1,900 hp (1,400 kW) XR-2600-10 engine.
  • XTBF-3: TBF-1 re-engined with 1,900 hp (1,400 kW) R-2600-20 engines.
  • TBF-3: Planned production version of the XTBF-3, cancelled.

General Motors (Easter Aircraft) TBM

  • TBM-1: As TBF-1 (550 built)
  • TBM-1C: As TBF-1C. (2336 built)
  • TBM-1D: TBM-1 conversions with centimetric radar in radome on starboard wing leading edge.
  • TBM-1E: TBM-1 conversions with additional electronic equipment.
  • TBM-1J: TBM-1 equipped for all weather operations.
  • TBM-1L: TBM-1 equipped with retractable searchlight in bomb bay.
  • TBM-1P: TBM-1 conversion for photo-reconnaissance.
  • TBM-1CP: TBM-1C conversion for photo-reconnaissance.
  • TBM-2: One TBM-1 re-engined with a 1,900 hp (1,400 kW) XR-2600-10 engine.
  • XTBM-3: Four TBM-1C aircraft with 1,900 hp (1,400 kW) R-2600-20 engines.
  • TBM-3: As TBM-1C, double cooling intakes, engine upgrade, minor changes. (4,011 built)
  • TBM-3D: TBM-3 conversion with centimetric radar in radome on starboard wing leading edge.
  • TBM-3E: As TBM-3, stronger airframe, search radar, ventral gun deleted. (646 built).
  • TBM-3H: TBM-3 conversion with surface search radar.
  • TBM-3J: TBM-3 equipped for all weather operations.
  • TBM-3L: TBM-3 equipped with retractable searchlight in bomb bay.
  • TBM-3M: TBM-3 conversion as a missile launcher.
  • TBM-3N: TBM-3 conversion for night attack.
  • TBM-3P: TBM-3 conversion for photo-reconnaissance.
  • TBM-3Q: TBM-3 conversion for electronic countermeasures with large ventral radome.
  • TBM-3R: TBM-3 conversions as seven-passenger, Carrier onboard delivery transport.
  • TBM-3S: TBM-3 conversion as an anti-submarine strike version.
  • TBM-3U: TBM-3 conversion as a general utility and target version.
  • TBM-3W: TBM-3 conversion as an anti-Submarine search with APS-20 radar in ventral radome.
  • XTBM-4: Prototypes based on TBM-3E with modified wing incorporating a reinforced center section and a different folding mechanism. (3 built)
  • TBM-4: Production version of XTBM-4, 2,141 on order were cancelled.
  • &ldquoAvenger&rdquo Mk.I: RN designation of the TBF-1, 400 delivered.
  • &ldquoAvenger&rdquo Mk.II: RN designation of the TBM-1/TBM-1C, 334 delivered.
  • &ldquoAvenger&rdquo Mk.III RN designation of the TBM-3, 222 delivered.
  • &ldquoAvenger&rdquo Mk.IV: RN designation of the TBM-3S, 70 cancelled
  • &ldquoAvenger&rdquo AS4: RN designation of the TBM-3S, 100 delivered postwar.
  • &ldquoAvenger&rdquo AS3: Modified by RCN for anti-submarine duty, dorsal gun turret removed, 98 built.
  • &ldquoAvenger&rdquo AS3M: AS3 with magnetic anomaly detector boom added to rear fuselage.

Operaatorid [2]

  • Brazil: Brazilian Navy operated three &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in the 1950s for deck crew training aboard the carrier &ldquoMinas Gerais&rdquo (A-11).
  • Canada: Royal Canadian Navy operated &ldquoAvengers&rdquo until replaced by the CS2F &ldquoTracker&rdquo in 1960.
  • France: Aéronavale operated &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in 1950s.
  • Japan: Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force operated Hunter-Killer &ldquoAvengers&rdquo groups in 1950s and 1960's.
  • Netherlands: Royal Netherlands Navy - the Dutch Naval Aviation Service operated &ldquoAvengers&rdquo during the 1950s.
  • New Zealand Royal New Zealand Air Force No. 30, 31, 41 & 42 Squadrons RNZAF Central Fighter Establishment.
  • United Kingdom Royal Navy - Fleet Air Arm 820, 828, 832, 845-846, 848-857, 955 Naval Air Squadrons.
  • United States: United States Navy United States Marine Corps.
  • Uruguay: Uruguayan Navy operated &ldquoAvengers&rdquo in 1950s.

Specifications (TBF &ldquoAvenger&rdquo) [2]

Üldised omadused

  • Crew: 3
  • Length: 40 ft 11.5 in (12.48 m)
  • Wingspan: 54 ft 2 in (16.51 m)
  • Height: 15 ft 5 in (4.70 m)
  • Wing area: 490.02 ft² (45.52 m²)
  • Empty weight: 10,545 lb (4,783 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 17,893 lb (8,115 kg)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Wright R-2600-20 radial engine, 1,900 hp (1,420 kW)

Jõudlus

  • Maximum speed: 275 mph (442 km/h)
  • Range: 1,000 mi (1,610 km)
  • Service ceiling: 30,100 ft (9,170 m)
  • Rate of climb: 2,060 ft/min (10.5 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 36.5 lb/ft² (178 kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: 0.11 hp/lb (0.17 kW/kg)
  • Guns: 1 × 0.30 in (7.62 mm) nose-mounted M1919 Browning machine gun(on early models)
  • Guns: 2 × 0.50 in (12.7 mm) wing-mounted M2 Browning machine guns
  • Guns: 1 × 0.50 in (12.7 mm) dorsal-mounted M2 Browning machine gun
  • Guns: 1 × 0.30 in (7.62 mm) ventral-mounted M1919 Browning machine gun
  • Rockets: up to eight 3.5-inch forward firing aircraft Rockets, 5-inch forward firing aircraft rockets or high velocity aerial rockets
  • Bombs: Up to 2,000 lb (907 kg) of bombs or 1 × 2,000 lb (907 kg) Mark 13 torpedo

Copyright © 1998-2019 (Our 21 st Year) Skytamer Images, Whittier, California
KÕIK ÕIGUSED KAITSTUD


Fleet Air Arm Avenger- which kit?

Can any of the Trumpeter 1/32 Avengers be built as an FAA Avenger or Tarpon? Tried looking on http://www.fleetairarmarchive.net/ but couldn't figure it out.
I've got a crazy hankering, but I'm going to suppress it and build an Avenger instead. BTW, it's too dammed hot to paint out on my back porch today- about 107 or so. Gotta go down to Palm Springs tomorrow, too. 2000 feet lower means that much more sweaty!

Jim Atkins
Twentynine Palms CA

"Outside of a dog, a book is man's best friend. Inside of a dog, it's too dark to read." - Groucho Marx

Depends on the paint scheme you want

Aug 16, 2007 #2 2007-08-16T23:13

The TBM 3 from what I have been able to work out only flew with the FAA in all over dark blue whilst the TBF-1/1C (Tarpon 1/2) flew in the variety of colour schemes with the FAA.

I am going to be using the Eagle STrike decals sheet 32072 for my 1/32 TBF-1C Avenger. It comes with three schemes:
1. Avenger I of 711 SQN 1945, Extra Dk sea grey/slate grey upper with white lower surfaces
2. Avenger 1 of 832 SQN, HMAS Begum 1944, EDSG/SG upper and RAF Sky lower with white cowling ring and
3. Tarpon Mk II of 848 SQN, HMAS Formidable mid 1945, EDSG/SG/RAF Sky.

OK- so I think I've got it now-

Aug 17, 2007 #3 2007-08-17T00:16

That's the sheet I was looking at and got started on this quest. Avengers were TBM-3s, Tarpon I was the TBF-1, and Tarpon II was the TBF-1C then. I know about the bulged observer window on Tarpons- do the kits have it included? Before I really outrage my wife I'd like to get the right kit in the first place.

Jim Atkins
Twentynine Palms CA

"Outside of a dog, a book is man's best friend. Inside of a dog, it's too dark to read." - Groucho Marx

My kit doesn't have the rounded windows

Aug 17, 2007 #4 2007-08-17T01:49

I just had a look and compared it against the Accurate Miniatures kit and the 1/32 kit doesn't inlude the rounded windows unfortunately. I'm sure that someone out there makes after market stuff for it but I don't know who. There are numerous PE sets for the kit but i'm not sure that the kit actualy needs them as it is BIG and reasonably well detailed.

Wifes do get a bit fussy over spending the $ for the kit! My wife only relented as I swapped some kit's I wasn't using for it.

Aug 17, 2007 #5 2007-08-17T03:42

I saw a kit build and I believe the builder bought a Squadron-Falcon canopy set for the 1/48 Monogram B-29 and used the gunner blisters for the bulged circular windows on a Fleet Air Arm Avenger/Tarpon. I believe it was the Trumpeter kit.

Try to find the build by Jamie Haggo

Aug 17, 2007 #6 2007-08-17T07:16

Can any of the Trumpeter 1/32 Avengers be built as an FAA Avenger or Tarpon? Tried looking on http://www.fleetairarmarchive.net/ but couldn't figure it out.
I've got a crazy hankering, but I'm going to suppress it and build an Avenger instead. BTW, it's too dammed hot to paint out on my back porch today- about 107 or so. Gotta go down to Palm Springs tomorrow, too. 2000 feet lower means that much more sweaty!

Jim Atkins
Twentynine Palms CA

"Outside of a dog, a book is man's best friend. Inside of a dog, it's too dark to read." - Groucho Marx

FAA Avengers

Aug 17, 2007 #7 2007-08-17T09:38

The TBM 3 from what I have been able to work out only flew with the FAA in all over dark blue whilst the TBF-1/1C (Tarpon 1/2) flew in the variety of colour schemes with the FAA.

I am going to be using the Eagle STrike decals sheet 32072 for my 1/32 TBF-1C Avenger. It comes with three schemes:
1. Avenger I of 711 SQN 1945, Extra Dk sea grey/slate grey upper with white lower surfaces
2. Avenger 1 of 832 SQN, HMAS Begum 1944, EDSG/SG upper and RAF Sky lower with white cowling ring and
3. Tarpon Mk II of 848 SQN, HMAS Formidable mid 1945, EDSG/SG/RAF Sky.

Tere!
Here is a quick primer on FAA Avengers.

Tarpon/Avenger I: All Grumman built TBF-1b and TBF-1c.
the TBF-1b is an expor version of the TBF-1.

Tarpon/Avenger II: All Eastern Built TBM-1 and TBM-1c

Avenger III: All Eastern built TBM-3

All were delivered with the second cockpit similar to the TBF/M-1, but with British radios. All were delivered with the bubble observers windows on the fuselage sides.


As for colors, all MK.I a/c were delivered in shades of EDSG, DSG, and sky which matched the MAP shades.All had Bronze green cockpits and tinted zinc chromate crew areas. The remainder of the interior was probably in "Grumman Grey", esp the cowl.

All Mk.II were delivered in US colors of Olive Drab, Sea Grey ( close to Neutral grey) and USN Non-Specular Lt. Grey. The entire cockpit was in interior green. The remainder of the interior of the airframe was in tinted zinc chromate or yellow Zinc chromate primer.

All Mk.III were delivered in Glossy Sea Blue.The remainder or the paint was as the Mk.II

So what you need is the serial number to see
1- Who built the a/c
2- was it a -1 or a -1c?


Ziroli Avenger History

Back in the early 2000s, Nick Ziroli Jr. wanted to design something extra special to compete with at Frank Tiano’s Top Gun Scale Invitational event. Since he hailed from Long Island, the famous Grumman TBM Avenger torpedo/bomber seemed most appropriate.


Nick Jr. designed and drew all the working plans for the 1/6-scale TBM model. He went on to build all the plugs and develop molds to produce the fiberglass fuselage and engine cowling, and he vacuum-formed the clear plastic canopy and gun turret. Nick Jr. then tackled the very daunting job of designing and machining the functional folding-wing mechanism. Nick Sr.’s longtime friend Bob Walker of Robart Manufacturing agreed to build the scale retractable landing gear and also helped Nick work out the design of the wing hinge locks.

The finished Avenger was a sight to behold. Powered by a Precision Eagle 4.2ci gas engine, the TBM was all done up in the U.S. Navy colors of future President George H.W. Bush.

The Avenger impressed everyone with its torpedo drop demo flights. The only real issue with the new model was that the folding wing mechanism gave the aircraft a very high wing loading, and it was subsequently damaged during one of the flights at Top Gun.

Undaunted, Nick returned to the workshop, removed the folding wing mechanism, and switched to lighter plug-in outer wing panels. The second time around Nick refinished his Avenger in the colors of the British Tarpon I. All went extremely well, or so it seemed, until the model experienced radio failure shortly after takeoff for the halftime show. The model climbed out at a high angle, tip-stalled, and came down hard, seriously damaging the airframe.

Nick Jr. had no intentions of completing the Avenger plans or offering them (or molded parts) for sale, but close friend Tony Kirchenko of Setauket, New York really wanted to build one. So Nick Jr. sent the damaged landing gear back to Robart for repair while he and Tony laid up another fuselage from the mold. They cut foam cores for the outer wing panels, and some months later, a new Grumman TBM, powered with a Quadra 75cc gas engine, rolled onto the Skyhawks’ flightline.

Tony’s new TBM featured a fully detailed cockpit interior, a droppable torpedo from its internal bomb/torpedo bay, and a retractable tail hook. Tony’s Avenger was just as impressive as the original. After owning it for several years, Tony decided it needed a new home as it was just too big was always cumbersome for Tony to move around.

Enter Jim McQueen of Wading River, New York. When Jim heard that Tony’s TBM was for sale, he jumped at the opportunity. You see, this was not only a Ziroli-designed TBM, it was the only flying Ziroli Avenger flying in the entire world! There are no others. You can’t build one, because there aren’t any plans available. And you can’t buy one, unless you make a deal with Jim, and I don’t think he intends to let go of this one any time soon.


Eastern TBM-1 Avenger - History

Off Cape Cod – July 19, 1944

U.S. Navy TBM Avengers
National Archives Photo

At about 10:45 p.m., on the night of July 19, 1944, an unspecified number of navy airplanes were conducting night training maneuvers off Cape Cod, Massachusetts, when two aircraft, both TBM-1C Avengers, were involved in a mid-air collision.

One plane, (Bu. No. 45716), was able to make it back safely to Otis Air Field in Falmouth, Massachusetts the other, (Bu. No. 45706), plunged into the sea and both men aboard were lost and never recovered. They were identified as:

(Pilot) Ensign Leo Henry Reimers, 22, of Yamhill, Oregon. There is a memorial to Ensign Reimers in Willamette National Cemetery, in Portland, Oregon. To see a photo, and learn more information about Ensign Reimers, see www.findagrave.com, Memorial, # 36351469.)

Aviation Radioman 3/c Herbert W. Burke, of Milton, Oregon.

The Register-Guard, (Eugene, Ore.), “Two Oregon Fliers Lost Off Cape Cod.”


“The first behemoth to fall victim to the Avengers’ attacks was the Musashi, a 67,000-ton battleship that sunk after nineteen hits.”

It almost never fails that heads turn and cameras flash as the powerful R-2600 engine of the TBM Avenger roars to life. This is the same roar echoed off countless carrier decks throughout the world over fifty years ago. Constructed in 1940 as a replacement for the obsolete Douglas TBD Devastator, Grumman’s team ended up creating one of the most influential aircraft of the Second World War.

The Avenger’s line of service began when a group of six Avengers took off on June 4th, 1942 as part of the Battle of Midway. Unfortunately, all but one of the six Avengers launched were shot down. This bloody initiation into combat caused the Navy to lose faith in the potential of the Avenger and the idea of torpedo attacks as a whole. However, after this harsh baptism under fire, the TBM would prove its lethal ability while it fought in every carrier-versus-carrier battle of the war.

While the Avenger had many successes in its combat career, there are a few that standout. At the Battle of Guadalcanal, the Avengers scored several key hits on the battleship Hiei. Later, in the 1944 Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Avengers prevailed in a duel against the carrier Hiyo, which sank shortly after several torpedo hits. Yet, the real victories for the Avenger occurred in 1945 when the world’s two largest battleships were sunk as a direct result of torpedo attacks. The first behemoth to fall victim to the Avengers’ attacks was the Musashi, a 67,000-ton battleship that sunk after nineteen hits. Next, the Yamato, which was the sister ship of the Musashi and former flagship of Admiral Yamamoto, mastermind of the Pearl Harbor attack, was sunk after ten torpedo hits. Accordingly, it is quite safe to state that the Avengers lived up to their name-avenging the attack on Pearl Harbor.

After WWII, the Avengers served in several training squadrons and were also modified to be carrier onboard delivery aircraft (COD). Later, the TBM’s were even modified as first-generation early-warning aircraft. Through these roles, the Avengers helped to continue their mission of preserving freedom until they were retired from United States naval service in 1954.

Across America, generations of young Americans are growing up without much knowledge regarding the history of Word War Two. Accordingly, much of the sacrifice and undertakings of the people during the Second World War is being forgotten. We have taken it upon themselves to restore aircraft like the TBM so that people across the nation may better understand their history and those that participated in it. Therefore, when the TBM roars to life and takes off, it is not merely just an old airplane. It is a memorial to the thousands of people who worked and fought to preserve our way of life.

*The TBM is on the premises in Massachusetts and can be viewed during special events and by appointment only. Call the office for details.

The American Heritage Museum at the Collings Foundation featuring the Jacques M. Littlefield Collection explores major conflicts ranging from the Revolutionary War until today. Visitors discover and interact with our American heritage through the history, the changing technology, and the Human Impact of America’s fight to preserve the freedom we all hold dear.

American Heritage Museum
568 Main Street
Hudson, MA 01749


Eastern TBM-1 Avenger - History

Hobby Boss 1/48 TBF-1C Avenger

Kit #80314 MSRP $74.95 $63.70 from Great Models Web Store
Images and text Copyright © 2010 by Matt Swan with scale commentary by Gaston Marty

Developmental Background
The Avenger was one of the most famous aircraft of WWII in Navy service and rapidly displaced the obsolete Devastator aboard US carriers. Originally designed as a carrier-based torpedo bomber by Grumman Aircraft, the Avenger found use as a close-support bomber and patrol aircraft. From the Guadalcanal landings in August 1942 until the end of the Pacific War it remained the only shipboard torpedo aircraft of the US Navy and was known as the largest single-engine, carrier-based aircraft of WWII.
The order for two prototypes was placed on 8 April 1940 and first aircraft was flown on August 1st 1941. The first three-seat Grumman TBF-1 Avengers went into service just less than one year later. The US Navy's demands for Grumman production of the F6F Hellcat fighter led to manufacture of the Avenger being taken over by Eastern Aircraft Division of General Motors - the GM-produced aircraft being designated the "TBM". Those manufactured by Grumman were designated “TBF”.
On the afternoon of December 7, 1941, Grumman held a ceremony to open its new Plant 2 in Bethpage and to display the new torpedo bomber to the public. During the program, Grumman vice president Clint Towl was notified that the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor but no announcement was made and the festivities continued. The new plane first saw action on 4 June 1942 against the Japanese carrier striking force at the Battle of Midway - only six Avengers were involved, operating from Midway Island. Five of the six were shot down, the surviving plane returned to Midway severely damaged and with its gunner dead but it demonstrated the Avenger’s toughness, and it was immediately apparent that its battle-worthiness justified its production in great numbers.
The Avenger took part in every carrier-versus-carrier battle and almost all carrier operations from Midway onwards, working from every fast carrier and escort carrier of the Pacific Fleet and from land bases. For almost all of this time it operated as a bomber, a search aircraft and as an anti-submarine aircraft, rather than as a torpedo-plane. As a torpedo-plane it was initially hampered by the many serious defects in the American torpedoes however in the Battle of Leyte Gulf the Avenger achieved one of its most notable successes by sinking the Japanese battleship Musash after delivering nineteen hits.
The Avenger's virtues, especially its ruggedness, reliability, and stability as a weapons platform, ensured it a remarkably long operational history. It in fact remained in service - as an anti-submarine, search-and-rescue aircraft, an all-weather night bomber and an electronic countermeasures platform - until 1954. Until recently, at least one aerial firefighting operation used Avengers as fire bombers and/or fire spotters over the woods of Canada.
During its career it was known by many names: Chuff, Turkey, Pregnant Beast or Tarpon (RAF). No matter what it was called it was a widely used aircraft and was produced in great numbers with 7546 being manufactured by General Motors and 2290 manufactured by Grumman. Today, according to Warbird Alley, there are at least 42 of these amazing aircraft still airworthy.

The Kit
I think the first question that rose in many modelers minds when this kit was released was ‘do we really need another Avenger kit?’ Really, was the Accurate Miniatures kit not pretty darned good? Maybe the question should have been ‘what can be better than what we have now?’ or ‘what inaccuracies that I suffered previously have been resolved?’ Sadly the answers provided by the Trumpeter kit do not adequately resolve any of these questions. One thing the Trumpeter kit gives us that the earlier AM kit did not was folded wings. Admittedly you could buy an aftermarket wing fold kit for the Accurate Miniatures package and by that time you would have a comparable total kit cost so no great gain here. Before I talk about the actual physical plastic let’s take a moment and review some of the accuracy issues that were evident with the AM kit and whether they have been addressed in the Trumpeter kit or now.
First let me say that I don’t think there is any kit on the market of any subject that is completely accurate. There will always be some detail that the kit manufacture simply did not get right, sometimes these are minor while others they are glaringly obvious. As the modeler we need to decide what is acceptable or not on an individual basis. For many modelers if it looks like your intended subject, that is good enough. It may not matter that the model is 3 scale inches too long, has five spokes on a rim rather than four or has an extra row of rivets. For others this could be a deal breaker.


You may click on these small images to view larger pictures

My general modeling philosophy is “if it looks like a ------ then it’s good enough for me” providing of course that there are no really glaring errors. What exactly a glaring error is can be pretty subjective though so let’s visit or resident rivet counter, Gaston Marty and see just how this kit compares with published drawing.

Compared to the Accurate Miniatures kit (which has it’s own issues) the Hobby Boss TBM-3 demonstrates the correct prop and likely better side profile but the top and bottom intakes are far too proportionally deep or narrow, which would be very labor-intensive to fix.
There are no really good TBM-3 cowls or resin correction options, so the easy choices are limited to TBF-1 variants:

HB TBF-1: This cowling is the only one that appears to be correct.

Actual dimensions. (All from CAF TBM-3 pilot Rob Duncan)

Wing chord at root: 140" actual= 3556 mm= 1/48th: 74.0 mm

Wing chord at outer aileron edge: 59" actual= 1498 mm= 1/48th: 31.2 mm

Wing uppermost root point to canopy base: 29.0" actual= 736 mm= 1/48th: 15.3 mm

Actual aircraft front canopy bottom width: 38.5" actual= 978 mm= 1/48th: 20.3 mm.

Front canopy top frame cross-section width: 22" actual= 558 mm= 1/48th: 11.6 mm.

The Hobby Boss canopy is deceptive 22-23 mm on-sprue which in fact flexes down easily to the needed fuselage width of 20.5-20.6 mm. The Hobby Boss front canopy top frame comes in at 11.2 mm.

Decals and Instructions
Kit instructions consist of three separate sheets, two that are black and white multi-panel fold-outs and a single double sided full color glossy sheet. The fold-out sheets contain fourteen individual panels with lots of exploded view assembly steps. Part numbers are all clearly identified and there are some limited color call-outs. The full color sheet includes a fair paint code chart and displays decal placement instructions for three different aircraft.
The decal sheet is large and adequate for the three aircraft shown however does not include any instrument markings or seatbelt material. Color density is good, print registry looks spot on however the blue background appears nearly black which in my eyes is a little dark.

Construction
This kit looks pretty intimidating on paper as does the Accurate Miniatures kit, there are lots of little parts and layers upon layers of detail to deal with. I began with the interior floor pans painting them dark green then highlighting them with interior green. The engine cylinder banks were done with Alclad steel and highlighted with silver. The kit ignition harness really sucked so I simply cut it off and replaced it with medium magnet wire pieces cut to length – this dramatically improved the looks of the power-plant. The seatbelts were cut from the decal sheet and applied with the paper backing in place to give them a little more depth. The aft gun turret proved to be a real challenge being very fiddly and is also difficult to install in the fuselage.


You may click on these small images to view larger pictures


Vaata videot: TBM-1 Avenger 148 Italeri scale model kit (Jaanuar 2022).