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Millised olid natside rassilised vaated ungarlastele ja jaapanlastele?

Millised olid natside rassilised vaated ungarlastele ja jaapanlastele?


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Ungari ja Jaapan olid Teise maailmasõja ajal natsi-Saksamaa liitlased, kuid siiski ei saa väita, et jaapanlased kuuluvad aaria rassi ning ungarlased räägivad mitte-indoeuroopa keelt, mis tõenäoliselt diskvalifitseerib nad ka aarialasteks. Kas Saksa propaganda püüdis sellega arvestada? Kas natside ametnike või teadlaste avaldusi Ungari ja Jaapani rahva rassilise staatuse kohta oli?

Lisaks sellele, kas natside juhid kavandasid rassilistel põhjustel poolakate orjastamist ja sellele järgnevat hävitamist, kas Ribbentropi-Molotovi pakti ajal oli venelaste kohta tehtud analoogseid avaldusi? Aga teised telje või telgipõhised slaavi rahvad, nagu slovakid või bulgaarlased?


Saksa valitsus pidas Jaapani rahvast "aarialasteks". Hitleri sõnul kuulusid jaapanlased ja hiinlased nagu sakslasedki iidsetesse tsivilisatsioonidesse. Ka Wikipedia arutleb selle üle.


Puudus järjekindel rassiteooria, mida natsid oleksid kuidagi "ametlikuks" kinnitanud. Kõik otsused tehti juhtumipõhiselt, sõltuvalt hetkeolukorrast ja Hitleri isiklikest eelistustest.

Hitleri isiklikud eelistused olid, et ta vihkab juute, poolakaid ja venelasi. Ta oli mõne teise rahva, sealhulgas slaavi suhtes üsna neutraalne. Ta pidas ukrainlasi paremaks kui poolakaid ja venelasi.

Ta pidas türkmeeni (kes on mongoloid, rääkis türgi keelt ja moslemeid) paremini kui leedulasi ja lätlasi, kes on valged, kristlased ja räägivad keeli, mis säilitavad kõige rohkem iidse indoeuroopa tunnuseid.

Ta eelistas tatarlasi nii venelastele kui ka ukrainlastele.

See kõik oli täiesti meelevaldne.

Tuleb märkida, et niinimetatud "aaria" ideoloogia kõrval olid konkureerivad põhjamaisuse ja germanismi ning rassilise puhtuse teooria ideoloogiad, aga ka teised. Esimesest kolmest näib, et Hitlerile meeldis kõige rohkem germanism, kõige vähem aga põhjamaisusele.

Kõiki neid mainiti erinevates kontekstides sõltuvalt olukorrast. Näiteks kasutati aarialust juutide välistamiseks, germanismi - slaavlaste ja põhjamaade ning rassilise puhtuse välistamiseks - prantslaste ja itaallaste, aga ka mustlaste ründamiseks.

Teine teooria oli, et "kangelaslikke" riike, s.o riike, kes vallutasid ja orjastasid oma naabrid, tuleks eelistada kaubandusriikidele, kes laienesid kaubanduse kaudu, ja mõlemat tuleks eelistada rahvastele, kes olid kunagi oma ajaloos end orjastanud.

Sellest vaatenurgast jäeti juudid välja nii kaupmehe kui ka orjastatud rahvana (orjastati juba ammu kui Piibli aegadel). Venelasi peeti "loomulikeks orjadeks", kuna nad kutsusid Skandinaavia varanglasi neid valitsema, kuna enamik revolutsioonieelsest Vene aadlist ja tsaar ise olid pärit Saksamaalt (samal ajal kui pärisorjad olid slaavlased) ja kuna natsid uskusid, et väga sõna "ori" tuletati sõnast "slaavlane" (saksa keeles langevad mõlemad sõnad kokku). Sarnastel põhjustel eelistati araablasi ("kangelaslikena") brittidele ("kaupmehena") ja Aafrika mustanahalisi eelistati Ameerika mustanahalistele (orjade järeltulijad), sõjakaid Kaukaasia elanikke, tšetšeene ja kasakaid eelistati "rahumeelsetele" venelastele jne.


EDIT: Vau, ma ei näinud, et see oli aastast 2012. See ilmus küsimuste lehe ülaosas, nii et ma vastasin sellele. See on kummaline ... Huvitav, miks see oli "uusima" jaotise ülaosas. Ma poleks vastanud, kui oleksin kuupäeva näinud.

Ma õppisin seda ülikoolis (ajalugu oli minu eriala).

Lühike vastus:

Hitler soovis maailma võimalikult kiiresti vallutada. Tema esialgne plaan oli joonduda mõne strateegilise rühmitusega ja hiljem ka need vallutada. Näide sellest, et see läks valesti, on see, kuidas Hitler joondus Venemaaga ja proovis seejärel riigi üle võtta, kui oli saanud neilt selle, mida tahtis.

Ilmselgelt polnud Hitleril mingit võimalust Vaikse ookeani piirkonnas sammu teha, kuna Saksamaa pole selle piirkonna lähedal, nii et ta käskis jaapanlastel teha, mida nad tahavad, ja ta toetab neid. Tema plaan oli lasta neil must töö ära teha ja siis võttis ta ka need üle, kui euroala kontrolli all oli. Venemaa ajas selle uuesti sassi, sest Hitler kavatses kasutada Trans-Siberi raudteed, et saata vägesid ja varustust Moskvast Vladivostokki, et vallutada Hiina, Korea ja Jaapan, kuid kui Venemaa kampaania ebaõnnestus, lasi ta Jaapanil vabalt valitseda ... sest ta sel hetkel polnud valikut.

Mis puutub Ungarisse, siis Hitler joondus nendega, sest soovis vallutada Lähis-Ida ja Balkani, kuid tal puudusid esialgsed vahendid selle elluviimiseks. Ungarist sai tema kodumaa, sest see asub strateegiliselt Saksamaa, Balkani/Lähis-Ida, Poola ja Ukraina vahel. Ungari oli tema võti Lähis -Idasse. Tema plaanid hakkasid nurjuma, kui Ungari vastupanu muutus jultunumaks ja häiris jätkuvalt tema asju Ungaris.

Hitleri eesmärk oli algusest peale orjastada kõik, välja arvatud sakslased, puhtalt saksa päritoluga, mis oli dokumenteeritud mitme põlvkonna kohta. Kõigile väljaspool seda gruppi öeldi esialgu teisiti, et ta saaks neid kasutada ja võita. See kontseptsioon kehtis ka Vichy Prantsusmaal. Oma Mein Kampfi raamatus kirjutas ta selle kõik välja. Kurb osa on see, et enne, kui ta tuntuks sai, pidasid kõik teda lolliks ega viitsinud oma raamatut lugeda. Ta peaaegu järgis oma raamatu plaane T -le, nii et akadeemiliselt on arutatud, et sõda oleks saanud ära hoida või vähemalt ette näha, kui ametnikud oleksid uurinud tema raamatut, mis sel ajal tegelikult laialdaselt avaldati. Pidage meeles, et enamik riike ühines temaga hirmust. Natsidel oli sel ajal kõige arenenum relvastus ja taktika ning riigid langesid sõna otseses mõttes mõne tunni või päeva jooksul pärast tema rünnakuid. Kui Poola kukkus ja Hitler jätkas buldooseriga läbi riikide, kellele pakuti ühtlustamist, tegi seda oma rahva, kultuuri ja ajaloo kaitsmiseks, sest pidage meeles, et Hitler hävitas aktiivselt ka riikide ajalugu ja kultuure, et keegi ei saaks kunagi midagi teada peale natsismi võttis ta täielikult oma kontrolli alla.

Minu allikaks on minu ülikooliharidus ja teadustöö.

Loodan, et see aitab!


Natside rassism: ülevaade

Rassism õhutas natside ideoloogiat ja poliitikat. Natsid pidasid maailma jagatud konkureerivateks alam- ja paremateks rassideks, millest igaüks võitles ellujäämise ja domineerimise pärast. Nad uskusid, et juudid ei ole religioosne konfessioon, vaid ohtlik mitteeuroopalik “rass”. Natside rassism tooks kaasa enneolematu ulatusega mõrva.

Võtme faktid

Rassistid usuvad, et kaasasündinud, päritud omadused määravad bioloogiliselt inimese käitumise. Kahekümnenda sajandi alguses võeti sellised vaated rassi vastu laialdaselt vastu mitmel pool maailmas. Tegelikult ei ole rass bioloogiline, see on rühmade kultuuriline klassifikatsioon.

Natsi rassiteooriate kohaselt olid sakslased ja teised eurooplased tajunud kõrgemaid füüsilisi ja vaimseid jooni. Nad pidasid Euroopa rahvaid aarialasteks, kes pärinesid iidsetest indoeurooplastest, kes asusid elama kogu Euroopa mandrile, aga ka Iraani ja Indiasse.

Rassiline antisemitism on valeteaduslikel teooriatel põhinev eelarvamus või vihkamine juutide vastu. See rassismi aspekt oli alati natsismi lahutamatu osa.

See sisu on saadaval järgmistes keeltes

Rassistid on inimesed, kes usuvad, et kaasasündinud, päritud omadused määravad inimese käitumise bioloogiliselt.

Rassismiõpetus väidab, et veri määrab rahvus-etnilise identiteedi. Rassistlikus raamistikus ei määra inimese väärtust tema individuaalsus, vaid hoopis kuulumine nn "rassilisse kollektiivi". Paljud intellektuaalid, sealhulgas teadlased, on rassistlikule mõtlemisele laenanud pseudoteaduslikku tuge. Üheksateistkümnenda sajandi rassistlikud mõtlejad, nagu Houston Stewart Chamberlain, avaldasid paljudele Adolf Hitleri põlvkonnas märkimisväärset mõju.

Rassism, sealhulgas rassiline antisemitism (vale bioloogilistel teooriatel põhinev eelarvamus või vihkamine juutide vastu), oli alati Saksa natsionaalsotsialismi (natsismi) lahutamatu osa.

Natsid tajusid kogu inimkonna ajalugu kui bioloogiliselt määratud võitluse ajalugu erinevate rasside inimeste vahel. Natsid leidsid, et sellised poliitilised liikumised nagu marksism, kommunism, patsifism ja internatsionalism olid rahvusvastased ja peegeldasid ohtlikku, rassil põhinevat juudi intellektuaalsust.

1931. aastal SS (Schutzstaffel natsiriigi eliitvalvur) asutas rassi- ja asustusbüroo, et viia läbi rassiuuringuid ja teha kindlaks potentsiaalsete abikaasade sobivus SS -i liikmetele. Pärast natside võimuletulekut võtsid nad 1935. aastal vastu Nürnbergi rassiseadused, mis kodifitseerisid juutluse väidetavalt bioloogilise määratluse.

Natsistlikud rassistid pidasid vaimu- ja füüsilisi haigeid nn meistrivõistluste geneetilise maastiku plekkideks ja nende taastootmisel bioloogiliseks ohuks aaria rassi puhtusele. Pärast hoolikat planeerimist ja andmete kogumist 1939. aasta viimase kuue kuu jooksul hakkasid Saksa arstid mõrvama kogu Saksamaa asutuste puuetega elanikke operatsiooniga, mida nad eufemistiliselt nimetasid "eutanaasiaks".

Natside rassi teooriate kohaselt olid sakslased ja teised põhja -eurooplased "aarialased", kõrgem rass. Teise maailmasõja ajal viisid natside arstid läbi võltsitud meditsiinilisi katseid, et tuvastada füüsilisi tõendeid aaria paremuse ja mitteaaria alaväärsuse kohta. Vaatamata sellele, et nende katsete käigus tapeti lugematuid mitteaaria vange, ei suutnud natsid leida tõendeid oma teooriate kohta inimeste bioloogilistest rassilistest erinevustest.

Olles võimule saanud, rakendasid natsid rassiseadusi ja -poliitikat, mis jätsid juudid, mustanahalised ja mustlased (mustlased) nende õigustest ilma. Teise maailmasõja ajal asus natside juhtkond Poola ja Nõukogude Liidu okupeeritud idapiirkondades "etnilise maja koristamise" alla. See poliitika hõlmas nn vaenlase "rasside" tapmist ja hävitamist, sealhulgas Euroopa juutide genotsiidi ja slaavi rahvaste juhtkonna hävitamist.


Natsipartei programm

Veebruaris 1920 esitas Hitler natsipartei koosolekule 25-punktilise programmi (natsipartei platvorm).

25-punktilises programmis teatasid natsipartei liikmed avalikult oma kavatsusest eraldada juudid "aaria" ühiskonnast ning tühistada juutide poliitilised, seaduslikud ja kodanikuõigused. Näiteks programmi punktis 4 oli kirjas, et

"Kodanik võib olla ainult rahvuslik seltsimees. Kodanik võib olla ainult saksa verest sõltumata usust. Seetõttu ei saa ükski juut olla kodanik."

25 punkti jäid erakonna ametlikuks eesmärkide avalduseks, kuigi hilisematel aastatel jäeti paljud punktid tähelepanuta.


Hitler nägi Hiinat ja Jaapanit Saksamaaga võrdsetena ning kirjutas isegi imetlevalt: “Ma tunnistan vabalt, et nende ajalugu on meie omast parem ”

Pärast natside võimuletulekut andis Adolf Hitler selgelt mõista, et peab Versailles 'lepingut Saksamaa suhtes ebaõiglaseks ja see tuleb üle vaadata.

28. juunil 1919 allkirjastatud Versailles 'lepingul oli viis põhipunkti:

  • Saksamaa pidi leppima sõja alustamisega.
  • Saksa armee piirdus 100 000 mehega ning neil ei tohtinud olla allveelaevu ega lennuväge.
  • Saksamaa pidi tekitatud kahju eest hüvitama.
  • Saksamaa kaotas 13% oma territooriumist ja selle kolooniad anti Prantsusmaale või Suurbritanniale.
  • Saksamaal ei lubatud Rahvasteliitu astuda.

Meeleavaldus lepingu vastu Reichstagi ees

Ameerika kaasaegne vaade Saksamaa Esimese maailmasõja reparatsioonidele. Poliitiline koomiks, 1921

Hitler tundis, et leping oli ebaõiglane ja paljud sakslased jagasid tema arvamust, seega oli tema esmane eesmärk see hävitada ja muuta Saksamaa taas tugevaks, hegemooniliseks jõuks Euroopas. Ta ütles, et Saksa rahvas vajab rohkem Lebensraum (‘elamispind ’) ja ainus võimalus seda pakkuda oli laienemine Poola, Austra, Tšehhoslovakkia poole.

Pärast lepingut elasid paljud sakslased välisriikides, nii et ta oli otsustanud ühendada kõik saksakeelsed inimesed ühte riiki. Ta süüdistas ka kommunismi Saksamaa kaotuses Esimeses maailmasõjas, nii et tema plaan hõlmas Nõukogude Liidu lüüasaamist ja kommunismi hävitamist.

Saksa Lebensraumi natside loomine nõudis poolakate väljasaatmist Poolast, näiteks väljasaatmist Reichsgau Warthelandist 1939. aastal.

Suur -Germaani Reichil, mida realiseeriti Lebensraumi poliitikaga, olid piirid, mis tulenesid Generalplan Ost'i, riigivalitsuse ja Schutzstaffeli (SS) fotokrediidi plaanidest.

Hitler alustas Saksamaa välispoliitikat väga ettevaatlikult, taandudes desarmeerimiskonverentsist ja Rahvasteliidust. Ta väitis, et Saksamaa soovib ainult rahu ja desarmeerib, kui teised riigid nõustuvad seda tegema.

1934. aastal Poolaga kümneaastase mittekallaletungilepingu sõlmimine muutis ta kahjutuks teiste Euroopa riikide silmis, kes olid mures Saksamaa uue valitsuse ja selle poliitika pärast. Samal aastal üritasid Austria ja Saksa natsid koos riigipööret, kuid ebaõnnestusid tänu Mussolinile, kes hoiatas sakslasi.

Reinimaa okupeerimine pärast sõda, punktiirjoon näitab demilitariseeritud tsooni ulatust

Tema välispoliitika tõi talle populaarsuse saksa rahva seas, nii et tema edust innustatuna otsustas Hitler mängida hasartmänge, saates väed Reinimaa demilitariseeritud tsooni. 30 000 kergelt relvastatud Saksa sõdurit okupeeris Reinimaa ja keegi ei julgenud neid peatada.

Hitler teadis, et riskib kõigega, saates oma 30 000 sõdurit Reinimaale, ja ütles: “Neljakümne kaheksa tundi pärast Reinimaale marssimist olid minu elus kõige närvesöövamad. Kui prantslased oleksid marssinud Reinimaale, oleksime pidanud saba jalgade vahel tagasi tõmbuma, sest meie käsutuses olevad sõjalised ressursid oleksid isegi mõõduka vastupanu jaoks täiesti ebapiisavad. ”

Goebbels, Hitler ja von Blomberg Photo Credit

Liit, tuntud kui Rooma-Berliini telg, mille Mussolini ja Hitler allkirjastasid 1936. aastal, kindlustas Saksamaa ja#8217 positsiooni. Natsi-Saksamaa välispoliitika läks sammu kaugemale, kui 1937. aastal sõlmisid Saksamaa ja Itaalia Jaapanis Kominterni-vastase pakti ning Hitler tugevdas oma positsiooni veelgi.

Hitler oli kinnisideeks ‘ rassilise puhtuse, ajaloo ’ ja ta kujundas isegi Saksamaa välispoliitikat natside rassilise ideoloogia järgi.

Ta uskus, et Saksa “Aryan ” rassi ähvardasid loomupäraselt halvemad rassid: juudid, romad, aafriklased ja slaavlased.

Saksamaa ja#8217ndate füürer Adolf Hitler (paremal) Itaalia kõrval ja#8217s Duce Benito Mussolini (vasakul)

Saksamaa välispoliitika üks huvitavamaid aspekte oli majanduslikud ja sõjalised suhted Hiina ja Jaapaniga. Hitler nägi Hiinat ja Jaapanit Saksamaaga võrdsena ning lõi tugevad majandussidemed nende riikidega, eriti Hiinaga. Hiinlasi ja jaapanlasi peeti auväärseteks aarialasteks ja#8221 Adolf Hitleri poliitiline testament, ta kirjutas:

H. H. Kung ja Adolf Hitler Berliinis

“Uhkus ühel võistlusel - mis ei tähenda põlgust teiste võistluste vastu - on samuti normaalne ja tervislik meeleolu. Ma pole kunagi pidanud hiinlasi ega jaapanlasi endast halvemaks. Nad kuuluvad iidsetesse tsivilisatsioonidesse ja ma tunnistan vabalt, et nende ajalugu on meie omast parem.

Neil on õigus olla uhked oma mineviku üle, nii nagu meil on õigus olla uhked selle tsivilisatsiooni üle, kuhu me kuulume. Tõepoolest, ma usun, et mida kindlamad on hiinlased ja jaapanlased oma rassi uhkuses, seda lihtsam on mul nendega hakkama saada. ”

Hitlerjugendi delegatsioon külastab 1938. aastal mitu kuud kestnud sõprusreisi ajal Tokyos asuvat Meiji pühamu.

“Head sõbrad kolmes riigis ”: Jaapani propaganda plakat aastast 1938, edendades Jaapani, Saksamaa ja Itaalia koostööd

Lõpuks pidid Hitleri kaks lemmikpartnerit Kaug -Idas lahkuma ja Fuhrer oli sunnitud valima poole.

See pidi olema raske otsus, kuna Saksamaal olid Hiinaga sügavamad majanduslikud ja sõjalised suhted, kuid teisest küljest olid jaapanlased sõjaliselt paremad. Ta tegi otsuse ja valis Jaapani.

Jaapani saatkond Berliinis, mis oli kaetud kolmepoolse pakti kolme allakirjutanu bänneritega septembris 1940 Photo Credit

Tema suurim poliitiline ja sõjaline edu oli aga Anschluss koos Austriaga 1938. aastal. See sündmus paljastas Suurbritannia ja Prantsusmaa nõrkuse, kes olid vaid pealtvaatajad ja ei teinud muud kui protesti.

“ Austrias 1938 ” ületab Hitler Austria piiri 1938. aasta märtsis Photo Credit

Hitler kuulutab Anschlussi Viini Heldenplatzi väljakul, 15. märtsil 1938

Innustatuna oma edust Austrias keskendus Hitler saksakeelsele Sudeedimaale ja 1938. aastal kirjutas ta alla Müncheni lepingule ning Sudeedimaa sai osa kolmandast riigist.

Ta rikkus lepingut 1939. aastal ja tungis ülejäänud Tšehhoslovakkiasse.

Pärast tippkohtumist naasis Suurbritannia peaminister Chamberlain Ühendkuningriiki, kus ta teatas, et Müncheni kokkulepe tähendab meie aja jaoks rahu ”

Üks tema suurimaid edusamme välispoliitika valdkonnas oli 1939. aastal allkirjastatud mittekallaletungileping NSV Liiduga.

Nad leppisid kokku, et ei ründa üksteist ega liitu ühegi teise vastu liiduga. Pärast mittekallaletungilepingu allkirjastamist julgustati Hitlerit veelgi enam Poolat ründama ja 1. septembril 1939 sisenesid Saksa väed Poolasse. Kaks päeva hiljem algas Teine maailmasõda.


Natside rassiline hierarhia

Natsi -Saksamaa kehtestas natside rassilise hierarhia, mis järgib teatavaid reegleid ja põhimõtteid. Paljud natsismiteooriad on loodud natside poolt, et moodustada hierarhia, mis jagab inimesi erinevates kogukondades ja mida koheldakse vastavalt nende kogukonna staatusele. Teaduslik legitiimsus on natside rassilise hierarhia alus. Rassilise puhtuse ja hügieeni tagamiseks kasutati vajalikku steriliseerimist.

Natside hierarhia kohaselt oli inimkond jaotatud paljude sektorite vahel, mis põhinesid aaria rassil. Teatavasti oli meistersõit parem võistlus ja sellele järgnes Põhjamaade võistlus ning hierarhia jätkub teiste allesjäänud aariajooksudega. Nad koostasid kursuste komplekti koos konkreetse poliitikaga, mis olid suunatud inimestele, kellel on rassilise hierarhia positsioon madalal positsioonil. Nende hulka kuuluvad juudid, mustlased ja puuetega inimeste mass.

Meistrivõistlusi tunti Herrelvolkina ja neid peeti natside rassihierarhia kõige sotsiaalsemateks inimesteks, samas kui juute peeti hierarhia madalaima astme inimesteks. Seal oli mõned vahevõistlused nagu Volksgemeinschaft, venelased, romid ja värvilised isikud.

Võistlust eristasid tüüpilised aarialased ja mitteaarialased. Aaria meistrivõistlused hõlmavad selliseid masse nagu sakslased, hollandlased, skandinaavlased, prantslased ja inglased, samas kui mitte-aaria rassi kuuluvad horvaadid, tšehhid, venelased, poolakad, serblased ja ukrainlased. Neid nimetati slaavlasteks, keda peeti korrumpeerunud inimesteks. Natside ideoloogia muutus slaavlaste poole, kui nad vajasid sõjalisi jõude ja neil jäi kuidagi valikuks vaid võimalus ning see oli slaavlaste määramine oma armee vägedesse. Samuti iseloomustasid nad inimesi valge või musta värvi järgi. Kõik valged inimesed, välja arvatud need, kellel olid juudi esivanemad, valetasid aarialaste kategooriasse, samas kui kõiki teisi peeti slaavlasteks.

Natside kasutatavad viisid iidse juudi rahva kõrvaldamiseks olid väga jõhkrad, nagu steriliseerimine, tagakiusamine, vangistamine, meditsiinilised katsed ja jõhkrus.

Tutvustati Põhjamaade teooriat, mida kasutati rahva seas ja millest sai strateegia Saksamaa valitsemiseks. Kuid natside ideoloogiad muutusid aja jooksul, kui natsiparteisse tulid uued liikmed, kes olid sihikindlad ja kehtestasid poliitika natside hüvanguks koos teiste inimestega, keda ei koheldud nõuetekohaselt ja seega saavutati kõrgem positsioon. võimupositsioonid erakonnas.

Sakslastest sakslased, keda tuntakse põhjamaa sakslastena, on natside rassihierarhias kõige kõrgemal positsioonil, samas kui tüüpilised aarialased ja väljastpoolt pärit sakslased, keda tuntakse aktiivsete etniliste rassisakslastena, kuulusid 1. ja 2. kategooriasse. Passiivsed sakslased, st need inimesed, kes ei ole Saksamaalt, puudega ja mürarikkaid kurjategijaid eristati 3. ja 4. kategooria järgi. Teised, kes olid tihedalt seotud sakslaste, itaallaste ja hispaanlastega, kuulusid samuti 1. ja 2. kategooriasse. Selle liigituse tõttu on paljud madala tasemega inimesed vastavalt Hierarhia tabati natside ohvritena.


Dr Seuss joonistab Teise maailmasõja ajal Jaapani-vastaseid karikatuure, seejärel lepib Horton kuuleb keda!

Enne kui Theodor Seuss Geisel AKA dr Seuss veenis põlvkondi lapsi, et tasku võib lihtsalt taskus olla, oli ta New Yorgi ajalehe peatoimetaja. PM 1940–1948. Oma ametiajal lõi ta välja umbes 400 multifilmi, milles muu hulgas kiideti FDRi poliitikat, peletati isolatsioniste nagu Charles Lindbergh ja toetati mustanahaliste ja juutide kodanikuõigusi. Samuti toetas ta kindlalt Ameerika sõjapüüdlusi.

Sel eesmärgil joonistas dr Seuss palju karikatuure, mis tänapäeva silmis on hingematvalt rassistlikud. Vaadake ülaltoodud koomiksit. Sellel on kujutatud üleoleva välimusega Hitlerit jaapanlase tüübist pärit sigade ja kaldus silmadega karikatuuri kõrval. Pilt pole tegelikult sarnane ühegi Jaapani sõjategevuse eest vastutava mehe - keiser Hirohito ja kindral Tojoga. Selle asemel on see lihtsalt rahva kole esitus.

Võitluses kodumaa moraali eest kujutasid Ameerika propaganda tegijad Saksamaad hoopis teises valguses kui Jaapan. Saksamaad peeti hulluks läinud suureks riigiks. Natsid võisid olla kurjad, kuid heal sakslasel oli veel ruumi. Jaapanit kujutati seevastu täielikult jõhkra monoliidina Hirohitona ja mees tänaval oli ühtviisi kuri. Selline mõtlemine sillutas teed USA õhujõudude tulistamisele Tokyos, kus hukkus üle 100 000 tsiviilisiku, ning Hiroshima ja Nagasaki tuumapommitamisele. Ja see pani kindlasti aluse Ameerika 20. sajandi ajaloo ühele kurvemale peatükile, Jaapani-ameeriklaste põhiseadusevastasele vangistusele.

Geisel ise oli sõja ajal häälekalt Jaapani-vastane ja tal polnud probleeme kogu USA kodanike koondamisega ja nende laagritesse paigutamisega.

Aga praegu, kui jaapanid meie koljule luugid istutavad, tundub meile kuradima aeg naeratada ja vehkida: "Vennad!" See on üsna lõtv lahingukisa. Kui tahame võita, peame tapma jaapsid, olenemata sellest, kas see masendab John Haynes Holmesi või mitte. Pärast seda võime halvatuks muutuda allesjäänud inimestega.

Geisel ei olnud selliste uskumustega vaevalt üksi, kuid siiski on masendav näha selliseid koledaid multikaid, mis on joonistatud samasse kätte nagu The Kass mütsis.

1953. aastal külastas Geisel Jaapanit, kus ta kohtus ja rääkis rahvaga ning oli tunnistajaks Hiroshima pommitamise kohutavatele tagajärgedele. Peagi hakkas ta Jaapani-vastast raevukust ümber mõtlema. Nii et ta vabandas ainuüksi dr Seussil.

Ta kirjutas lasteraamatu.

Horton kuuleb keda!, avaldatud 1954. aastal, räägib elevandist, kes peab kaitsma pisikeste pisikeste inimeste asustatud tolmukilu. Raamatu lootusrikas ja kõikehõlmav refrään - "Inimene on inimene, ükskõik kui väike" — on umbes nii kaugel, kui saad tema võhiklikest sõnadest jaapanlaste kohta kümme aastat tagasi. Ta pühendas raamatu isegi „Minu suurele sõbrale, Jaapani Kyoto Mitsugi Nakamurale”.

Seotud sisu:

Jonathan Crow on Los Angeleses elav kirjanik ja filmitegija, kelle tööd on ilmunud Yahoo !, The Hollywood Reporteris ja teistes väljaannetes. Saate teda jälgida aadressil @jonccrow. Ja vaadake tema ajaveebi Veeptopus, kus on iga päev üks uus joonis asepresidendist kaheksajalgadega peas.

Loodame loota lojaalsetele lugejatele, mitte ekslikele reklaamidele. Avatud kultuuri jätkuva tegevuse toetamiseks kaaluge annetuse tegemist. Täname teid! />

Kommentaarid (40)

Walt Disney ka! Halvad, halvad mehed, kes demoniseerisid inimesi, kes tahtsid ainult teisi inimesi tappa, ja tegid! See artikkel oli halva maitsega ning autor ja toimetajad näitavad teismeliste arusaamist II maailmasõjast ja sellest, kuidas maailm toimib. Järgmine: Kuidas Bugs Bunny vedamisel aitas kujundada põlvkonna homofoobiat.

Asjaolu, et Jaapan üritas Ameerikat vägistada ja rüüstada, ei anna meile õigust vangi panna oma Jaapani päritolu kodanikke. Mis puutub Disney'i, siis ta oli suurepärane karikaturist ja tal oli inimesena palju häid omadusi, kuid ta oli ka rassistlik SOB. ta on väga antisemiitlik ja minu teada ei ole nad kunagi proovinud meid pommitada

Mitte järjekordne eksitus, kuid ma lasen sellel minna. Ford oli natside poolehoidja, samuti Bush ja Kennedy. LBJ oli nii rassistlik kui nad arvavad: „nigrid ** hääletavad järgmise 200 aasta jooksul demokraatide poolt” ja FDR -i otsus jaapanlasi II maailmasõja ajal internida oli õige üleskutse. nSee on tõeline f ’ing maailm, mu poiss. Teie isa ei teadnud ka, nii et ma arvan, et saate passi, kuid saate teada, kas te olete alla 30 -aastane. Kui olete ameeriklane (võib -olla), siis saate parem oma jama õige pea kokku ja lõpetage kogu see lapselik tundlik õrn jama.

Olen 47 -aastane oma poiss ja tean väga hästi, kuidas maailm toimib. Jaapanlased interneeriti, et nende ahned naabrid saaksid endale kuuluva esmase vara. Ma olen tõesti ebakindel, kuidas reageerida ülejäänud teie ebamäärasele ja mõttetule lobisemisele, nii et ma jätan selle sinnapaika.

Jah, see on üsna vana, et riputada vasakpoolsete pekstud vanade kangide ja võistlussöötjate valede küljes. Ülejäänud jäid vahele, sest tahtsid. Ma eeldan, et sa oled piisavalt tark, et ära tunda oma rumalust, mis sulle tagasi lükati. Vean kihla, et LBJ oli teie kangelane. Vabandust selle pärast.

tõsiselt? LBJ tegi korralikke asju peaaegu endale vaatamata, kuid ta pole kindlasti minu kangelane. Kui te nimetate mind vasakpoolseks, peab see tähendama kõiki Reagani paremal, kuid Lyndon Larouche'ist vasakul. Sa pead olema klannirallil lõbus

Walt Disney ka! Halvad, halvad mehed, kes demoniseerisid inimesi, kes tahtsid ainult teisi inimesi tappa, ja tegid! See artikkel oli halva maitsega ning autor ja toimetajad näitavad teismeliste arusaamist II maailmasõjast ja sellest, kuidas maailm toimib. Järgmine: Kuidas Bugs Bunny vedamisel aitas kujundada põlvkonna homofoobiat.

Ogden Nashn nnJaapanlased (1938) n nnKui viisakas on jaapanlane Ta ütleb alati: u201cVabandage palun. Ja kutsub oma näljast perekonda innniks Ta naeratab ja kummardab sõbralikku uunikat Nii kahju, see on nüüd minu aed. U201d

Inimese käitumine on vaenlase demoniseerimine sõja ajal. Kas jaapanlaste iseloomustused olid täpsed või õiglased? Muidugi mitte, kuid ameeriklased võitlesid rahvaga, kes oli otsustanud proovida valitseda suurt osa maailmast ja emotsionaalne reaktsioon viis selliste piltideni.

Me ainult (teeskleme), et solvume selle peale, sest võitsime sõja.

Palju õnne dr Seussile, et ta oli uuele arusaamisele avatud ja heastas.

"Pilt pole tegelikult sarnane kummagi Jaapani sõjategevuse eest vastutanud mehega keiser Hirohito ja kindral Tojo. Selle asemel on see lihtsalt rahva kole esitus. ” Noh, eksides mõlemas osas, näeb see tõesti välja nagu Hitler ja Tojo [millegipärast lisas autor Hirohito, kuigi ta pole koomiksis, ja Hitler (nagu ta eelmises lauses mainis, on – aga hei, miks muuta?)] ja on midagi AGA üldist. Lihtsalt sellepärast, et proovite punkti lükata, ei saa reaalsust vastavalt oma eelistustele muuta.

Nii naljakas on lugeda ajakirjanike moraalset pahameelt, mida Teise maailmasõja õudustest eraldas 70 aastat. Võib -olla peaksite küsitlema Bataani surmamarssi läbinud II maailmasõja loomaarste, kes olid jaapanlaste, hiinlaste ja filipiinlaste sõjavangid, kes kannatasid Jaapani okupatsiooni all sama palju kui juudid natside ajal. need iseloomustused on.

Mul on Steve ja sul on VÄGA õigus. Ka jaapanlased olid Teise maailmasõja ajal PALJU rassistlikumad kui meie kunagi varem!

Mäletan, et müüsin 1946. aasta esimeses klassis sõjavõlakirju ... maailm oli just lõpetanud peatüki, mida tuntakse igavesti II maailmasõjana. Olin hiljuti oma perega Indianapolis asuvasse Union Stationisse saatnud, kus ootasime rongi, mis viis mu onu koju. 8230 Mäletan, et kuulsin esimest korda oma ema, tädide ja vanavanemate karjumist, kes märkasid teda tulemas, enne kui nägin täiskasvanute kohal. Ta oli paigutatud Vaikse ookeani piirkonnas lennukite remondikandjale. Ta rääkis meile laevakaaslasest, kes oli tekipüstolil ja kes hukkus, kui Jaapani lennuk laevateki lähedal alla kukkus. Ma ei tea midagi sõja põhjustest ja vähem inimestest, kes olid põhjuste taga. Õppisin varakult lugema ja mõne aasta pärast oli mu pere soetanud raamatute sarja, mis rääkisid sõjast ja avaldasid minu arvates Collier ’s …. Raamatutes oli palju fotosid, mida sõjakorrespondendid ja teised olid teinud foto oli kustumatult minu meelest sööbinud ja#8230a lihav beebi, nägu pisaratest märg, suu lai, nutt. Üksinda istus beebi rusude ja eimillegi keskel, mis oli tagajärg Hiroshima aatomipommile ja tuumapommile, mille minu riik oli lasknud tuhandete tsiviilisikute ja meeste, naiste ja laste peale. Häving oli käegakatsutav. Aastate möödudes olen olnud tunnistajaks uskumatule hävingule ja tapmisele, mida mehed üle kogu maailma suudavad oma kaasinimeste peale sadada.#8230 Ma tean, et religioon mängib väga suurt rolli selles, kui aktiivselt kultuur aktsepteerib agressorit. nende naabrid. On selge, et praegu on kolm, mis õigustavad igasugust vägivalda, mille nende järgijad otsustavad algatada. Iroonia on selles, et need kolm on tegelikult üks madu, kellel on kolm pead - judaism, kristlus ja islam. Praegu peetakse islamit kõige vägivaldsemaks..aga see on tõesti kõige toorem. Ülejäänud kaks suudavad oma tegusid paremini sanitaariks muuta, muutes nad vähem tunduvaks ‘barbaric ’ … Vanaemad keerutasid kana pea otsast, keerates kaela enne sulgedest puhastamist ja#8230 liigutamist. protsessi kaudu, mis pani selle tarbimiseks lauale. We are “civilized” now …we let the process be done in an even less humane way (grandmother’s chickens had a relatively good life prior to the fateful moment). Today’s process, sanitized for our sensibilities, is horrific and brutal..and the life of the chickens are worse than the death that awaits them. We, who select the well packaged, clean and ready for pot offering in the meat department of the supermarket ..convince ourselves that we are not barbaric..that we are more civilized. War is like that. We have learned how to do our killing away from our backyards…out of sight…so that we do not lose a beat in our daily lives. We are disturbed when we are reminded by a legless young man in a wheelchair…or one who has just taken their own life out of total desperation.. We do no good or provide no hope for the future by living in denial and claiming that we are the ‘good’ guys and the other people are the ‘bad’ ones. The three Abrahamic beliefs are constructs of men..and are easily manipulated to fit whatever is desired to be qualified and validated as ‘acceptable’… There is no ‘good’ belief.. There are humans who are humane and compassionate and do not rely on the adage, ‘well they did it’, or, ‘they are worse’… rather they rely on their own inner compass that seeks to find the good apples in the barrel …and even when there is a bad one, do not throw the others out with it. We will only survive on this planet if we can contain and manage our primal instincts…as hairless apes..chimpanzees who are warlike by nature …Religions are double edged swords …Kali…”goddess” who is at one…the good and the bad..destroyer…restorer.. If we need myths, we should choose the ones that are more honest about their worth…and not the ones that give total control over all…with a disclaimer in the fine print.. (can do these things under certain circumstances ..no refunds given)

Well, how many US citizens didn’t hold racist views of the Japanese at the time? Just watch cartoons from the era: they contain some of the nastiest depictions of the Japanese (and they weren’t much better when it came to other non-white ethnicities).

Dr. Seuss deserves credit for having a change of heart later on. It’s too bad that the US went on to have politicians like Strom Thurmond, Jesse Helms, Trent Lott, Jan Brewer, Dov Hikind, not to mention entertainers like Mel “the Jews started all the wars” Gibson.

The racial venom in the cartoons is inexcusable, regardless of the war context. Same things goes for the cartoons he drew mocking Africans and black Americans. Mr. Geisel/Seuss deserves his kudos for his children’s books, but these early works cannot be simply erased, and they are not above critique just because he is a “beloved” children’s book author.

His earlier work is deplorable. But he turned it around and isn’t that what we want from people who espouse racist views? We want them to change? And instead of applauding that, I’m reading comments making excuses for the earlier work and saying “Well, THEY were more racist than US, so there!” It’s just silly. The point of the article was to show people can change, and Dr. Seuss did, for the better, for which I am grateful. We as a society should be able to forgive someone who made amends.

I’ve kept this tab open for hours just to keep coming back to this excellent comment. Well-stated.

I totally agreeAmerica is not honoring it mantra its doing the exact oppisite. How dare we tell the world such a bold face lie. Look how MEAN we are to each other…. The World is watching The youths are saying you guy’s are effed up!

Blah blah blah. The Japanese Internment was spearheaded by racism and hysteria brought on by the attack on Pearl Harbor. It was a shameful chapter of American history in blatant violation of the laws that govern the United States. To say otherwise at this late date with decades of hindsight to examine the situation is the pathetic delusions of a racist hiding in their own little warped version of history. If I-Right-I insists on living with that view, that’s his (or her) decision. But it isn’t the writers or editors demonstrating a foolish understanding of WW2 or how the real world works.

You are absolutely right Steve. It is disturbing how our Country shoves the crimes of the Japanese against humanity under the carpet to fund our own Agenda against China and Russia by using the Japanese and South Koreans as a pawn.

THREE WORDS, The Niihau Incident.
I just explained the whole incident, but the page didn’t save it, I don’t think, so type “Niihau Incident” in your search engine. You’ll only have to read a small amount of it to understand why there was fear for a “Fifth Column.”
This event, in my opinion, not only makes the drawing of the “Honorable Fifth Column” painting very appropriate, but accurate as well.
War had not even been declared yet, it was the attack on Pearl Harbor when an Imperial Japanese Pilot crashed on Niihau Island in Hawaii, where is was held by Native Hawaiians. Only 3 Japanese-American people lived on the island. One born in Japan, Ishimatsu Shintani, and two who were Hawaiian born Japanese Americans, Yoshio and Irene Harada. All 3 immediately started to help him escape. Shintani tried via bribery, when that failed Yoshio resorted to violence, even shooting his neighbor of years, 3 times then killing himself when the pilot was killed attempting to shoot his way out.

The rapid decision to help Japan despite no sign of being loyalty to them, was a major factor in the decision for internment camps, if it wasn’t the main one. 2 even being born citizens.

The greatest generation? What a pile of garbage.

Only people with COMPLETE IGNORANCE of Japan in the late 20’s til The Bombs could masked the statement Suess was racist.

Japanese committed MULTIPLE genocides of complete cultures…

Tortured, raped and annihilated the human race all across Asia committing attrocitirs they were PROUD of. YouTube Rape of Nanking if google hasn’t already wiped out their own records of their crimes against the world.

If you aren’t familiar with the Hawaiian website site that catalogs genocide, you need to look for it.

Estimates range from 8-12 MILLION people wiped off the face of the earth by the Japanese.

It wasn’t about oil or the islands physical needs. Murdering possibly 12 million people, doing unspeakable acts before killing them was an ideology of one of the most xenophobic people on earth.

NEVER HAS ANYONE CRITICIZED A CHARICATURE OF HITLER.

The Japanese raped, mutilated, tortured and killed ALMOST TWICE the number of human beings for racist reasons than Hitler did.

Context is so important in this debate. No one in any of the Allied countries who lived through WWII would point a finger of shame at the anti-Axis propaganda cartoons of the time. Those who were not “there” should be careful how they weigh in with their sanctimonious opinions.

During WWII, the Japanese Army occupied Guam & Saipan Islands with brutality that would make ISIS of today proud.
I lived on Guam in 1970’s. A native Chamorro woman who survived the WWII horror described one event:

“I the Japanese took several women from our village, and a few young girls including me. We were marched into a cave, and told to wait.

A grenade was thrown into the cave and blew up. Some were hit, the women shielded us girls. Then bullets came in, and more grenades.

The bodies fell on top of me. Japanese came into the cave, stabbing the bodies, missing me on the bottom of the pile.

I waited for them to leave, then pulled myself free from the bodies. I went back to my village to report the deaths of the others. I was 6 years old.” (Mrs. Rosa Garrido)

Guam Liberation Day (1941) is still celebrated, though most of that generation has now passed.

Google Japanese Hell Ships also.

The two Atomic bombs dropped at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were effective to stop the fanatic madness of the Japanese war machine, we cannot be sorry for that, they just would not give up, ever.

What a shame, the Japanese farmers in California had made great strides in “truck crops” and were respected. After WWII, many families did lose valuable farm land.

No-one is born racist– “You’ve got to be taught to hate and fear,” as the song from “South Pacific” says. Look at nearly any culture in history and you’ll find evidence of racism, bigotry, even genocide, because people are people and sometimes our fears of ‘the other’ are irrational and we can find all kinds of reasons for justifying treating them badly.

We can unlearn our hatreds and fears but we have first of all to recognize how irrational they are. We have to stop dehumanizing people whose cultures we don’t understand and teach children what Dr. Seuss taught: “A person’s a person no matter how small.”


Damage Control

Public domain Ford assembly line workers in Highland Park, Michigan. 1913.

A lawsuit brought by San Francisco Lawyer and farm organizer Aaron Sapiro led Ford to close The Dearborn Independent in December 1927.

Ford wrote a letter to the Anti-Defamation League on January 7, 1942, attempting to clarify his earlier remarks and writings. He concluded the message with “My sincere hope that now in this country and throughout the world when the war is finished, hatred of the Jews and hatred against any other racial or religious groups shall cease for all time.”

Privately, though, Ford’s anti-semitic views remained intact.

Henry Ford died at home in 1947. His son, Edsel died in 1943 from gastric cancer. As a result, the Ford Motor Corporation was passed to Henry Ford II, who did his best to repair its reputation throughout the 1950s.

Unquestionably, Henry Ford was a great industrialist and a revolutionary businessman. However, those attributes remain overshadowed by the depth of his bigotry, a sad footnote in the annals of American history.

After this look at Henry Ford and his ties to anti-semitism and Nazism, check out this article about Hermann Göring, the second-most powerful man in Nazi Germany. Then, take a look at the story of the Nuremberg Trials, when the world tried to bring the Nazis to justice – and failed.


Women in the Resistance

Women played an important role in various resistance activities. This was especially the case for women who were involved in Socialist, Communist, or Zionist youth movements. In Poland, women served as couriers who brought information to the ghettos. Many women escaped to the forests of eastern Poland and the Soviet Union and served in armed partisan units. Women played an important role in the French (and French-Jewish) resistance. Sophie Scholl, a student at the University of Munich and a member of the White Rose resistance group, was arrested and executed in February 1943 for handing out anti-Nazi leaflets.

Some women were leaders or members of ghetto resistance organizations. Among them was Haika Grosman in Bialystok. Others engaged in resistance inside the concentration camps. In Auschwitz I, five Jewish women deployed at the Vistula-Union-Metal Works detachment—Ala Gertner, Regina Safirsztajn (aka Safir), Ester Wajcblum, Roza Robota, and one unidentified woman, possibly Fejga Segal—had supplied the gunpowder that members of the Jewish Sonderkommando (Special Detachment) at Auschwitz-Birkenau used to blow up a gas chamber and kill several SS men during the uprising in October 1944.

Other women were active in the aid and rescue operations of the Jews in German-occupied Europe. Among them were Jewish parachutist Hannah Szenes and Zionist activist Gisi Fleischmann. Szenes parachuted into Hungary in 1944. Fleischmann, the leader of the Working Group (Pracovna Skupina) operating within the framework of the Jewish council in Bratislava, attempted to halt the deportations of Jews from Slovakia.


The Horrifying American Roots of Nazi Eugenics


But the concept of a white, blond-haired, blue-eyed master Nordic race didn't originate with Hitler. The idea was created in the United States, and cultivated in California, decades before Hitler came to power. California eugenicists played an important, although little known, role in the American eugenics movement's campaign for ethnic cleansing.

Eugenics was the racist pseudoscience determined to wipe away all human beings deemed "unfit," preserving only those who conformed to a Nordic stereotype. Elements of the philosophy were enshrined as national policy by forced sterilization and segregation laws, as well as marriage restrictions, enacted in twenty-seven states. In 1909, California became the third state to adopt such laws. Ultimately, eugenics practitioners coercively sterilized some 60,000 Americans, barred the marriage of thousands, forcibly segregated thousands in "colonies," and persecuted untold numbers in ways we are just learning. Before World War II, nearly half of coercive sterilizations were done in California, and even after the war, the state accounted for a third of all such surgeries.

California was considered an epicenter of the American eugenics movement. During the Twentieth Century's first decades, California's eugenicists included potent but little known race scientists, such as Army venereal disease specialist Dr. Paul Popenoe, citrus magnate and Polytechnic benefactor Paul Gosney, Sacramento banker Charles M. Goethe, as well as members of the California State Board of Charities and Corrections and the University of California Board of Regents.

Eugenics would have been so much bizarre parlor talk had it not been for extensive financing by corporate philanthropies, specifically the Carnegie Institution, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Harriman railroad fortune. They were all in league with some of America's most respected scientists hailing from such prestigious universities as Stamford, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton. These academicians espoused race theory and race science, and then faked and twisted data to serve eugenics' racist aims.

Stanford president David Starr Jordan originated the notion of "race and blood" in his 1902 racial epistle "Blood of a Nation," in which the university scholar declared that human qualities and conditions such as talent and poverty were passed through the blood.

In 1904, the Carnegie Institution established a laboratory complex at Cold Spring Harbor on Long Island that stockpiled millions of index cards on ordinary Americans, as researchers carefully plotted the removal of families, bloodlines and whole peoples. From Cold Spring Harbor, eugenics advocates agitated in the legislatures of America, as well as the nation's social service agencies and associations.

The Harriman railroad fortune paid local charities, such as the New York Bureau of Industries and Immigration, to seek out Jewish, Italian and other immigrants in New York and other crowded cities and subject them to deportation, trumped up confinement or forced sterilization.

The Rockefeller Foundation helped found the German eugenics program and even funded the program that Josef Mengele worked in before he went to Auschwitz.

Much of the spiritual guidance and political agitation for the American eugenics movement came from California's quasi-autonomous eugenic societies, such as the Pasadena-based Human Betterment Foundation and the California branch of the American Eugenics Society, which coordinated much of their activity with the Eugenics Research Society in Long Island. These organizations--which functioned as part of a closely-knit network--published racist eugenic newsletters and pseudoscientific journals, such as Eugenical News ja Eugenics, and propagandized for the Nazis.

Eugenics was born as a scientific curiosity in the Victorian age. In 1863, Sir Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Darwin, theorized that if talented people only married other talented people, the result would be measurably better offspring. At the turn of the last century, Galton's ideas were imported into the United States just as Gregor Mendel's principles of heredity were rediscovered. American eugenic advocates believed with religious fervor that the same Mendelian concepts determining the color and size of peas, corn and cattle also governed the social and intellectual character of man.

In an America demographically reeling from immigration upheaval and torn by post-Reconstruction chaos, race conflict was everywhere in the early twentieth century. Elitists, utopians and so-called "progressives" fused their smoldering race fears and class bias with their desire to make a better world. They reinvented Galton's eugenics into a repressive and racist ideology. The intent: populate the earth with vastly more of their own socio-economic and biological kind--and less or none of everyone else.

The superior species the eugenics movement sought was populated not merely by tall, strong, talented people. Eugenicists craved blond, blue-eyed Nordic types. This group alone, they believed, was fit to inherit the earth. In the process, the movement intended to subtract emancipated Negroes, immigrant Asian laborers, Indians, Hispanics, East Europeans, Jews, dark-haired hill folk, poor people, the infirm and really anyone classified outside the gentrified genetic lines drawn up by American raceologists.

Kuidas? By identifying so-called "defective" family trees and subjecting them to lifelong segregation and sterilization programs to kill their bloodlines. The grand plan was to literally wipe away the reproductive capability of those deemed weak and inferior--the so-called "unfit." The eugenicists hoped to neutralize the viability of 10 percent of the population at a sweep, until none were left except themselves.

Eighteen solutions were explored in a Carnegie-supported 1911 "Preliminary Report of the Committee of the Eugenic Section of the American Breeder's Association to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means for Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the Human Population." Point eight was euthanasia.

The most commonly suggested method of eugenicide in America was a "lethal chamber" or public locally operated gas chambers. In 1918, Popenoe, the Army venereal disease specialist during World War I, co-wrote the widely used textbook, Applied Eugenics, which argued, "From an historical point of view, the first method which presents itself is execution… Its value in keeping up the standard of the race should not be underestimated." Applied Eugenics also devoted a chapter to "Lethal Selection," which operated "through the destruction of the individual by some adverse feature of the environment, such as excessive cold, or bacteria, or by bodily deficiency."

Eugenic breeders believed American society was not ready to implement an organized lethal solution. But many mental institutions and doctors practiced improvised medical lethality and passive euthanasia on their own. One institution in Lincoln, Illinois fed its incoming patients milk from tubercular cows believing a eugenically strong individual would be immune. Thirty to forty percent annual death rates resulted at Lincoln. Some doctors practiced passive eugenicide one newborn infant at a time. Others doctors at mental institutions engaged in lethal neglect.

Nonetheless, with eugenicide marginalized, the main solution for eugenicists was the rapid expansion of forced segregation and sterilization, as well as more marriage restrictions. California led the nation, performing nearly all sterilization procedures with little or no due process. In its first twenty-five years of eugenic legislation, California sterilized 9,782 individuals, mostly women. Many were classified as "bad girls," diagnosed as "passionate," "oversexed" or "sexually wayward." At Sonoma, some women were sterilized because of what was deemed an abnormally large clitoris or labia.

In 1933 alone, at least 1,278 coercive sterilizations were performed, 700 of which were on women. The state's two leading sterilization mills in 1933 were Sonoma State Home with 388 operations and Patton State Hospital with 363 operations. Other sterilization centers included Agnews, Mendocino, Napa, Norwalk, Stockton and Pacific Colony state hospitals.

Even the United States Supreme Court endorsed aspects of eugenics. In its infamous 1927 decision, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote, "It is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind…. Three generations of imbeciles are enough." This decision opened the floodgates for thousands to be coercively sterilized or otherwise persecuted as subhuman. Years later, the Nazis at the Nuremberg trials quoted Holmes's words in their own defense.

Only after eugenics became entrenched in the United States was the campaign transplanted into Germany, in no small measure through the efforts of California eugenicists, who published booklets idealizing sterilization and circulated them to German officials and scientists.

Hitler studied American eugenics laws. He tried to legitimize his anti-Semitism by medicalizing it, and wrapping it in the more palatable pseudoscientific facade of eugenics. Hitler was able to recruit more followers among reasonable Germans by claiming that science was on his side. While Hitler's race hatred sprung from his own mind, the intellectual outlines of the eugenics Hitler adopted in 1924 were made in America.

During the '20s, Carnegie Institution eugenic scientists cultivated deep personal and professional relationships with Germany's fascist eugenicists. Sisse Mein Kampf, published in 1924, Hitler quoted American eugenic ideology and openly displayed a thorough knowledge of American eugenics. "There is today one state," wrote Hitler, "in which at least weak beginnings toward a better conception [of immigration] are noticeable. Of course, it is not our model German Republic, but the United States."

Hitler proudly told his comrades just how closely he followed the progress of the American eugenics movement. "I have studied with great interest," he told a fellow Nazi, "the laws of several American states concerning prevention of reproduction by people whose progeny would, in all probability, be of no value or be injurious to the racial stock."

Hitler even wrote a fan letter to American eugenic leader Madison Grant calling his race-based eugenics book, The Passing of the Great Race his "bible."

Hitler's struggle for a superior race would be a mad crusade for a Master Race. Now, the American term "Nordic" was freely exchanged with "Germanic" or "Aryan." Race science, racial purity and racial dominance became the driving force behind Hitler's Nazism. Nazi eugenics would ultimately dictate who would be persecuted in a Reich-dominated Europe, how people would live, and how they would die. Nazi doctors would become the unseen generals in Hitler's war against the Jews and other Europeans deemed inferior. Doctors would create the science, devise the eugenic formulas, and even hand-select the victims for sterilization, euthanasia and mass extermination.

During the Reich's early years, eugenicists across America welcomed Hitler's plans as the logical fulfillment of their own decades of research and effort. California eugenicists republished Nazi propaganda for American consumption. They also arranged for Nazi scientific exhibits, such as an August 1934 display at the L.A. County Museum, for the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association.

In 1934, as Germany's sterilizations were accelerating beyond 5,000 per month, the California eugenics leader C. M. Goethe upon returning from Germany ebulliently bragged to a key colleague, "You will be interested to know, that your work has played a powerful part in shaping the opinions of the group of intellectuals who are behind Hitler in this epoch-making program. Everywhere I sensed that their opinions have been tremendously stimulated by American thought.…I want you, my dear friend, to carry this thought with you for the rest of your life, that you have really jolted into action a great government of 60 million people."

That same year, ten years after Virginia passed its sterilization act, Joseph DeJarnette, superintendent of Virginia's Western State Hospital, observed in the Richmond Times-Dispatch, "The Germans are beating us at our own game."

More than just providing the scientific roadmap, America funded Germany's eugenic institutions. By 1926, Rockefeller had donated some $410,000 -- almost $4 million in 21st-Century money -- to hundreds of German researchers. In May 1926, Rockefeller awarded $250,000 to the German Psychiatric Institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, later to become the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry. Among the leading psychiatrists at the German Psychiatric Institute was Ernst Rüdin, who became director and eventually an architect of Hitler's systematic medical repression.

Another in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute's eugenic complex of institutions was the Institute for Brain Research. Since 1915, it had operated out of a single room. Everything changed when Rockefeller money arrived in 1929. A grant of $317,000 allowed the Institute to construct a major building and take center stage in German race biology. The Institute received additional grants from the Rockefeller Foundation during the next several years. Leading the Institute, once again, was Hitler's medical henchman Ernst Rüdin. Rüdin's organization became a prime director and recipient of the murderous experimentation and research conducted on Jews, Gypsies and others.

Beginning in 1940, thousands of Germans taken from old age homes, mental institutions and other custodial facilities were systematically gassed. Between 50,000 and 100,000 were eventually killed.

Leon Whitney, executive secretary of the American Eugenics Society declared of Nazism, "While we were pussy-footing around…the Germans were calling a spade a spade."

A special recipient of Rockefeller funding was the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics in Berlin. For decades, American eugenicists had craved twins to advance their research into heredity. The Institute was now prepared to undertake such research on an unprecedented level. On May 13, 1932, the Rockefeller Foundation in New York dispatched a radiogram to its Paris office: JUNE MEETING EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE NINE THOUSAND DOLLARS OVER THREE YEAR PERIOD TO KWG INSTITUTE ANTHROPOLOGY FOR RESEARCH ON TWINS AND EFFECTS ON LATER GENERATIONS OF SUBSTANCES TOXIC FOR GERM PLASM.

At the time of Rockefeller's endowment, Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, a hero in American eugenics circles, functioned as a head of the Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics. Rockefeller funding of that Institute continued both directly and through other research conduits during Verschuer's early tenure. In 1935, Verschuer left the Institute to form a rival eugenics facility in Frankfurt that was much heralded in the American eugenic press. Research on twins in the Third Reich exploded, backed up by government decrees. Verschuer wrote in Der Erbarzt, a eugenic doctor's journal he edited, that Germany's war would yield a "total solution to the Jewish problem."

Verschuer had a long-time assistant. His name was Josef Mengele. On May 30, 1943, Mengele arrived at Auschwitz. Verschuer notified the German Research Society, "My assistant, Dr. Josef Mengele (M.D., Ph.D.) joined me in this branch of research. He is presently employed as Hauptsturmführer [captain] and camp physician in the Auschwitz concentration camp. Anthropological testing of the most diverse racial groups in this concentration camp is being carried out with permission of the SS Reichsführer [Himmler]."

Mengele began searching the boxcar arrivals for twins. When he found them, he performed beastly experiments, scrupulously wrote up the reports and sent the paperwork back to Verschuer's institute for evaluation. Often, cadavers, eyes and other body parts were also dispatched to Berlin's eugenic institutes.

Rockefeller executives never knew of Mengele. With few exceptions, the foundation had ceased all eugenic studies in Nazi-occupied Europe before the war erupted in 1939. But by that time the die had been cast. The talented men Rockefeller and Carnegie financed, the institutions they helped found, and the science it helped create took on a scientific momentum of their own.

After the war, eugenics was declared a crime against humanity--an act of genocide. Germans were tried and they cited the California statutes in their defense. To no avail. They were found guilty.

However, Mengele's boss Verschuer escaped prosecution. Verschuer re-established his connections with California eugenicists who had gone underground and renamed their crusade "human genetics." Typical was an exchange July 25, 1946 when Popenoe wrote Verschuer, "It was indeed a pleasure to hear from you again. I have been very anxious about my colleagues in Germany…. I suppose sterilization has been discontinued in Germany?" Popenoe offered tidbits about various American eugenic luminaries and then sent various eugenic publications. In a separate package, Popenoe sent some cocoa, coffee and other goodies.

Verschuer wrote back, "Your very friendly letter of 7/25 gave me a great deal of pleasure and you have my heartfelt thanks for it. The letter builds another bridge between your and my scientific work I hope that this bridge will never again collapse but rather make possible valuable mutual enrichment and stimulation."

Soon, Verschuer once again became a respected scientist in Germany and around the world. In 1949, he became a corresponding member of the newly formed American Society of Human Genetics, organized by American eugenicists and geneticists.

In the fall of 1950, the University of Münster offered Verschuer a position at its new Institute of Human Genetics, where he later became a dean. In the early and mid-1950s, Verschuer became an honorary member of numerous prestigious societies, including the Italian Society of Genetics, the Anthropological Society of Vienna, and the Japanese Society for Human Genetics.

Human genetics' genocidal roots in eugenics were ignored by a victorious generation that refused to link itself to the crimes of Nazism and by succeeding generations that never knew the truth of the years leading up to war. Now governors of five states, including California have issued public apologies to their citizens, past and present, for sterilization and other abuses spawned by the eugenics movement.

Human genetics became an enlightened endeavor in the late twentieth century. Hard-working, devoted scientists finally cracked the human code through the Human Genome Project. Now, every individual can be biologically identified and classified by trait and ancestry. Yet even now, some leading voices in the genetic world are calling for a cleansing of the unwanted among us, and even a master human species.

There is understandable wariness about more ordinary forms of abuse, for example, in denying insurance or employment based on genetic tests. On October 14, America's first genetic anti-discrimination legislation passed the Senate by unanimous vote. Yet because genetics research is global, no single nation's law can stop the threats.

This article was first published in the San Francisco Chronicle and is reprinted with permission of the author.


Historical Background: The Jews of Hungary During the Holocaust

After Adolf Hitler rose to power in 1933, the Hungarian government became interested in making an alliance with Nazi Germany. The Hungarian Government felt that such an alliance would be good for them, in that the two governments maintained similar authoritarian ideologies, and the Nazis could assist Hungary in retrieving land it had lost in World War I. Over the next five years, Hungary moved closer to Germany.

A Hungarian gendarme checks a woman entering the Munkács ghetto

German soldiers supervising the deportation of Jews, Hungary, 1944

The Munich Conference of September 1938 allowed Germany to annex the Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia. In November, Germany carved a piece of Czechoslovakia &mdash territory that had formerly belonged to Hungary &mdash and handed it back to Hungary in order to cement the relations between the two nations. In August 1940, Germany gave Hungary possession of northern Transylvania. In October 1940, Hungary joined Germany, Italy, and Japan in the Axis alliance.

Hungary was awarded more land in March 1941 when, despite its alliance with the Yugoslav government, Hungary joined its new ally, Germany, in invading and splitting up Yugoslavia. By that time, with all its new territories, the Jewish population in Greater Hungary had reached 725,007, not including about 100,000 Jews who had converted to Christianity but were still racially considered to be &ldquoJews.&rdquo Approximately half of Hungary's Jewish population lived in Budapest, where they were very acculturated and a part of the middle class.

Deportation of the Budapest Jews to the Ghetto

Deportation of Jews from Dunaszerdahely, Hungary, to Auschwitz, June 15, 1944

Hungary commenced issuing anti-Jewish legislation soon after the Anschluss in March 1938. Hungary passed a law whereby Jewish participation in the economy and the professions was cut by 80 percent. In May 1939, the Hungarian Government further limited the Jews in the economic realm and distinguished Jews as a "racial," rather than religious group. In 1939 Hungary created a new type of labor service draft, which Jewish men of military age were forced to join (see also Hungarian Labor Service System). Later, many Jewish men would die within the framework of the forced labor they performed pursuant to this draft. In 1941 the Hungarian Government passed a racial law, similar to the Nuremberg Laws, which officially defined who was to be considered Jewish.

Budapest, Hungary, A homeless Jewish man in the ghetto

Soltvadkert, Hungary, Jewish deportees before boarding the deportation train, June 1944

Although these anti-Jewish laws caused many hardships, most of the Jews of Hungary lived in relative safety for much of the war. Despite this relative safety, however, tragedy struck in the summer of 1941. Some 18,000 Jews randomly designated by the Hungarian authorities as "Jewish foreign nationals" were kicked out of their homes and deported to Kamenets-Podolsk in the Ukraine, where most were murdered. In early 1942, another 1,000 Jews in the section of Hungary newly acquired from Yugoslavia were murdered by Hungarian soldiers and police in their "pursuit of Partisans.&rdquo

As the war progressed, the Hungarian authorities became more and more entrenched in their alliance with Germany. In June 1941, Hungary decided to join Germany in its war against the Soviet Union. Finally, in December 1941, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in declaring war against the United States, completely cutting itself off from any relationship with the West.

However, after Germany's defeat at Stalingrad and other battles in which Hungary lost tens of thousands of its soldiers, the Regent of Hungary, Miklos Horthy, began trying to back out of the alliance with Germany. This, of course, was not acceptable to Hitler. In March, 1944, German troops invaded Hungary, in order to keep the country loyal by force. Hitler immediately set up a new government that he thought would be faithful, with Dome Sztojay, Hungary's former ambassador to Germany, as Prime Minister.

Jews saved from deportation at the last minute in Budapest, Hungary, November 1944

Jews accompanied by Hungarian gendarmes before boarding the transport to Auschwitz-Birkenau, Soltvadkert, Hungary, June 1944

Accompanying the German occupation forces was a Sonderkommando unit headed by Adolf Eichmann, whose job was to begin implementing the &ldquoFinal Solution&rdquo within Hungary. Additional anti-Jewish decrees were passed in great haste. Judenräte were established throughout Hungary, with a central Judenrat called the Zsido Tanacs established in Budapest under Samu Stern. The Nazis isolated the Jewish population from the outside world by restricting their movement and confiscating their telephones and radios. Jewish communities were forced to wear the Yellow Star. Jewish property and businesses were seized, and from mid to late April the Jews of Hungary were forced into ghettos. These ghettos were short-lived. After two to six weeks the Jews of each ghetto were put on trains and deported. Between May 15th and July 9th, about 430,000 Hungarian Jews were deported, mainly to Auschwitz, where most were gassed on arrival. In early July, Horthy halted the deportations, still intent on cutting Hungary's ties with Germany. By that time, all of Hungary was "Jew-free," except for the capital, Budapest. Throughout the spring of 1944 Israel Kasztner, Joel Brand, and other members of the Relief and Rescue Committee of Budapest began negotiating with the SS to save lives. These negotiations are discussed in greater depth below. Many Jews (perhaps up to 8,000) fled from Hungary, mostly to Romania, many with the help of Zionist youth movement members.

The Munkács brick factory where the Jews of the town were brought before their deportation to Auschwitz-Birkenau.

Deportation of Jews from the town Koszeg, Hungary, 1944

From July to October, 1944, the Jews of Budapest still lived in relative safety. However, on October 15 Horthy announced publicly that he was done with Hungary's alliance with Germany, and was going to make peace with the Allies. The Germans blocked this move, and simply toppled Horthy's Government, giving power to Ferenc Szalasi and his fascist, violently antisemitic Arrow Cross Party. The Arrow Cross immediately introduced a reign of terror in Budapest. Nearly 80,000 Jews were killed in Budapest itself, shot on the banks of the Danube River and then thrown into the river. Thousands of others were forced on death marches to the Austrian border. In December, during the Soviet siege of the city, 70,000 Jews were forced into a ghetto. Thousands died of cold, disease, and starvation.

During the Arrow Cross's reign of terror, tens of thousands of Jews in Budapest were saved by members of the Relief and Rescue Committee and by other Jewish activists, especially Zionist youth movement members, who forged identity documents and provided them with food. These Jews worked together with foreign diplomats such as the Swedish Raoul Wallenberg, the Swiss Carl Lutz, and others who provided many Jews with international protection.

Hungary was liberated by the Soviet army by April 1945. Up to 568,000 Hungarian Jews had perished during the Holocaust.

The Kasztner Controversy

Dr. Israel (also known as Rudolf or Rezso) Kasztner was a Hungarian Zionist leader in his native Transylvania and then in Budapest after Transylvania was annexed by Hungary in 1940. In late 1944 he helped found the Relief and Rescue Committee of Budapest. Until spring 1944, the committee successfully smuggled refugees from Poland and Slovakia into Hungary.

Once Germany invaded Hungary in March 1944, Kasztner came to believe that the best way to save Hungarian Jewry &ndash the last Jewish community in Europe &ndash was to negotiate with the German authorities. Thus, the Rescue Committee contacted the SS officers in charge of implementing the "Final Solution" in Hungary. Soon thereafter, Adolf Eichmann made his offer to exchange "Blood for Goods," whereby a certain number of Jews would be spared in exchange for large amounts of goods, including trucks. Kasztner negotiated directly with Eichmann and later with Kurt Becher, a Nazi official.

Hungarian Jews from Carpatho-Ruthenia undergoing selection on the ramp at Birkenau.

In late June 1944, Kasztner convinced Eichmann to release some 1,700 Jews. Kasztner and other Jewish leaders drew up a list of Jews to be released, including leading wealthy Jews, Zionists, rabbis, Jews from different religious communities, and Kasztner's own family and friends. They were transported out of Hungary on what came to be known as the "Kasztner Train." After being detained in Bergen-Belsen, the members of the "Kasztner Train" eventually reached safety in Switzerland.

Kasztner and Becher continued negotiating for an end to the murder and later for the surrender of various Nazi camps to the Allies. These negotiations may have led to the order to stop the murder in Auschwitz and to stop the deportations from Budapest in fall 1944.

After the war, Kasztner moved to Palestine and became a civil servant working in the Israeli government. He was accused of collaborating with the Nazis by a journalist named Malkiel Grunwald. The Israeli government sued Grunwald on Kasztner's behalf in order to clear Kasztner's name, but Grunwald's lawyer turned the trial into an indictment of Kasztner. The judge summed up the trial by saying that Kasztner had "sold his soul to the devil" &ndash by negotiating with the Nazis, by favoring his friends and relatives on the Kasztner Train, and by not doing enough to warn Hungarian Jews about their fate.

Kasztner appealed this verdict and, ultimately, the Israeli Supreme Court cleared Kasztner of all wrongdoing. However, before the new decision could be announced, Kasztner was assassinated by extreme right-wing nationalists.



Kommentaarid:

  1. Caerleon

    Ma arvan, et sul pole õigus. Olen kindel. Arutame seda. Kirjuta mulle PM-i.

  2. Bertie

    A very funny answer

  3. Jysen

    Tõsi, teie idee on lihtsalt täiuslik

  4. Dogrel

    Jah, ma mõistan sind. Midagi selles on ja suurepärane idee, ma toetan seda.

  5. Swintun

    Ilma naljata!



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