Ajalugu Podcastid

Franki kirik

Franki kirik


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Frank Church sündis Boises, Idaho osariigis 25. juulil 1924. Kooliajal sai Churchist William Borahi tugev toetaja. Boise'i keskkoolis võitis Church 1941. aasta Ameerika leegioni riikliku oratoorikavõistluse kõnega "Ameerika eluviis".

1942. aastal sai Churchist Stanfordi ülikooli üliõpilane, kuid järgmisel aastal liitus ta Ameerika Ühendriikide armeega ja oli Teise maailmasõja ajal Birmas sõjaväeluureohvitser.

Pärast sõda naasis ta Stanfordi ülikooli ja pärast lõpetamist 1950. aastal alustas ta advokaadina Boise'is. Church liitus Demokraatliku Parteiga ja 1956. aastal valiti ta senati. Ta oli vaid 32 -aastane ja oli senatis senisest viiendast noorim liige.

1959. aastal nimetas senati enamusjuht Lyndon B. Johnson ametisse Kiriku välissuhete komiteesse. Churchil, nagu ka tema iidolil William Borah, olid sõltumatud poliitilised vaated ja 1965. aastal hakkas Church kritiseerima USA seotust Vietnamiga. 1969. aastal ühines ta koos senaator John Sherman Cooperiga, et toetada muudatusettepanekut, millega keelatakse maavägede kasutamine Laoses ja Tais. Kaks meest ühendasid 1970. aastal ka jõud, et piirata presidendi võimu sõja ajal.

Kirik töötas mitmes senati komitees, sealhulgas vananemise erikomitees, riikliku hädaolukorra lõpetamise erikomitees ja valitsuse luuretegevuse erikomitees. Aastal 1975 sai Churchist luuretegevuse osas valitsustegevuse uurimise valimiskomisjoni esimees. See komisjon uuris luure keskagentuuri ja föderaalse luurebüroo väidetavat võimu kuritarvitamist.

Komisjon vaatas Fred Hamptoni juhtumit ja avastas, et Hamptoni ihukaitsja William O'Neal oli FBI agent-provokaator, kes oli päevi enne haarangut esitanud büroole korteri põhiplaani, millel oli "X" märgitud Hamptoni voodi. Ballistilised tõendid näitasid, et enamik kuulid olid haarangu ajal suunatud Hamptoni magamistuppa.

Kiriku komitee avastas ka, et luure keskagentuur ja föderaalne juurdlusbüroo olid saatnud anonüümseid kirju, milles ründasid sihtmärkide poliitilisi tõekspidamisi, et ärgitada nende tööandjaid neid vallandama. Abikaasade hävitamiseks saadeti abikaasadele sarnased kirjad. Komitee dokumenteeris ka kriminaalseid sissemurdmisi, liikmenimekirjade vargusi ja valeinfo kampaaniaid, mille eesmärk oli esile kutsuda vägivaldseid rünnakuid sihtrühma kuuluvate isikute vastu.

Üks neist inimestest oli Martin Luther King. FBI saatis Kingile kirja lindistuse, mis oli tehtud hotellitubadesse peidetud mikrofonidest. Lindile oli lisatud märge, mis viitab sellele, et salvestis avalikustatakse, kui King ei tee enesetappu.

1975. aastal küsitles Kiriku komitee Johnny Roselli tema suhetest salateenistustega. Selgus, et 1960. aasta septembris osalesid Roselli ja tema kaaskuritegevuse ülemus Sam Giancana kõnelustel Luure Keskagentuuri (CIA) direktori Allen W. Dullesiga Fidel Castro mõrvamise võimaluse üle.

Oma lõpparuandes Valige komitee, kes uurib luuretegevuse osas valitsuse toiminguid järeldas: „Kodumaine luuretegevus on ähvardanud ja õõnestanud ameeriklaste põhiseaduslikke õigusi sõnavabadusele, ühinemisele ja privaatsusele. Ta on seda teinud eelkõige seetõttu, et võimu kuritarvitamise kontrollimise põhiseaduslikku süsteemi ei ole rakendatud. ”

Vastavalt 1976. aastal avaldatud kongressi aruandele: "CIA haldab praegu üle maailma võrgustikku, mis koosneb mitmesajast välismaalasest, kes pakuvad luureandmeid CIA -le ja püüavad kohati mõjutada arvamust varjatud propaganda abil. Need isikud pakuvad CIA -le otsene juurdepääs suurele hulgale ajalehtedele ja perioodikaväljaannetele, paljudele pressiteenustele ja uudisteagentuuridele, raadio- ja televisioonijaamadele, raamatukirjastustele ja teistele välismaistele meediaväljaannetele. " Church väitis, et maailma valeinfo maksumus läheb Ameerika maksumaksjatele maksma hinnanguliselt 265 miljonit dollarit aastas.

Church näitas, et CIA poliitika oli kasutada ajakirjanike ja autorite salajast käitlemist, et saada teavet, mis avaldati esialgu välismeedias, et seda USAs levitada. Kirik tsiteerib ühte dokumenti, mille on kirjutanud varjatud tegevstaabi ülem selle protsessi toimimise kohta (lk 193). Näiteks kirjutab ta: „Saate raamatuid avaldada või levitada välismaal ilma USA mõju avaldamata, subsideerides varjatult välismaiseid publitseerijaid või raamatumüüjaid.” Hiljem kirjutab ta dokumendis: „Laske raamatud avaldada operatiivsetel põhjustel, olenemata kaubanduslikust elujõulisusest”. Kirik teatab, et "CIA tootis, toetas või sponsoreeris enne 1967. aasta lõppu üle tuhande raamatu". Kõik need raamatud leidsid lõpuks tee Ameerika turule. Kas algsel kujul (Kirik toob näite Penkovski paberid) või pakitud ümber Ameerika ajalehtede ja ajakirjade artiklitena.

Teises 1961. aastal avaldatud dokumendis kirjutas agentuuri propagandaüksuse juht: „Meie otsese kontakti eeliseks autoriga on see, et saame teda oma kavatsustega väga üksikasjalikult tutvustada; et me saame talle pakkuda mis tahes materjali, mida me tahame, et ta kaasaks, ja et me saaksime käsikirja igal etapil kontrollida… (agentuur) peab veenduma, et tegelik käsikiri vastab meie operatiivsele ja propagandistlikule kavatsusele. ”

Church tsiteerib Thomas H. Karamessinesi ütlust: „Kui istutate mõne artikli välismaale paberile ja see on raske artikkel või ilmutus, ei saa kuidagi tagada, et seda ei võeta kätte ega avaldata. selle riigi Associated Pressi poolt ”(lk 198).

CIA dokumente analüüsides suutis Church tuvastada üle 50 USA ajakirjaniku, kes olid agentuuri poolt otse tööle võetud. Ta teadis, et CIA -ga väga lähedasi suhteid omavaid inimesi oli palju rohkem, „kellele maksti regulaarselt tasu nende teenuste eest, neile, kes saavad CIA -lt vaid aeg -ajalt kingitusi ja hüvitisi” (lk 195).

Church märkis, et see oli ilmselt vaid jäämäe tipp, sest CIA keeldus „esitamast oma meediaagentide nimesid või meediaorganisatsioonide nimesid, millega nad on seotud” (lk 195). Kirik oli ka teadlik, et enamik neist maksetest ei olnud dokumenteeritud. See oli Otis Pike'i raporti põhipunkt. Kui neid makseid ei dokumenteeritud ega arvestatud, peab olema suur võimalus finantskorruptsiooniks. See hõlmab suuri kaubanduslepinguid, mille levitamise eest vastutas CIA. Pike'i raport tõi tegelikult välja 1976. aastal selle, mis lõpuks selgus 1980. aastatel selliste CIA operaatorite tegevuse kaudu nagu Edwin Wilson, Thomas Clines, Ted Shackley, Raphael Quintero, Richard Secord ja Felix Rodriguez.

Church nimetas E. Howard Huntit ka operatsiooni Mockingbird oluliseks tegelaseks. Ta juhib tähelepanu sellele, kuidas Hunt korraldas raamatute ülevaatamise teatud kirjanike poolt üleriigilises ajakirjanduses. Ta toob näite sellest, kuidas Hunt korraldas „CIA kirjaniku lepingu alusel”, et ta kirjutaks ajakirjas Edgar Snow raamatu vaenuliku ülevaate. New York Times (lk 198).

Church jõudis järeldusele: „Uurides CIA USA meedia varasemat ja praegust kasutamist, leiab komitee muretsemiseks kaks põhjust. Esimene neist on varjatud meediaoperatsioonidele omane potentsiaal Ameerika avalikkusega manipuleerimiseks või juhuslikuks eksitamiseks. Teine on kahju vaba ajakirjanduse usaldusväärsusele ja sõltumatusele, mille võivad põhjustada varjatud suhted USA ajakirjanike ja meediaorganisatsioonidega. ”

Komitee teatas ka, et luure keskagentuur jättis John F. Kennedy mõrva uurimise ajal Warreni komisjonilt salajase teabe USA valitsuse kavanditest Kuuba Fidel Castro vastu; ja et Föderaalne Juurdlusbüroo viis läbi Martin Luther Kingi ja Lõuna kristliku juhtimiskonverentsi vastuluureprogrammi (COINTELPRO).

Maffia boss Sam Giancana sai korralduse ilmuda valimiskomisjoni ette, et uurida valitsuse operatsioone luuretegevuse osas. Kuid enne tema ilmumist, 19. juunil 1975, mõrvati Giancana oma kodus. Tal oli suur haav kukla tagaosas. Samuti oli teda kuus korda ringiga ümber suu tulistatud. Samal ajal kadus ka teine ​​mees, keda komisjon soovis intervjueerida, Jimmy Hoffa. Tema surnukeha ei leitud kunagi.

Johnny Roselli pidi ka mõrvatuna ilmuma Kiriku komitee ette ja 1976. aasta juulis leiti tema surnukeha Miami Dumfoundlingi lahest õlitrumlis hõljumas. Jack Anderson, Washington Post, intervjueeris Roselli vahetult enne tapmist. 7. septembril 1976 teatas ajaleht Rosellist, et: "Kui Oswaldi kätte võeti, kartsid allilma vandenõulased, et ta lõhub ja avalikustab teabe, mis võib neid viia. See oleks peaaegu kindlasti toonud kaasa USA ulatusliku maffiavastase võitluse. Seega kästi Jack Rubyl Oswald kõrvaldada. "

Kiriku aruande ja Sam Giancana, Jimmy Hoffa ja Johnny Roselli surma tagajärjel asutas Kongress septembris 1976. parlamendi mõrvade valimiskomisjoni. Resolutsioon volitas 12-liikmelist valimiskomisjoni uurima surmajuhtumite asjaolusid. John F. Kennedy ja Martin Luther King.

Aastal 1976 taotles kirik demokraatide presidendikandidaadiks kandideerimist. Ta võitis eelvalimised Nebraskas, Idahos, Oregonis ja Montanas, kuid lõpuks otsustas taanduda Jimmy Carteri kasuks.

Kiriku otsekohesed vaated tegid temast palju vaenlasi ja 1980. aastal saadi lüüa, kui ta püüdis viiendaks ametiajaks senati valida.

Church määrati Ameerika Ühendriikide delegatsiooniks ÜRO 21. Peaassambleele. Hiljem töötas ta Washingtonis rahvusvahelises advokaadibüroos Whitman ja Ransom. Frank Church suri kõhunäärme kasvaja tõttu 7. aprillil 1984.

Raamatute ja kirjastuste varjatud kasutamine. Komitee on leidnud, et luure keskagentuur peab raamatute kirjastamist kui varjatud propaganda vormi eriliseks. Endine salateenistuse ohvitser teatas, et raamatud on "strateegilise (pikamaa) propaganda kõige olulisem relv". Enne 1967. aastat sponsoreeris, toetas või tootis Luure Keskagentuur üle 1000 raamatu; umbes 25 protsenti neist inglise keeles. Ainuüksi 1967. aastal avaldas või toetas CIA üle 200 raamatu, alates raamatutest Aafrika safarite ja eluslooduse kohta, lõpetades Machiavelli printsi tõlkimisega suahiili keelde ja TS Elioti teostega vene keelde, kuni Mao väikese punase raamatu konkurendiga, mille pealkiri oli „Tsitaadid” esimees Liu käest.

Komitee leidis, et Ameerika Ühendriikides vaadati läbi ja turustati oluline osa luure keskameti tegelikult toodetud raamatutest:

* CIA kirjeldas raamatut arengumaast pärit noorest üliõpilasest, kes oli õppinud kommunistlikus riigis, kui "välja töötatud (kahe valdkonna osakonnad) poolt ja selle on koostanud kodumaiste operatsioonide osakond ... ja sellel on olnud suur mõju Ameerika Ühendriikides kui ka (välispiirkonna) turul. " See raamat, mille koostas Ameerika Ühendriikide kirjastuse Euroopa müügikoht, avaldati lühendatud kujul kahes suuremas USA ajakirjas. "

* Teine CIA raamat The Penkorsky Papers ilmus Ameerika Ühendriikides 1965. aastal. Raamatu koostamiseks ja kirjutamiseks jäeti välja agentuuri varad, kes kasutasid tegelikke juhtumimaterjale ja käsikirja avaldamisõigusi, müüdi kirjastajale usaldusfondi kaudu. selleks loodud. Kirjastaja ei teadnud USA valitsuse huvidest.

1967. aastal lõpetas CIA avaldamise Ameerika Ühendriikides. Sellest ajast alates on amet avaldanud välismaal umbes 250 raamatut, millest enamik on võõrkeelsed. CIA on pööranud erilist tähelepanu Nõukogude bloki olusid käsitlevate raamatute avaldamisele ja levitamisele välismaal. Nendest, kes on suunatud publikule väljaspool Nõukogude Liitu ja Ida -Euroopat, on suur hulk olnud saadaval ka inglise keeles.

Kodumaine "Fallout": komitee leiab, et varjatud meediaoperatsioonid võivad põhjustada Ameerika avalikkusega manipuleerimist või juhuslikku eksitamist. Hoolimata püüdlustest seda minimeerida, on CIA töötajad, nii endised kui ka praegused, möönnud, et pole mingit võimalust kaitsta Ameerika avalikkust täielikult Ameerika Ühendriikide "kukkumise" eest agentuuri propaganda või välismaale paigutamise eest. Tõepoolest, pärast Katzenbachi uurimist andis operatsioonide asedirektor välja direktiivi, milles öeldi: "Fallout USA -s meie poolt toetatud välisväljaandest on vältimatu ja järelikult lubatud."

Varjatud propaganda kodumaine kukkumine pärineb paljudest allikatest: raamatud, mis on mõeldud peamiselt ingliskeelsele välispublikule; CIA pressipraktika, mille võtab vastu rahvusvaheline traaditeenus; ja väljaanded, mis tulenevad välisinstituutide otsesest LKA rahastamisest. Näiteks ühe CIA operatiivkorrapidaja inglise keelt kõnelevale välispublikule kirjutatud raamatut hindas New York Timesis teine ​​CIA agent positiivselt. Komitee leidis ka, et CIA aitas luua ja toetada erinevaid Vietnami perioodilisi väljaandeid ja väljaandeid. Vähemalt ühel juhul kasutati CIA toetatud Vietnami väljaannet Ameerika avalikkuse ning Kongressi mõlema koja liikmete ja töötajate propagandaks. See propaganda oli nii tõhus, et mõned liikmed tsiteerisid väljaandest, arutades vastuolulist küsimust USA osalemise kohta Vietnamis.

Komitee leidis, et see paratamatu siseriiklik väljalangemine süvenes veelgi, kui agentuur levitas oma subsideeritud raamatuid Ameerika Ühendriikides enne nende levitamist välismaal, et tekitada soodne vastuvõtt välismaal.

Varjatud kasutamine 11.5. Ajakirjanikud ja meediaasutused teatasid 11. veebruaril 1976 CIA direktor George Bush uutest suunistest, mis reguleerivad agentuuri suhteid Ameerika Ühendriikide meediaorganisatsioonidega: „Kohe jõustudes ei astu CIA kohe tasuliste või lepinguliste suhete juurde ühegi täiskohaga või osalise tööajaga. ajauudiste korrespondent, kelle on akrediteerinud mis tahes USA uudisteteenistus, ajaleht, perioodika, raadio- või televisioonivõrk või -jaam. "

Agentuuri ametnikud, kes andsid tunnistusi pärast 11. veebruari 1976. aasta teadet, ütlesid komiteele, et keeld laieneb mitte-ameeriklastele, kes on akrediteeritud Ameerika Ühendriikide teatud meediaorganisatsioonidesse.

CIA haldab praegu võrgustikku, mis koosneb mitmest sajast välismaalasest üle maailma, kes pakuvad CIA -le luureandmeid ja püüavad kohati varjatud propaganda abil arvamust mõjutada. Need isikud pakuvad CIA -le otsest juurdepääsu suurele hulgale ajalehtedele ja perioodilistele väljaannetele, paljudele pressiteenustele ja uudisteagentuuridele, raadio- ja televisioonijaamadele, kommertsraamatute väljaandjatele ja teistele välismaistele meediaväljaannetele.

Ligikaudu 50 vara on Ameerika ajakirjanikud või USA meediaorganisatsioonide töötajad. Neist vähem kui pooled on USA meediaorganisatsioonide poolt "akrediteeritud" ja neid mõjutavad seega uued keelud kasutada akrediteeritud ajakirjanikke. Ülejäänud isikud on akrediteerimata vabakutselised kaastöötajad ja meedia esindajad välismaal ning seega ei mõjuta neid CIA uus keeld.

Rohkem kui tosin Ameerika Ühendriikide uudisteorganisatsiooni ja kommertskirjastust pakkusid varem CIA agentidele välismaal katet. Mõni neist organisatsioonidest ei teadnud, et nad selle katte pakuvad.

Komitee märgib, et CIA uued keelud ei kehti "akrediteerimata" ameeriklaste kohta, kes teenivad meediaorganisatsioonides, näiteks USA meediaorganisatsioonide esindajad välismaal või vabakutselised kirjanikud. Rohkem kui 50 CIA suhtest Ameerika Ühendriikide ajakirjanike või Ameerika meediaorganisatsioonide töötajatega lõpetatakse vähem kui pool uute CIA suuniste alusel.

Komitee on mures, et Ameerika: ajakirjanike ja meediaorganisatsioonide kasutamine salaoperatsioonideks on oht ajakirjanduse terviklikkusele. Kõik Ameerika ajakirjanikud, olenemata sellest, kas nad on Ameerika Ühendriikide uudisteorganisatsiooni akrediteeritud või lihtsalt stringerid, võivad olla kahtlustatavad, kui keegi tegeleb varjatud tegevusega.

Uurides CIA USA ajakirjanike ja meediaorganisatsioonide varasemat ja praegust kasutamist.

1953. aastal läks Joseph Alsop, tollal üks Ameerika juhtivaid sündikaalseid kolumniste, Filipiinidele valimisi kajastama. Ta ei läinud, sest tema sündikaat palus seda teha. Ta ei läinud, sest tema veergu trükkinud ajalehed palusid seda teha. Ta läks CIA palvel.

Alsop on üks enam kui 400 Ameerika ajakirjanikust, kes on CIA peakorteris olevate dokumentide kohaselt viimase kahekümne viie aasta jooksul salaja luureteenistuse ülesandeid täitnud. Mõned neist ajakirjanike suhetest agentuuriga olid vaikivad; mõned olid selgesõnalised. Oli koostööd, majutust ja kattumist. Ajakirjanikud osutasid kõiki salajasi teenuseid - alates lihtsast luureandmete kogumisest kuni kommunistlike riikide spioonide vaheliste teenistusteni. Reporterid jagasid oma märkmikke CIA -ga. Toimetajad jagasid oma staapi. Mõned ajakirjanikud olid Pulitzeri auhinna võitjad, silmapaistvad ajakirjanikud, kes pidasid end oma riigi suursaadikuteks. Enamik neist olid vähem ülendatud: väliskorrespondendid, kes leidsid, et nende seos agentuuriga aitas nende tööd; stringereid ja vabakutselisi, kes olid sama huvitatud spiooniäri mõnitamisest kui artiklite esitamisest, ja väikseim kategooria-täiskohaga CIA töötajad, kes maskeerivad end ajakirjanikuna välismaal. Paljudel juhtudel näitavad CIA dokumendid ajakirjanikke, kes olid Ameerika juhtivate uudisteorganisatsioonide nõusolekul CIA -le ülesandeid täitmas.

CIA seotust Ameerika ajakirjandusega varjab jätkuvalt ametlik hämardamis- ja petmispoliitika. .

Juhtide hulgas, kes agentuurile koostööd laenasid, olid William Paley Columbia ringhäälingusüsteemist, Henry Luce ettevõttest Time Inc., Arthur Hays Sulzberger New York Timesist, Barry Bingham vanem Louisville Courier-Journalist ja James Copley Copley News Service. Teised CIAga koostööd teinud organisatsioonid on Ameerika ringhäälinguettevõte, rahvusringhääling, Associated Press, United Press International, Reuters, Hearst Newspapers, Scripps-Howard, ajakiri Newsweek, vastastikune ringhäälingusüsteem, Miami Herald ja vana laupäev Õhtuleht ja New York Herald-Tribune.

CIA ametnike sõnul on neist ühendustest kaugelt kõige väärtuslikumad olnud New York Times, CBS ja Time Inc.

Agentuuri suhtlemine ajakirjandusega sai alguse külma sõja algusjärgus. Allen Dulles, kes sai CIA direktoriks 1953. aastal, püüdis luua Ameerika prestiižikamates ajakirjandusasutustes värbamis- ja kaanevõimekust. Dulles uskus, et Dulles uskus, et tegutsedes akrediteeritud uudiste korrespondentide varjus, tagatakse CIA operaatoritele välismaal teatud juurdepääs ja liikumisvabadus, mis on peaaegu igasuguse muu katte all kättesaamatu.

Ameerika kirjastajad, nagu paljud teised tolleaegsed ettevõtete ja institutsioonide juhid, olid nõus, et me pühendaksime nende ettevõtete ressursid võitluseks „globaalse kommunismi” vastu. Vastavalt sellele oli Ameerika ajakirjanduskorpust ja valitsust eraldav traditsiooniline joon sageli eristamatu: harva kasutati uudisteagentuuri CIA operatiivtöötajate välismaal katmiseks ilma selle peamise omaniku teadmata ja nõusolekuta; kirjastaja või vanemtoimetaja. Seega vastupidiselt arusaamale, et CIA ajastu ja uudiste juhid lubasid endal ja oma organisatsioonidel saada luureteenistuste teenijateks. „Jumala eest, ärme vali mõnda vaest reporterit,” hüüatas William Colby ühel hetkel kirikukomitee uurijatele. „Läheme juhtkondade juurde. Nad olid nõus. " Kokku pakkus agentuurile katet umbes kakskümmend viis uudisteorganisatsiooni (sealhulgas need, mis on loetletud käesoleva artikli alguses).

Paljud ajakirjanikud, kes kajastasid Teist maailmasõda, olid lähedased strateegiliste teenistuste büroos, kes oli CIA sõjaaegne eelkäija; mis veelgi olulisem - nad olid kõik ühel poolel. Kui sõda lõppes ja paljud OSSi ametnikud läksid CIA -sse, oli loomulik, et need suhted jätkuvad. Vahepeal asus ametisse esimene sõjajärgne ajakirjanike põlvkond; neil olid samad poliitilised ja professionaalsed väärtused nagu nende juhendajatel. "Teil oli kamp inimesi, kes töötasid Teise maailmasõja ajal koos ega saanud sellest kunagi üle," ütles üks agentuuri ametnik. "Nad olid tõeliselt motiveeritud ja vastuvõtlikud intriigidele ja sisemusele. Siis oli viiekümnendatel ja kuuekümnendatel riiklik üksmeel riikliku ohu osas. Vietnami sõda rebis kõik puruks - purustas konsensuse ja viskas õhku. ” Teine agentuuri ametnik märkis: „Paljud ajakirjanikud ei mõelnud agentuuriga suhelda. Kuid oli hetk, kus eetilised probleemid, mis enamikul inimestel olid vee alla sattunud, ilmusid lõpuks päevakorda. Täna eitavad paljud neist kutidest ägedalt, et neil oleks agentuuriga mingeid suhteid olnud. ”

CIA korraldas 1950. aastatel isegi ametliku koolitusprogrammi, et oma agente ajakirjanikuks õpetada. Luureohvitsere „õpetati tegema müra nagu reporteritel”, selgitas kõrge CIA ametnik ja nad paigutati seejärel juhtkonna abiga suurematesse uudisteorganisatsioonidesse. "Need olid poisid, kes astusid auastmetest läbi ja neile öeldi:" Sinust saab ajakirjanik, "ütles CIA ametnik. Suhteliselt vähesed agentuuri failides kirjeldatud 400-st paarist suhtest järgisid seda mustrit; enamik asjaosalisi, kes olid juba heausksed ajakirjanikud, kui asusid ametisse ülesandeid täitma ...

CBS Newsi peakorteris New Yorgis peavad paljud uudistejuhid ja ajakirjanikud Paley koostööd CIA -ga eitusest hoolimata iseenesestmõistetavaks. 76 -aastast Paley't Salanti uurijad ei küsitlenud. "See ei teeks midagi head," ütles üks CBS -i juht. "See on ainus teema, mille kohta tema mälu on ebaõnnestunud."

Ajakirjad Time ja Newsweek. CIA ja senati allikate sõnul sisaldavad agentuuri toimikud kirjalikke lepinguid endiste väliskorrespondentide ja mõlema nädalauudiste ajakirjade tegijatega. Samad allikad keeldusid ütlemast, kas CIA on lõpetanud kõik sidemed kahe väljaande heaks töötavate isikutega. Allen Dulles sekkus sageli oma hea sõbra, ajakirjade Time ja Life asutaja, varalahkunud Henry Luce'i, kes lubas teatud töötajatel agentuuri heaks töötada ja nõustus pakkuma tööd ja volitusi teistele CIA töötajatele, kellel puudusid ajakirjanduslikud kogemused.

Agentuuri allikad teatasid Newsweekil, et CIA kasutas ajakirja kõrgemate toimetajate poolt heaks kiidetud kokkuleppel mitmete väliskorrespondentide ja ründajate teenuseid.

Pärast seda, kui Colby lahkus agentuurist 28. jaanuaril 1976 ja tema asemele tuli George Bush, kuulutas CIA välja uue poliitika: „Jõustub kohe, kui CIA ei asu tasuliste või lepinguliste suhetega ühegi täiskohaga või osalise tööajaga uudistega. korrespondent, kelle on akrediteerinud mis tahes USA uudisteteenistus, ajaleht, perioodika, raadio- või televisioonivõrk või jaam. ” ... Teate tekstis märgiti, et CIA tervitab jätkuvalt ajakirjanike vabatahtlikku tasustamata koostööd. Seega lubati paljudel suhetel puutumata jääda.


IDAHO FRANKI KIRIK, KES teenis SENAATIS 24 AASTAT, sureb 59 -aastaselt

Idaho Frank Church, 24 aastat senati liige ja mõnda aega selle välissuhete komitee esimees, suri täna oma kodus Bethesda äärelinnas Md. Ta oli 59 -aastane ja põdes kõhunäärmevähki.

Valge Maja avaldas president Reagani avalduse, milles kiitis härra Kirikut selle püsiva huvi eest välispoliitika vastu ja#x27 ', mis tema sõnul andis meie riigile olulise intellektuaalse panuse. ' '

Senati kolleeg, Massachusettsi demokraat Edward M. Kennedy ütles, et härra Church oli ' ' julge juht Vietnami sõja vastu. ' '

Mälestusjumalateenistus toimub kell 11.00. Teisipäeval rahvuskirikus. Räägivad senaator Kennedy, senaator Claiborne Pell, Rhode Islandi demokraat, endine senaator George A. McGovern Lõuna -Dakotast, Cecil D. Andrus, endine siseminister ja Idaho kuberner ning üks hr Church ' pojad, pastor F. Forresti kirik, New Yorgi Unitaarsete hingede kiriku minister.

Frank Churchil, omal ajal Ameerika Ühendriikide Senati ' 'poiste kõnelusel ' ', oli kaks suurt ambitsiooni. Ta tahtis saada Ameerika Ühendriikide presidendiks ja senati välissuhete komitee esimeheks.

1976. aasta kevadel pidas ta kolmekuulist kampaaniat demokraatide presidendikandidaadiks, tehes üllatavalt tugeva esialgse näituse Idahos, Nebraskas, Oregonis ja Montanas toimunud eelvalimistel. Lõpuks taandus ta siiski ja kiitis heaks endise Gruusia kuberneri Jimmy Carteri, kes sai presidendiks.

Kuid härra kirik saavutas oma teise eesmärgi, saades 1979. aastal senati välissuhete komitee esimeheks. Ta kaotas oma senati koha vabariiklasele Steven D. Symmsile aastal 1980 toimunud ülekaalukatel Ronald Reagani valimistel.

Oma 24 aasta jooksul senatis, alates 1957. aastast, olles 32 -aastane, sai Frank Churchist liberalismi juhtiv, sageli kõnekas hääl, kes toetas tugevalt kodanikuõiguste kaitset, laiendatud hüvitisi eakatele, muid sotsiaalteenuste programme ja võrdseid õigusi naiste jaoks. Ta oli Alaska ja Hawaii juhtiv looduskaitsja ning omariikluse tugev toetaja. Aktiivne välisasjades

Kuid eeskätt välissuhetes andis ta endast märku nii enne kui ka pärast välissuhete komitee eesistumist. Ta toetas kindlalt 1963. aasta tuumakatsetuste keelustamise lepingut Nõukogude Liiduga. Aastal 1966, olles mures Ameerika üha suurema osalemise pärast Vietnamis, lahkus ta Johnsoni administratsiooniga, kutsudes üles peatama pommitamine.

' ' Ükski rahvas, ' ' ütles ta sel aastal, ' ' isegi mitte meie oma, omab nii suurt arsenali või nii rikkalikku riigikassat, et summutada hõõguva revolutsiooni tulekahjusid kogu ärkamismaailmas . ' '

Kui Kagu -Aasia sõda laienes, suurendas ta oma vastuseisu. 1970. aastal toetas ta senati meedet, millega keelati Ameerika Ühendriikide maavägede jätkuv paigutamine Kambodžasse, puudutades pooleaastast senati arutelu. Kaks aastat hiljem püüdsid ta ja New Jersey vabariiklane senaator Clifford P. Case lõpetada kogu Ameerika sõjaline tegevus Kagu -Aasias.

Kuid just selles valdkonnas, kus Ameerika Ühendriikide luureagentuurid üritasid ohjeldada ' 'kriminaalset tegevust ' ', andis ta ehk oma kõige olulisema panuse, mida mõned kiitsid ja teised kritiseerisid. Luure Keskagentuuri ja Föderaalse Juurdlusbüroo tegevuse uurimise vahendiks oli senati luurekomitee, mis loodi 1975. aastal härra Churchi juhtimisel. Paneel tegi palju ettepanekuid

Oma lõpparuandes tegi komisjon ligi 100 soovitust selliste kuritarvituste piiramiseks nagu ebaseaduslik pealtkuulamine, sissemurdmised, jälitustegevus, poliitiliste dissidentide ahistamine, mõrvaplaanid välisriikide juhtide vastu ja kampaaniad kodanikuõiguste aktivistide määrimiseks.

Kuigi uurimise tulemuseks oli vaid piiratud hulk õigusakte, oli aja möödudes selge, et ametite ebaseadusliku tegevuse avalikustamine viis selliste kuritarvituste ohjeldamiseni.

Senaator Church oli just luureuuringutega lõpule jõudnud, kui ta sõitis Idaho linna väikesesse mägikogukonda, et teatada oma kandidatuurist demokraatide presidendikandidaadiks. See oli midagi nostalgilist kohtade valikut Idaho linnas, kus tema vanaisa asus pärast kodusõda kullapalavikku elama.

Kuid Frank Forresteri kiriku kodu ei olnud Idaho City. Ta sündis 25. juulil 1924 Boise'is, spordikaupade edasimüüja pojana. Perekond oli tugevalt vabariiklane. Aastaid hiljem sai hr Churchist demokraat.

Boise'i keskkooli õpilasena tekkis tal armastus oratooriumi vastu, võites esimese auhinna Ameerika leegioni ja#x27s riiklikul ameeriklaslikul oraatorivõistlusel. Aasta hiljem, pärast keskkooli lõpetamist, astus ta Stanfordi ülikooli.

Tema viibimine Stanfordis oli lühike, sest ta läks sõjaväkke 1942. aasta lõpus ja saadeti ohvitseride ja kandidaatide kooli Fort Benningis, Ga. 20. sünnipäeval määrati talle teine ​​leitnant ja ta töötas sõjaväeluure ohvitserina aastal Hiina, Birma ja India Teises maailmasõjas. Lõpetamine ja abielu aastatel ❇

Pärast sõda Stanfordi naastes võitis ta Phi Beta Kappa võtme ja lõpetas selle 1947. aastal. Ta oli sel suvel abielus Jean Bethine Clarkiga, kelle isa oli kunagi Idaho demokraatlik kuberner.

Sel sügisel astus ta Harvardi õigusteaduskonda, kuid läks pärast tõsiseid seljavalusid Stanfordi, kui ta arvas, et soojem kliima võib selga kergendada. Arstid aga avastasid, et tal on vähk, ja ütlesid, et tal on kuus kuud elada. Pärast munandite eemaldamise operatsiooni ja kiiritusravi naasis ta Stanfordi õigusteaduskonda, võites oma kraadi 1950.

Boise'i tagasi kolides hakkas ta Boise Junior College'is juristitööd õpetama ja avalikku esinemist õpetama. Demokraat oli selleks ajaks kandideerinud Idaho seadusandliku koosseisu kohale, kuid kaotas.

Ta seadis oma sihid kõrgemale, seekord USA senatile. 1956. aastal, 32 -aastaselt, võitis ta valimised, alistades ametisoleva vabariiklase Herman Welkeri.

1960. aastal saavutas senaator Church riikliku tähtsuse, kui ta esines demokraatliku rahvuskonvendi peaesitlusega. Kommentaatorid hindasid tema kõnet nii retoorilise õitsengu kui ka sisulise lühikese ajaga. Aastaid hiljem, tunnistades, et ta oli kõnes olnud midagi enamat kui hämmastav edu, ütles ta: ' '. Ma võin oma kaitseks öelda, et ma ei teadnud paremini.

Kui ta astus 1976. aasta kevadel presidendikandidaadiks, tunnistas ta, et ta on ' 'pikendus ' ', kuid et ' 'it ' ei ole kunagi liiga hilja proovida. ' &# x27 Kohtumine Castroga

Pärast ebaõnnestunud jõupingutusi jätkas ta oma rolli tähtsa häälena senati välissuhete komitees. In the summer of 1977, he met in Cuba with Fidel Castro, which led to the Cuban leader agreeing to allow 84 American citizens and their families to leave that country. Senator Church also served as floor leader for ratification of the Panama Canal treaties in 1978.

But in the final years of the Carter Administration, he found himself at odds with the President as his own time for Senate re-election approached. In 1979, he demanded immediate withdrawal of Soviet combat troops from Cuba before allowing a Senate vote on ratification of the second treaty with the Soviet Union on limitation of strategic arms.

Years later, Jimmy Carter wrote in his book, ''Keeping Faith,'' that Senator Church had been '➫solutely irresponsible'' in disclosing 'ɼonfidential information'' about the Soviet presence in Cuba, ascribing the move as an effort by the Senator to fend off conservative opposition to his re-election. Senator Church later denied the Carter allegations. There were clear indications, however, that Senator Church had sought to mute his liberal image in other ways as the 1980 election neared. He was one of six Democratic Senators selected for defeat by conservative political organizations. The campaign was both bitter and expensive. It cost Mr. Church's organization $4 million and was the most expensive political campaign in Idaho's history.

After his defeat by Mr. Symms, Mr. Church practiced international law as a Washington-based partner in the New York law firm of Whitman & Ransom. He wrote occasional articles, including one published in The New York Times Magazine, criticizing the the Reagan Administration for anti-Soviet ideology.

In addition to his wife and son F. Forrest, he is survived by another son, Chase Clark of Bethesda, and two grandchildren.


Frank Church

The Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness is a generous tract of designated public land that stretches throughout the heart of the state of Idaho. It exists as the second largest wilderness area in the continental United States (second to the Death Valley Wilderness in California and Nevada) and is ripe with steep canyon walls, clear, billowing creeks, flourishing plant and animal species and fresh alpine air. Across the northern half of its almost 2.4 million acres runs the Wild and Scenic Salmon River, and to the south flows the highly popular Middle Fork of the Salmon River on which countless rafters, kayakers and other recreationists spend the summer months.

The "Frank" is truly one of the nation's most valuable treasures, stellar in its size and captivating in its beauty, and although many know of its physical existence, what is known of the man for which it is named? Without the diligence and political effort of Frank Forrester Church III, the "Frank" and many other wild places across the lower forty-eight may not be in existence today. 

Frank Church III was born on July 25, 1924 in Boise, Idaho to Frank Forrester Church Jr. and his wife Laura. The third to be bestowed with his given name, he also entered the world as the Church family's third generation to be born in Idaho. This multi-generational existence in the state gave the family considerable clout, and Church was raised in a modest, yet well-respected and politically conservative, home. In his eighth grade year, Church developed an admiration for Senator William Borah (R-ID) and decided early in life that he wanted to pursue a career in politics. That same year the local newspaper published a letter written by Church about Borah's foreign policy stance on its front page. This led to community-wide recognition of young Church's intelligence and political savy. 

In Church's junior year at Boise High School he won the American Legion National Oratorical Contest by giving a speech titled, "The American Way of Life." This was a pivotal experience in Church's life because the prize money was enough to pay for four years at the college of his choice. After completing his senior year as class president, Church enrolled at Stanford University in 1942. 

In 1943, Church set aside his formal education and enlisted in the U.S. Army, serving as an intelligence officer in China, Burma and India. Upon his discharge in 1946, he returned to Stanford to complete his bachelor's degree, graduating in 1947. That same year he married Bethine Clark, daughter of the former governor of Idaho. Together the couple had two sons, Frank Forrester Church IV and Chase Clark Church. 

Church spent the following year studying at Harvard Law School, but decided to return to Stanford Law School, due to New England's cold climate. While at Harvard, he experienced a bout of chronic pain in his lower back, which doctor's in California eventually diagnosed as cancer. Amazingly, after being given only several months to live, Church recovered from his illness and was given a second chance at life. Later he would state that this second opportunity is what inspired him to live life to its fullest, "…life itself is such a chancy proposition that the only way to live is by taking great chances." 

After graduating from Stanford Law School in 1950, Church returned to his hometown of Boise to practice law with the Federal Price Control Agency. 

As an independent teen-ager, Church had strayed from his family's support of the Republican Party, becoming interested in Democratic views on political issues. This individuality continued into his adult life, and after being defeated in a 1952 run for the state legislature, Church ran on the Democratic ballot for the United States Senate in 1956. Church defeated Republican opponent Herman Welker to become, at 32, the fifth youngest member in history to serve in the U.S. Senate. 

In his political career Church primarily focused on issues concerning American foreign policy and wilderness preservation. During the 1960s he staunchly opposed the war in Vietnam and would continue to oppose U.S. involvement in the conflict throughout three re-elections in 1962, 1968 and 1974. Despite his somewhat liberal stance in a conservative state, Church became the only Democrat in Idaho's history to win re-election to the U.S. Senate. 

During his career Church was a vital part of the wilderness preservation movement. In 1964 he acted as the floor sponsor of the National Wilderness Act and in 1968 sponsored the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. He also played a prominent role in establishing recreation areas such as the Hells Canyon National Recreation Area bordering Oregon, Washington and Idaho and the Sawtooth Wilderness and National Recreation Area in central Idaho. 

Church received several honors for his preservation work. In 1965 he became the chairman of the Subcommittee on Public Lands, was voted Conservationist of the Year by the Idaho Wildlife Federation and in 1966 received the National Conservation Legislative Award. 

On March 19, 1976 in Idaho City, Idaho, Church announced his candidacy for President of the United States, going on to win primaries in Nebraska, Idaho, Oregon and Montana. In support of Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter, however, Church ultimately withdrew from the race, though he is still the only Idahoan to win a major party primary election. 

During his last year in office, 1980, Church played a large role in the formation of Idaho's River of No Return Wilderness, at the time, the largest wilderness area outside of Alaska. Though he ran for re-election that same year, he was defeated by Republican congressman Steve Symms by only one percent of the vote. After a twenty-four year stint in office, Church went on to practice law with the Washington D.C. firm of Whitman and Ransom. Aside from his law practice, he spent the next several years writing, traveling and lecturing on international affairs. 

On January 12, 1984 Church was hospitalized for a pancreatic tumor. Four months later on April 7, he passed away at his home in Bethesda, Maryland at the age of 59. In honor of his political work in the realm of wilderness preservation, President Ronald Reagan signed Public Law 98-231, designating the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness as the new name for the former River of No Return Wilderness. 


Sisu

By the early years of the 1970s, a series of troubling revelations had appeared in the press concerning intelligence activities. First came the revelations by Army intelligence officer Christopher Pyle in January 1970 of the U.S. Army's spying on the civilian population [9] [10] and Senator Sam Ervin's Senate investigations produced more revelations. [11] Then on December 22, 1974, The New York Times published a lengthy article by Seymour Hersh detailing operations engaged in by the CIA over the years that had been dubbed the "family jewels". Covert action programs involving assassination attempts on foreign leaders and covert attempts to subvert foreign governments were reported for the first time. In addition, the article discussed efforts by intelligence agencies to collect information on the political activities of US citizens. [12]

The creation of the Church Committee was approved on January 27, 1975, by a vote of 82 to 4 in the Senate. [13] [14]

The Church Committee's final report was published in April 1976 in six books. Also published were seven volumes of Church Committee hearings in the Senate. [15]

Before the release of the final report, the committee also published an interim report titled "Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders", [16] which investigated alleged attempts to assassinate foreign leaders, including Patrice Lumumba of Zaire, Rafael Trujillo of the Dominican Republic, Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam, Gen. René Schneider of Chile and Fidel Castro of Cuba. President Gerald Ford urged the Senate to withhold the report from the public, but failed, [17] and under recommendations and pressure by the committee, Ford issued Executive Order 11905 (ultimately replaced in 1981 by President Reagan's Executive Order 12333) to ban U.S. sanctioned assassinations of foreign leaders.

In addition, the committee produced seven case studies on covert operations, but only the one on Chile was released, titled "Covert Action in Chile: 1963–1973". [18] The rest were kept secret at CIA's request. [15]

According to a declassified National Security Agency history, the Church Committee also helped to uncover the NSA's Watch List. The information for the list was compiled into the so-called "Rhyming Dictionary" of biographical information, which at its peak held millions of names—thousands of which were US citizens. Some prominent members of this list were Joanne Woodward, Thomas Watson, Walter Mondale, Art Buchwald, Arthur F. Burns, Gregory Peck, Otis G. Pike, Tom Wicker, Whitney Young, Howard Baker, Frank Church, David Dellinger, Ralph Abernathy, and others. [19]

But among the most shocking revelations of the committee was the discovery of Operation SHAMROCK, in which the major telecommunications companies shared their traffic with the NSA from 1945 to the early 1970s. The information gathered in this operation fed directly into the Watch List. In 1975, the committee decided to unilaterally declassify the particulars of this operation, against the objections of President Ford's administration. [19]

Together, the Church Committee's reports have been said to constitute the most extensive review of intelligence activities ever made available to the public. Much of the contents were classified, but over 50,000 pages were declassified under the President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992.

    , Chairman, Idaho , Michigan , Minnesota , Kentucky , North Carolina , Colorado
    , Vice Chairman, Texas , Tennessee , Arizona , Maryland , Pennsylvania

The Church Committee learned that, beginning in the 1950s, the CIA and Federal Bureau of Investigation had intercepted, opened and photographed more than 215,000 pieces of mail by the time the program (called "HTLINGUAL") was shut down in 1973. This program was all done under the "mail covers" program (a mail cover is a process by which the government records—without any requirement for a warrant or for notification—all information on the outside of an envelope or package, including the name of the sender and the recipient). The Church report found that the CIA was careful about keeping the United States Postal Service from learning that government agents were opening mail. CIA agents moved mail to a private room to open the mail or in some cases opened envelopes at night after stuffing them in briefcases or in coat pockets to deceive postal officials. [20]

On May 9, 1975, the Church Committee decided to call acting CIA director William Colby. That same day Ford's top advisers (Henry Kissinger, Donald Rumsfeld, Philip W. Buchen, and John Marsh) drafted a recommendation that Colby be authorized to brief only rather than testify, and that he would be told to discuss only the general subject, with details of specific covert actions to be avoided except for realistic hypotheticals. But the Church Committee had full authority to call a hearing and require Colby's testimony. Ford and his top advisers met with Colby to prepare him for the hearing. [21] Colby testified, "These last two months have placed American intelligence in danger. The almost hysterical excitement surrounding any news story mentioning CIA or referring even to a perfectly legitimate activity of CIA has raised a question whether secret intelligence operations can be conducted by the United States." [22]

On August 17, 1975 Senator Frank Church appeared on NBC's Meet the Press, and discussed the NSA, without mentioning it by name:

In the need to develop a capacity to know what potential enemies are doing, the United States government has perfected a technological capability that enables us to monitor the messages that go through the air. (. ) Now, that is necessary and important to the United States as we look abroad at enemies or potential enemies. We must know, at the same time, that capability at any time could be turned around on the American people, and no American would have any privacy left: such is the capability to monitor everything—telephone conversations, telegrams, it doesn't matter. There would be no place to hide.

If this government ever became a tyranny, if a dictator ever took charge in this country, the technological capacity that the intelligence community has given the government could enable it to impose total tyranny, and there would be no way to fight back because the most careful effort to combine together in resistance to the government, no matter how privately it was done, is within the reach of the government to know. Such is the capability of this technology. (. )

I don't want to see this country ever go across the bridge. I know the capacity that is there to make tyranny total in America, and we must see to it that this agency and all agencies that possess this technology operate within the law and under proper supervision so that we never cross over that abyss. That is the abyss from which there is no return. [23] [24]

As a result of the political pressure created by the revelations of the Church Committee and the Pike Committee investigations, President Gerald Ford issued Executive Order 11905. [25] This executive order banned political assassinations: "No employee of the United States Government shall engage in, or conspire to engage in, political assassination." Senator Church criticized this move on the ground that any future president could easily set aside or change this executive order by a further executive order. [26] Further, President Jimmy Carter issued Executive Order 12036, which in some ways expanded Executive Order 11905. [25]

In 1977, the reporter Carl Bernstein wrote an article in the Veerev kivi magazine, stating that the relationship between the CIA and the media was far more extensive than what the Church Committee revealed. Bernstein said that the committee had covered it up, because it would have shown an "embarrassing relationships in the 1950s and 1960s with some of the most powerful organizations and individuals in American journalism." [27]

R. Emmett Tyrrell, Jr., editor of the conservative magazine The American Spectator, wrote that the committee "betrayed CIA agents and operations." The committee had not received names, so had none to release, as confirmed by later CIA director George H. W. Bush. However, Senator Jim McClure used the allegation in the 1980 election, when Church was defeated. [28]

The Committee's work has more recently been criticized after the September 11 attacks, for leading to legislation reducing the ability of the CIA to gather human intelligence. [29] [28] [30] [31] In response to such criticism, the chief counsel of the committee, Frederick A. O. Schwarz Jr., retorted with a book co-authored by Aziz Z. Huq, denouncing the Bush administration's use of 9/11 to make "monarchist claims" that are "unprecedented on this side of the North Atlantic". [32]


One Of The Largest Wilderness Areas In The Country Is Hiding In Idaho And It’s Absolutely Stunning

One of the most spectacular parts about Idaho living is knowing that true wilderness exists just a short drive away from anywhere in the state.It’s amazing to think that we share this state with so many totally unspoiled natural areas. For many people, an image of rugged backcountry is what first comes to mind when they think of Idaho, and they’re partially right. One of the most amazing facts about our state is that the largest wilderness area in the continental United States resides right here in Idaho. Many Idahoans know this area by name, but don’t realize the enormity of the region itself, or its history. In fact, this region is incredible for a variety of reasons, and you’re about to find out why.

On the eastern side of the Middle Fork of the Salmon are the Bighorn Crags, which form towering rugged summits some of which are at least 10,000 feet high in elevation.

There's truly nothing else like this area in the world. The Frank Church Wilderness is truly one of Idaho's most immense, yet hidden, treasures.

Have you seen at least part of the Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness? Isn’t this massive region absolutely gorgeous? Tell us your thoughts in the comments!

Did you know that Idaho is home to a canyon deeper than the Grand Canyon? You can read all about it here!


The Death of Frank Olson

Frank Olson was a scientist who worked for the CIA. At a 1953 CIA retreat, Olson drank a cocktail that had been secretly spiked with LSD.

A few days later, on November 28, 1953, Olson tumbled to his death from the window of a New York City hotel room in an alleged suicide.

The family of Frank Olson decided to have a second autopsy performed in 1994. A forensics team found injuries on the body that had likely occurred before the fall. The findings sparked conspiracy theories that Olson might have been assassinated by the CIA.

After prolonged legal proceedings, Olson’s family was awarded a settlement of $750,000, and received a personal apology from President Gerald Ford and then-CIA Director William Colby.


Church History, Volume Two: From Pre-Reformation To The Present Day

Church history tells story of the greatest movement in world history. Yet, just as the biblical record of the people of God is the story of a mixed people with great acts of faith and great failures in sin and unfaithfulness, so is the history of the people who have made up the church for 2,000 years.

Frank A. James III and John D. Woodbridge’s Church History, vol. 2: From Pre-Reformation to the Present Day recounts these triumphs and struggles of the Christian movement from just before the Reformation to today. It offers a unique contextual view of how the Christian church spread and developed in the modern day. Woodbridge and James look closely at the integral link between the history of the world and that of the church, detailing the times, cultures, and events that influenced—and were influenced by—the church.

Don’t miss the companion volume by Everett Ferguson: Church History, Volume 1: From Christ to Pre-Reformation.

Key Features

  • Provides a balanced view of the church’s triumphs and struggles from the Reformation to today
  • Details the times, cultures, and events that influenced the modern Christian church
  • Covers 500 years of Christian history in the West, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
  • Examines the intellectual and social history of the church since the Reformation

Sisu

  • European Christianity in an Age of Adversity, Renaissance, and Discovery (1300–1500)
  • The Renaissance and the Christian Faith
  • Luther’s Reformation: A Conscience Unbound
  • The Swiss Reformations: The Maturation of International Calvinism (Sixteenth Century)
  • Radicals and Rome: Responses to the Magisterial Reformation (Sixteenth Century)
  • Reformations in England: The Politics of Reform (Sixteenth Century)
  • Refining the Reformation: Theological Currents in the Seventeenth Century
  • Christianity in an Age of Fear, Crisis, and Exploration (Seventeenth Century)
  • Christianity and the Question of Authority (Seventeenth Century)
  • Christianity under Duress: The Age of Lights (1680–1789)
  • Christianity in the Age of Lights (1): The British Isles (1680–1789)
  • Christianity in the Age of Lights (2): The Kingdom of France (1680–1789)
  • Christianity in the Age of Lights (3): The Continent of Europe (1680–1789)
  • Christianity in an Age of Revolutions (1770–1848)
  • Adjusting to Modernization and Secularism: The Rise of Protestant Liberalism (1799–1919)
  • Nineteenth-Century Christianity in the British Isles: Renewal, Missions, and the Crisis of Faith
  • The Christian Churches on the European Continent (1814–1914)
  • Global Christianity: A Re-Centered Faith (Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries)
  • Modern Theological Trajectories: Spiraling into the Third Millennium (Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries)
  • Catholicism and Orthodoxy: Collision to Collegiality (Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries)
  • Contemporary American Evangelicalism: Permutations and Progressions (Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries)
  • Christianity and Islam: The Challenge of the Future (Twenty-first Century)

Praise for the Print Edition

Product Details

  • Title : Church History, Volume 2: From Pre-Reformation to the Present Day
  • Authors : John D. Woodbridge, Frank James
  • Volume: 2
  • Publisher : Zondervan
  • Print Publication Date: 2013
  • Logos Release Date: 2015
  • Pages: 864
  • Language : English
  • Resources: 1
  • Format : Digital › Logos Research Edition
  • Subject : Church history
  • ISBNs : 9780310527152, 9780310257431
  • Resource ID: LLS:ZPHCHRHISTV02
  • Resource Type: text.monograph.church-history
  • Metadata Last Updated: 2021-04-26T18:00:57Z

Benefits of Logos Edition

In the Logos edition, this volume is enhanced by amazing functionality. Important terms link to dictionaries, encyclopedias, and a wealth of other resources in your digital library. Perform powerful searches to find exactly what you’re looking for. Take the discussion with you using tablet and mobile apps. With Logos Bible Software, the most efficient and comprehensive research tools are in one place, so you get the most out of your study.

About the Authors

John D. Woodbridge is research professor of church history and history of Christian thought at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in Deerfield, Illinois, where he has taught since 1970. He was previously a senior editor of Christianity Today and is the author of numerous books, including A God-Sized Vision: Revival Stories that Stretch and Stir. He is also the coeditor, with D.A. Carson, of Scripture and Truth ja Hermeneutics, Authority, and Canon. Woodbridge is the recipient of four Gold Medallion Awards.

Frank A. James III is the president of Biblical Seminary in Hatfield, Pennsylvania. Prior to taking his current post, he taught and served as president at Reformed Theological Seminary in Orlando, FL, and served as provost and taught at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary. Additionally, he has been on the teaching faculties of Villanova University and Westmont College, and was a visiting professor at the Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies at Oxford University.

James is the author or editor of numerous works on the Reformation and has been a consultant and script writer for a historical documentary film series. Tema on autor Peter Martyr Vermigli and Predestination: The Augustinian Inheritance of an Italian Reformer and the professor for Logos Mobile Ed’s Introducing Church History I and II.


Edward Snowden is the 21st Century's Frank Church

Kristie Macrakis, a Professor of History, Technology and Society at Georgia Tech, is the author or editor of five books. Her book on the "Stasi: Seduced by Secrets," just came out in paperback and one on secret writing was released last April: "Prisoners, Lovers, and Spies."

NSA/CSS Georgia Cryptologic Center

Admiral Michael Rogers was in Georgia last week. He has an impressive title: Director of the NSA/CSS ja Commander, U.S. Cyber Command. Despite over a year of public discussion about reining in the NSA’s powers, Rogers was here, in essence, to recruit young people and to inaugurate the national security state’s unbridled expansion at Fort Gordon. The balance between privacy and security is not the only issue to consider regarding the NSA. Our next public debate should be about shrinking the enormous and expanding post-9/11 national security state and its intelligence bureaucracies.

Georgia’s new NSA/CSS Cryptologic Center is across the street from Fort Gordon’s Bingo Palace. Located in Augusta, GA, Fort Gordon is the new Fort Meade of the South.

Fort Meade, NSA headquarters in Maryland

The new NSA Georgia building opened in March 2012 and is part of the Intelligence Community’s building and spending spree in the wake of 9/11. It developed along with:

Of course NSA Utah, a facility in excess of 1 million square feet.

Rogers was in Georgia to present a keynote lecture at the Education Cyber Summit. He was also at Georgia Tech talking to students and faculty. He skipped down the auditorium steps dressed in Admiral Navy white. He bristled when I stated that Washington, DC seems to be in a state of damage control. “We are not in damage control,” he said defensively. Well, if discussions about how to prevent a future Edward Snowden, isn’t damage control, I don’t know what is.

Maybe it’s time to think: “Maybe we did something wrong, maybe we overstepped our boundaries. How can we reform ourselves?” As a historian of intelligence and technology, I wanted to know what reforms had been instituted in the wake of the Snowden revelations. I pointed out that almost forty years ago, Senator Frank Church oversaw in-depth investigations and reviews about decades of intelligence abuse and its reform. One of the results was the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA).

Edward Snowden is the new Frank Church. And reporters Glenn Greenwald and Barton Gellman are the investigative staffers. In the absence of real congressional oversight, whistleblowers and the media have had to step in.

The current congressional intelligence committees are in bed with the Intelligence Community. They are no longer watchdogs but sleeping hounds. Intelligence oversight committees have become part of the entrenched bureaucracies. Saxby Chambliss from the Senate Intelligence Committee sponsored the new NSA Georgia expansion. The committees have become part of the intelligence bureaucracies, not overseers of it.

Bureaucracy and secrecy are a toxic mix. Forty years is a long time in the life cycle of a governmental bureaucracy. It is time for renewal, a time for re-thinking who will do the oversight. The only report the public has seen is from the Washington insiders on the Presidential Review Committee with its bewildering 47 recommendations. The government has been slow in telling us which of the specific recommendations will be accepted.

Many of the issues raised by the voluminous Church Committee reports are surprisingly similar to those of today. Church and his committee were prescient. Aside from preserving first and fourth amendment rights, staffers warned against Orwellian technologies of surveillance. One worry was that “some government organization by the expenditure of enough money could have the capability to “know everything about everyone” at any time.” Well, here we are. The new national security state has received more money for intelligence than ever in the history of the world and the NSA has the capability to know everything about everyone. The Stasi could only have dreamed of such capabilities.

As James Risen has recounted in his new book Pay any Price, Diane Roarck, a staffer responsible for the NSA on the Senate Intelligence Committee was rebuffed, harassed and ostracized when she brought her concerns about NSA’s domestic surveillance program to other committee members and leaders.

Technology always moves faster than laws and society. This is true also for surveillance technologies. In the absence of congressional oversight, it is good we have whistleblowers like Thomas Drake, Bill Binney and Edward Snowden. It is too bad it had to take the most dramatic one of all—Snowden—to jolt Washington into frenzy. Let’s hope that frenzy turns to action not just damage control.


Ajalugu

There are many variations of this story, but here is the best timeline we’ve been able to piece together about the Frank Holton & Co. instrument manufacturing company.

Frank E. Holton
born Mar. 10, 1858

Source: 1860 US Census
Heath Township, Allegan, MI June 23, 1860
Father: Otis M. ? or L.? Holton (Born 1827: New York) Farmer
Mother: Hanna A. Holton (Born 1829: Michigan)
Siblings:
Emma E
Alice
Frank E
Leona (? spelling)

Allikas: 1870 US Census
Allegan Village, June 10, 1870

Frank Holton official roster of John Philips Sousa Band (age 33-34)

source :
John Philip Sousa official website
Sousa Band Roster
http://www.dws.org/sousa/band/roster.htm

York briefly participated in two partnerships, Smith & York (1883) and York & Holton (1885) before naming the company J.W. York and Company.

source:
Lars Kilmer York Serial Number List
York Serial Number list
http://www.musictrader.com/york.html

Frank Holton began his company in Chicago.

source : Music Trades Database, G. Leblanc Company

“Frank Holton was a professional trombonist with the famous Sousa band and associate of the leading musicians of the late 19th century. He was a business manager and trombone soloist a theatre musician and entrepreneur. The legacy of Frank Holton continues to this day, over 100 years later, focusing on providing musicians with the finest tools on which to perform their craft.

Holton began his company in 1896 in Chicago, after numerous engagements as a trombonist in many leading performing groups. As a former member of Sousa’s great band, and an associate and friend of trombonist Arthur Pryor and cornetist Herbert L. Clarke, Holton enjoyed wide renown. At forty year’s of age, Frank Holton created his own recipe for trombone slide oil. He soon took on the sale of used band instruments. H. A. Vander Cook (who later started the Vander Cook School of Music) stated that, “The present factory is the result of his perseverance and his making one good tone at a time, which method he applied to overcome the obstacles as they arose before him. Holton’s contacts and friendships made in his professional musician days served him well during these years. Many of his friends in the theatre and dance band circuits had made their way to top symphony jobs, bringing their Holton instruments to Boston, New York, Philadelphia and other highly respected orchestras.

One interesting note is that the first trumpet player with the Boston Symphony, Vincent Bach, used and endorsed the Holton trumpet at that time. In 1917, Holton had completed tooling for a complete line of saxophones, in order to meet with the saxophone craze that was just beginning. His factory, though, was at capacity and needed to grow. One of his early customers and friend suggested that Holton combine his love of Wisconsin farms with his work and set up a new factory in Elkhorn, Wisconsin. The citizens of Elkhorn built him a factory of over 35,000 square feet and, while bringing in or training a workforce proved difficult, the first profits for the Wisconsin-based company showed themselves in 1920. The organization of school bands and the promise of ?a playing band within twelve weeks, brought Holton good sales results, but this growth in student instrument demand was not a good fit for the higher-priced professional instruments that Holton was producing. The company introduced lower-priced outsourced instruments under such names as Pertin and Beaufort until it could introduce its own ?Collegiate? line in the early 1930’s. Mr. Holton retired at age 82 and sold his controlling shares to longtime associate, William Kull. Frank Holton died on April 16, 1942. Kull remained the CEO until his death in 1944, but the Frank Holton Company was essentially run by the sales manager, Elliott Kehl, a long-time Holton employee. Kehl found war work to keep the factory open during a time when all brass was directed to the war effort. Over the next several years, Kehl was allowed to purchase a majority share in the company as he led a program of re-engineering and improving the line of instruments. Kehl also revived work with key artists, including Phillip Farkas, first horn player of the Chicago Symphony. In 1956, the Holton Farkas model French horn was introduced to great acclaim. That same year, new tooling for saxophones brought Holton into the modern saxophone world.

In 1962, the decision to sell the Frank Holton Company to the G. Leblanc Corporation was made. G. Leblanc brought its strength in woodwind instruments together with Holton brass expertise, creating a much more formidable competitor in the band instrument industry. Through the remainder of the century, Holton continued to produce student and professional brass instruments. Its work with international star Maynard Ferguson and his “Superbone” continued Frank Holton’s commitment to working with the finest artists. Development with key educators such as Chicago’s Ethel Merker keeps Holton French horn development moving even beyond what Phillip Farkas has envisioned. Efforts to help young people progress included the introduction of a child-size single horn. In 2005, the company introduced the new Holton Collegiate line of low brass instruments. Like its predecessor in the 1930’s, this high-quality, lower-priced instrument line provides the ideal combination of performance and value for school music programs. The second century of Holton continues to be written, however, the purchase of Leblanc and Holton by Steinway Musical Instruments bodes well for the company. Working with key artists, serving amateur musicians, and developing exciting new opportunities were key to Frank Holton’s vision. Now as part of Steinway Musical Instruments and its band and orchestra division, Conn-Selmer, Inc., Holton instruments continue to excite the musical mind and provide today’s musicians with the finest instruments on which to experience the joy of music.”


First Christian Church is a Real Frank Lloyd Wright

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I'd always assumed that the peculiar church on Seventh Avenue was a Frank Lloyd Wright knockoff, one of dozens of acclaimed buildings around town that are politely referred to as "homages" because they ape Wright's trademark concrete-and-stone stylings. But it turns out that this prettily peculiar building is that rarest of things: a sanctioned, official Wright design, albeit one built from retired plans that languished on a shelf for more than two decades.

Even if the name First Christian Church (6750 North Seventh Avenue) doesn't ring a bell with you, the building itself &mdash and especially the soaring, triangular bell tower blasting out of its lawn and towering over the property like a giant finger pointing to the sky &mdash likely will. Anyone who's ever traveled through Central Phoenix on Seventh Avenue knows this church it's the only place of worship in town with a 77-foot-tall roof and spire, held aloft by 23 willowy concrete and steel pillars surrounding walls made mostly of glass and capped by what Wright called a "lantern" that extends from one side of the building to the next. Both the lantern and the church's dramatic spire are chockablock with stained glass imported from France, Belgium, and Italy and assembled in Tempe.

Wright's philosophy was that a triangular building reflected an attitude of prayer, but this diamond (or double-triangle) shaped design was not originally intended for First Christian. Wright's plans were commissioned in 1949 by Southwest Christian Seminary, a Bible college that went belly-up the following year. The drawings for the 80-acre university were made public in 1950 and included a chapel, administrative buildings, seminar rooms, library, Greek theater, and faculty housing. When the seminary folded, the plans were returned to Wright, who shelved them.

Got a least-favorite building you want to see covered here? Want to praise a Phoenix design element, new or old, that you've admired? Write to [email protected]

"Dr. Boyce was our minister in the early '70s, and he knew of the plans on file at Taliesin West," remembers First Christian's administrative assistant Sandra Morgan, who's been a member of the church for 30 years. "Dr. Boyce went and talked to Mrs. Wright and convinced her to let him buy the design for the chapel part of the university."

Boyce's save was an auspicious one. The lost plans were transformed into a building that has become a local landmark and has been called "one of the 10 best church buildings ever built in America" by the Church Architects Guild of America. It's certainly among Wright's more unusual designs &mdash and that's saying a lot &mdash and one that proved challenging to the phalanx of engineers hired to erect it.

First Christian, which had been hunkering in smaller, more humble homes since its founding in 1952, broke ground in 1971. By 1973, it resided in a classically Wrightian building of rough concrete and native stone, the famed architect's favored building materials. The low-ceilinged lobby and sanctuary entrance are hung with 20 tons of rock mined from the Arizona desert, and the four-sided spire that caps the worship center appears from every angle to be a triangle. (Try this: Ogle the spire during the daytime while walking the church's grounds or driving through its parking lot, and you'll notice that the spire appears to be turning. It's not it's designed to catch sunlight on each of its sides, any two of which are equal to the others, in such a way that it always appears as a triangle against the sky.)

The church's free-standing, 120-foot bell tower offers the same optical illusion as the roof spire, but with four sides each unequal to the other three. The tower, capped with a 22-foot-tall cross, has no inward supporting structure steel detailer Frank Grossman (a Phoenician who'd built the suspension mechanism for the blue whale that's still hanging in the American Museum of Natural History) created an alloy skeleton that supports the tower's 304 tons of concrete, stone, and steel, materials specified in Wright's notes on the original design, which the widow Wright reportedly insisted be followed to the letter.

If she hadn't, and if the leadership of First Christian Church hadn't gone after her husband's unused plans, Central Phoenix and Seventh Avenue would be a whole heck of a lot less interesting to look at. And while Wright brought a ton of spiritual subtlety to his design (it's even built on 23 triangular pillars of concrete and steel that somehow represent the Holy Trinity), this rustic house of worship is so wonderfully eccentric to look at that even a cranky old atheist like me has fallen in love with it.

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Vaata videot: Måneskin - Beggin Lyrics 1 Hour Loop TikTok Song (Mai 2022).


Kommentaarid:

  1. Avedis

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  2. Gosida

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  3. Phillips

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  4. Fenrikinos

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  5. Keene

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  6. Abboid

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