Ajalugu Podcastid

Unalga ajalugu - ajalugu

Unalga ajalugu - ajalugu

Unalga

(RC: dp. 1,181 (n.), Ibp. 190'- b. 32'6 ": dr. 14'1" (taga); s. 13 k; cpl. 70; a. 3 6-psrs) ; cl. Unalga)

Unalga-rannavalve lõikur, mille ehitas Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co.-käivitati 10. veebruaril 1912, seda sponsoreeris Miss Elizabeth Hilles ja tellis Revenue Cutter Service (RCS) oma depoo Arundel Cove'is, Md. 23. mail 1912.

Unalga veetis 1912. aasta suve sisustamisega. Juunis sai ta relvad Washingtonis ja lõpetas nende paigaldamise Baltimore'is juulis ja augustis. 6. septembril sai ta käsu aru anda Vaikse ookeani ranniku põhjaosakonna komandörile, RCS, Port Townsendis, Washingtonis.

Ta lahkus sel päeval Baltimorest ning pärast peatusi Newport Newsis ja Norfolkis suundus ta Atlandi ookeani. Ta jõudis 11. oktoobril Gibraltari väina ja kolm päeva hiljem jätkas Itaalias Napoli suunas, kuhu jõudis 19. Ta sai uuesti käima 25. kuupäeval; peatus Maltal 26. – 29. oktoobril; ja saabus 1. novembril Egiptuses Port Saidi, Suessi kanali põhjaotsa.

Kui Unalga sõitis sadamast sadamasse üle Vahemere ida poole, kasutasid Bulgaaria, Serbia, Kreeka ja Montenegro ära Liibüa Italo -Türgi sõja, et moodustada Balkani liiga ja laskuda Ottomani impeeriumisse. Kreeka ja Serbia armeed tungisid Euroopa Türki, püüdes vabastada Ottomani valdusi, kus asusid nende sugulased. Kreeklased ja serblased kolisid Makedooniasse, kuid kolm Bulgaaria armeed sõitsid pea ees Traakiasse, investeerisid Adrianoopoli ja võitsid Kirk Kilissa ja Lule lahingutes Türgi armeed. Burgas. Selle sõidu edu tekitas Konstantinoopoli väliskogukonnas ärevust, et pealinn ei langeks sissetungija kätte kogu Balkani sõja mõrva ja kaosega.

Ameeriklaste ja teiste välismaalaste kaitsmiseks Türgis Konstantinoopoli langemise korral palus Ameerika Ühendriikide suursaadik hr Rockhill sõjalaevu Levantisse saata. Sellele soovile vastates saatis mereväeosakond Brutuse ja plaanis saata veel kaks sõda. Rahandusministeerium käskis Unalgal jääda Port Saidi ja anda end suursaadik Rockhilli korralduste järgi, kui tema teenused peaksid tekkima. Kuue nädala jooksul, mil ta Port Saidis viibis, vähenes Traakias vaenutegevuse tempo, sest bulgaarlased ei suutnud rikkuda türklaste Chatalla liini, mis tõi kaasa tee Konstantinoopolisse. 3. detsembril sõlmisid türklased ja bulgaarlased detsembri lõpus Londonis alanud rahukonverentsi ettevalmistava vaherahu. 17. detsembril, samal päeval kui konverents algas, lahkus Unalga Port Saidist, et läbida Suessi kanal ja jätkata katkestatud reisi Põhja -Ameerika läänerannikule.

Pärast peatusi Adenis, Tseilonis, Singapuris, Manilas, Yokohamas, Jaapanis ja Honolulus jõudis lõikur Port Townsendisse 22. märtsil 1913. Viis päeva pärast aruandlust Põhja diviisi ülemale määrati ta uuesti Beringi merelaevastikku. 3. mail lahkus ta Port Townsendist oma esimesele kruiisile Alaska vetesse. Selle ülesande ajal külastas ta Kodiaki ja Unalaskat, enne kui naasis 11. augustil Port Townsendisse. 3. oktoobril määrati Unalga uuesti lõunaosakonda ja 21. päeval asus ta teele San Franciscosse, kuhu ta saabus neli päeva hiljem. Lõikur teenis lõunaosakonnas kuni eraldamiseni 25. märtsil 1914. Pärast aprilli esimese 20 päeva veetmist Oaklandis, Californias, oli ta remondis, suundus ta tagasi Alaskale ja teenis Beringi meres.

Järgmise kolme aasta jooksul vahetas lõikur vaheldumisi ülesandeid Põhja diviisi ja Beringi merelaevastikuga. Pärast 1. maailmasõja puhkemist Euroopas 1. augustil 1914 võttis ta endale täiendava vastutuse Ameerika neutraalsusseaduste jõustamise eest. Veebruaris 1915 alustas ta ka patrullimist, et jõustada 1911. aasta USA, Suurbritannia, Jaapani ja Venemaa vahelise karusnahahüljeste kaitse konventsiooni sätteid. Need kaks kohustust ja tema tavalised kohustused viisid ta lisaks Unalaskale mitmetesse Alaska sadamatesse, nagu Seward, Juneau ja Skagway ning sellistesse kohtadesse nagu Cooki sissepääs, Slime Banks, Pribilofs ja Püha Matteuse saar.

Kui USA astus I maailmasõda 6

Aprillil 1917 andis president Woodrow Wilson välja korralduse, millega pandi rannavalve sõjategevuse ajaks mereväeosakonna jurisdiktsiooni alla; ja Unalga liitus mereväega. Kuigi ta oli määratud mereväeteenistusse, täitis ta jätkuvalt oma endisi ülesandeid. Ta tegi igal aastal kruiisi Alaska-Beringi mere piirkonda suvekuudel 1917, 1918 ja 1919. Igal kruiisil vedas ta posti ja tarvikuid kaluritele ja põliselanikele ligipääsmatutes piirkondades, osutas vajadusel arstiabi ja aitas hätta sattunud laevad. 1918. aasta kruiisi ajal osales ta ka mitmes konservitehases tekkinud töövaidluse lahendamises. Lisaks ülalkirjeldatud rutiinile jätkas ta patrullimist karusnahkhüljeste kaitse konventsiooni toetuseks. Kuna rahvas oli sõjas, hoidis Unalga ka valvsalt vaenlase laevu, kuid Saksa, Austria-Ungari ilmumise tõenäosus oli väike. või Türgi laev Vaikse ookeani põhjaosas võimaldas tal keskenduda oma rahuaja missioonile. Suure tõenäosusega ei lasknud Unalga kunagi oma vihaga relvi oma esimese mereväe löögi ajal.

Vaenutegevus lõppes 11. novembri 1918. aasta vaherahuga, kuid rannavalve jätkas veel üheksa kuud mereväe jurisdiktsiooni all. 28. augustil 1919 taastas rahandusministeerium kontrolli. Sel päeval kustutati mereväe nimekirjast kõigi mereväge teenindanud rannavalvelaevade nimed. Unalga aga peaaegu ei märganud muutust, sest jätkas oma Beringi mere kruiise ja Põhja diviisi ülesandeid nagu ennegi. Lõikur sõitis Alaska ja Vaikse ookeani põhjarannikul, helistades tuttavatesse sadamatesse läbi 1920. aastate. Suvereisi lõpus Beringi mere äärde 1930. aastal lahkus ta Port Townsendist, et naasta idarannikule esimest korda 18 aasta jooksul. 5. septembril saabus ta täpsustamata depoosse (tõenäoliselt Arundel Cove'i, Md.). Igal juhul paigutati ta 16. veebruaril 1931 töölt välja ja kaks päeva hiljem kolis ta Philadelphiasse põhjalikuks remondiks. Ta lahkus mereväe hoovist 27. juunil 1931, et naasta depoo, tõenäoliselt lisatöödeks, kuna ta pandi tagasi tööle alles 23. aprillil 1932.

14. mail suundus ta lõunasse, et teenida Port Everglades'is, Fla., Kuhu ta saabus 24. Ta teenis selles sadamas ja Fort Lauderdale'is kuni 1934. aastani. 1933. aasta septembris teenis lõikur lühikest aega uuesti mereväes, kui teda kutsuti Kuubas toimunud mässude ajal Florida väina vetes patrullima. Fulgencio Batista 25-aastase diktatuuri alguses. 1. novembril vabastati ta sellest kohustusest ja järgmisel päeval anti käsk Lõuna -piirkonna ülemale (USCG) edasiste korralduste saamiseks aru anda. Ta jätkas tavapärast tööd Port Evergladesi rannavalvejaamast kuni 1936. aastani, kui ta viidi üle Puerto Rico San Juanisse.

Unalga teenis San Juanis suurema osa oma ülejäänud aktiivsest karjäärist. 1. novembril 1941 andis president Franklin D. Roosevelt rannavalve üle mereväeosakonna jurisdiktsiooni; ja Unalga liitus uuesti mereväega. Kunagi 1942. aastal klassifitseeriti ta WPG-63-ks, veetis ta kogu sõja San Juanist väljas, korraldades 10. mereväeringkonna komandandi egiidi all allveelaevade patrulle. Teise maailmasõja teenistuse kohta käiva teabe nappus viitab sellele, et ta pole vaenlasega kunagi kokku puutunud. Millalgi 1945. aastal määrati lõikur Norfolkis ja selle ümbruses tegutsevasse 6. mereväeringkonda. Hiljem lammutati ja anti üle sõjalaevandusametile, müüdi Unalga 1946. aasta juulis.


USCGC Unalga (WPG-53)

| moodul = karjäär (USA) Nimi: USCGC UnalgaNimekaim: Unalga saar, Alaska, USA Operaator: Ameerika Ühendriikide rannavalve Ehitaja: Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Corporation, Newport News, Virginia Ώ ] Maksumus: 250 000 USA dollarit ΐ ] Α ] Käivitatud: 10. veebruar 1912 ΐ ] Sponsor: Miss Elizabeth Hilles ΐ ] Ristitud: 10. veebruaril 1912 Kasutuselevõtt: 23. mai 1912 ΐ ] Α ] Kasutuselt kõrvaldatud: 10. oktoober 1945 ΐ ] Neitsireis: 20 Aprill 1912, Hampton Roads, Virginia Α ] Saatus: pöördus sõjalaevandusametile müügiks. Müüdud 19. juulil 1946. | moodul2 = üldised omadused Kaal: 1,181 tonni ΐ ] Pikkus: 190  ft (58  m) Tala: 32,5  ft (9,9  m) Süvis: 14,1  ft (4,3 & Tõukejõud: kolmekordse paisuga aurujaam, mis toodab 1300 ja#160 hj (970  kW) kiirus: kuni 12,5 sõlme Vahemik: kruiisireis: 7,9 sõlme, 4200 miili vahemik
töötlussüsteemid: SF-1, SA-2 tuvastusradarid QCL-5 sonar (1945) Relvastus:

2 kuue naela kiirpüstolit (1912)

2 x 3 "/50 cal relva, 2 x 20 mm püstolit, 2 x sügavuslaengut (1943) ja#912 ] >> USCGC Unalga oli Miami-Klassi lõikur, mis teenis USA tulude lõikamise teenistuses, USA rannavalves ja USA mereväes. Tema karjääri alguses kulus patrullimine USA Vaikse ookeani rannikul ja Beringi merel. Pärast 1931. aastat tegi ta patrullitööd Floridas ja Kariibi mere piirkonnas. Pärast Unalga aastal müüdi, ta nimetati ümber ja kasutati kuus kuud juudi pagulaste Euroopast Palestiinasse viimiseks, enne kui Briti mereväe laevad Haifa lähedal karile sundisid.


LORAN STATION ST. MATTEUS

1943 - Esimene jaam otsustas, et lorani jaamad on kasutatavad.

17. JUUNI 1943 - USCGC CLOVER lahkus Hollandi sadamast ehitusmaterjalidega.

1943. aasta 20. – 21. September - katseperioodil asusid viis värvatut lorani jaamast väikese surfipaadiga teele piki rannajoont sõjaväe ilmajaama umbes 9 miili kaugusele, et korjata väike bensiinimootorite generaator. Mehed, paat ja kogu varustus kadusid jäljetult, hoolimata asjaolust, et meri oli rahulik ja neil oli käsk jääda 200 meetri kaugusele kaldast. Otsingupartneritel ei õnnestunud leida muud vihjet peale 5-gallonise õlipurgi, mis teadaolevalt oli paadis.

Mehed kaotasid:
HAGLUND, Floyd O. (220-806) RM1c
BREIMO, Elmer O. (538-963) Cox. (R)
MACLEAN, Thomas L. (636-878) Meri. 1c (R)
SCHMOLL, Kenneth H. (506-786) RM3c (R)
HAGEN, Edward C. (584-147) RM3c

FALL 1943 - USA armee ühendas oma kvartalid Lorani jaamaga, mis oli jaamast 9 miili lääne pool.

28. JUUNI 1944 - CG -üksus 254 taotles põhjapõdra üldjuhendajalt, Nome, AL 25 emase ja 5 isase põhjapõtra ostmiseks ja transportimiseks Nunivaki saarelt Püha Matteuse juurde.

30. JUUNI 1944 - Heakskiit antud. Paadi ja CG -üksuse 254 kaptenile anti ringkiri nr 60 põhjapõtrade laadimise ja mahalaadimise protseduuride kohta.

14. AUG 1944 - CG lõikur transportis põhjapõdrad Püha Matteuse juurde ja vabastati. Kari kasvas üle 6000 elanikkonna ja viimane emane suri 1981. aastal.

13. SEP 1946 - COG ja 20 värvatud meest lahkusid jaamast CGC UNALGA pardal

27. - 29. MAI 1949 - CGC NORTHWIND töörühm kaldal mahajäetud LTS -i koormatud laevade ja varustusega.


Kuidas 80 rannavalvurit päästsid Unalaska Hispaania gripipandeemiast

Rannavalve mehitatud USS Unalga on käimas Alaska jääväljal (NOAA)

Avaldatud 16. augustil 2020, kell 18.49 USA rannavalve uudised

[Autor BM1 William A. Bleyer, Ameerika Ühendriikide rannavalve]

& quot; Mõnikord tuleb ette juhuseid. . . milles ohvitsere ja meeskondi kutsutakse üles seisma silmitsi meeleheitliku inimvajadusega olukordadega, mis panevad nende leidlikkuse ja energia ning isegi julguse kõige raskemale proovile. " & quot; Gripp Unalaskas ja Hollandi sadamas & rdquo USA rannavalve aastaaruanne, 1920

Pandeemia, karantiinid, sotsiaalne distantseerumine ja näomaskid on tänapäeval liiga tuttavad. Need terminid kajasid ameeriklaste jaoks sama muret 100 aastat tagasi, kuna Hispaania gripipandeemia aastatel 1918–1919 mõjutas peaaegu kõiki maakera nurki. See põhjustas 25–50 miljoni inimese surma, rohkem kui kõik, kes hukkusid Esimeses maailmasõjas. Isegi kõige arenenuma arstiabi saanud piirkondades suri Hispaania gripp ligikaudu kolm protsenti kõigist ohvritest.


Unalga meeskonnaliikmed matavad surnuid Vene õigeusu katedraali juurde. (NOAA)

Arstiabi Alaska kaugel territooriumil polnud kaugeltki arenenud. Kui pandeemia 1919. aasta kevadel saabus, hävitas see terved külad. Tol ajal oli Alaska Ameerika koloonia, millel oli poliitiline staatus kusagil valitsuse protektoraadi ja tööstusressursi vahel, ning föderaalvalitsuse varade olemasolu sellel tohutul territooriumil oli minimaalne.

1919. aasta mai lõpus USS Unalga patrullis Seredka lahes Akuni saare lähedal Alaska & rsquos Aleutian Islandi ketis. Esimene maailmasõda oli lõppenud vaid kuus kuud varem, nii et & ndash nagu kõik rannavalve mehitatud lõikurid & ndash Unalga ja selle meeskond teenis endiselt USA mereväes. 190 jala kõrgusel Unalga & rsquos valge kere oli vaid mõnevõrra pikem kui tänapäevased Alaska ja rsquose vetes patrullivad kiirreageerimislõikurid. Ja samas Unalga & rsquos igapäevased toimingud olid põhimõtteliselt sarnased tänapäeva & rsquos FRC -dega, need olid palju laiemad. Alaska patrull 1919. aastal võib koosneda õiguskaitseorganite pardaletulekust kala- ja hülgelaevadelt, kes kontrollivad posti, tarvikuid, reisijaid ja vange, kes päästavad laevahuku või hukkunud ohvreid, kes osutavad arstiabi ujuva kohusena ja lahendavad töövaidlusi.

26. mail, Unalga puhkas ankrus pärast rutiinset meremehepäeva ja andis märku koolitusest. Kella 1600 paiku saabus kiire raadiosõnum. Unalaska asula lähedal asuval Unalaska saarel kannatas tõsise Hispaania gripi puhangu all. Lõikaja ja rsquose juhtiv ohvitser kapten Frederick Dodge oli valmis seda saama Unalga käimas koidikul.

See öö, Unalga sai teise radiogrammi ja ala Bristoli lahe ümbruses, Alaska ja rsquose mandriosa edelaosas, vajas kiiret abi oma haiguspuhanguga toimetulekuks. Dodge seisis dilemma ees: Unalga ei saanud olla kahes kohas korraga. Ta edastas raadio teel oma käsu, et seab kursi lähemale Unalaskale olukorra hindamiseks.

Kauge, isegi täna, 1919. aastal oli Unalaska ja selle kõrval asuv Hollandi sadam pisikesed külad, kus elas kokku umbes 360 inimest, peamiselt aleutidest või vene päritoluga esivanematest. Kogu saarel oli ainult üks arst.

Pärast saabumist, Unalga & rsquos meeskond lahkus kohutavasse stseeni. Peaaegu kogu asula oli nakatunud, sealhulgas Hollandi sadama ja rsquos Navy raadiojaama ainus arst ja kõik peale ühe operaatori. Olukord oli kriitiline, nagu ajaloolane Alfred Crosby märkis Ameerikas ja rsquos Forgotten Pandemic:

. . . väga suur osa isoleeritud populatsioonidest kippus haigestuma Hispaania grippi korraga. Haigeid oli rohkem kui neid, kes tegid õendust. Seetõttu puudus haigetel vedelik, toit ja korralik hooldus, mis põhjustas väga kõrge suremuse ja tõhus juhtimine oli hädavajalik suremuse alandamiseks. Kui enesega rahulolu, ebakompetentsus, haigus või halb õnn halvavad juhtide võimet pandeemiale tõhusalt reageerida, võib Hispaania gripp olla sama surmav kui must surm.


Unalga & rsquos meeskonna liikmed karjatavad orvuks jäänud lapsi turvaliselt. (NOAA)

Nüüd langes see meeste kätte Unalga pakkuda elupäästvat juhtimist ja arstiabi. Väljas Unalga & rsquos meeskonnast umbes 80 meest, ainult kolmel oli meditsiiniline väljaõpe: Ship & rsquos Surgeon leitnant j.g. Dr F.H. Johnson (USA rahvatervise teenistus), leitnant E.W. Scott (USA mereväe hambaravi korpus) ja apteeker & rsquos Mate 1/klass E.S. Chase. Need mehed hakkasid koordineerima linna arstiabi. Koos kogusid nad meeskonnast vabatahtlike rühma, kes kasvas pidevalt, kuni see hõlmas personali igast lõikuri pardal olevast osakonnast.

Unalga & rsquos meeskond kannab & ldquoFlu & rdquo maske. Kõik humanitaarmeetmetesse kaasatud lõikurite ja rsquose meeskonnaliikmed tulid vabatahtlikult appi. (NOAA)

26. maist kuni 4. juunini, Unalga tõestas Unalaska elanike erinevust elu ja surma vahel. Kapten Dodge algatas linna toitmise Unalga & rsquos toidupoed. Meeskonnaliikmed tarnisid esimesel päeval 350 valmistoitu ja pandeemia kõrghetkel pakkusid nad üle 1000 toidukorra päevas. Külaelanikud reastasid laeva ja rsquose hädaabinõud kuskile kohutava ja halva vahele, kuid sõid ära.


Vaeslapsed ja Unalga orbukodu hooldaja. (NOAA)

Iga meeskonnaliige tegeles mõne abitööga. Hüüdnimega & ldquogobs, & rdquo need, kes haigeid ei hooli, pakkusid logistilist tuge, näiteks pidasid töövõimetutele külaelanikele tulekahjusid või aitasid toitu valmistada või kohale toimetada. Teised meeskonnaliikmed võtsid üle Hollandi sadama mereväe raadiojaama. Mehed ehitasid isegi ajutise haigla, mis oli varustatud torustikuga ja elektrifitseeritud lõikuri ja rsquose generaatori abil.

Haigete eest hoolitsemine ja surnute matmine oli kurnav ja emotsionaalselt raske töö. Hispaania leedi & rdquo (haigus ja rsquos elegantselt õudne hüüdnimi) oli sageli kohutav. Ohvrid kannatasid sageli kahekordse kopsupõletiku all ja uppusid, kui kopsud olid vedelikuga täidetud, millest osa suri ninast ja suust välja. Meeskonnaliikmed põetasid haigeid ilma kaitsevahenditeta, välja arvatud riidest näomaskid, paljastades end nakkustele. Mitmed mehed haigestusid, sealhulgas Dodge. Ta otsustas, et on piisavalt hea, et juhtida, ja taastus hiljem. Kuigi Unalga & rsquos Meeskond tegi kõik endast oleneva, et päästa elusid, pidid nad lõpuks 45 ohvrit Unalaska ja rsquose kalmistul valgete vene õigeusu ristide all pidama.


Vaeslapsed ja Unalga orbude kodu hooldaja. (NOAA)

Unalga & rsquos meeskond hoolitses ka lahkunu või töövõimetu laste eest. Erinevalt hooajalisest gripist mõjutas Hispaania gripp teravalt noori täiskasvanuid, tõenäoliselt seetõttu, et see kutsus ohvrite ja rsquo immuunsüsteemi ülereageerimise esile. Sellel oli traagiline mõju, luues hulga orbusid. Isegi kui nad pole nakatunud, olid need lapsed haavatavad nälga, külmumist või metsikute koerte rünnakuid, mida kirjeldas Unalga & rsquos mehed sarnased röövhuntidega. Unalaskal oli oma lastekodu, Jesse Lee kodu, kuid kui see täis sai, rekvireeriti vaba maja ja nimetati see & ldquoUSS UNALGA orbukoduks. marssal. Nende orbude hulgas oli Benny Benson, kes kujundas hiljem Alaska osariigi lipu.

Unalga & rsquos Master-at-Arms, Peter & ldquoBig Pete & rdquo Bugaras asusid vabatahtlikult orbude eest hoolitsema. Laevade ja rsquose distsipliini jõustamise ja vangide käitlemise eest vastutanud mees oli Bugarasel kuulus rannavalveteenistuse tugevaim mees, & rdquo ning teda kirjeldati sünnijärgselt kui & ldquoGreek, sündinud meeste võitleja ja kõigi abitute ja väikeste asjade kaitsja. & rdquo Julge ja suure südamega võttis Bugaras vastutuse UNALGA orbude kodu juhtimise eest. Ta lasi oma meestel lastele riideid moodustada, jälgides riidepoltidel nende keha piirjooni ja lõigates need välja. Küla mitu naist kohkusid, kui nägid, kuidas Bugaras entusiastlikult lapsi puhtaks nühkis sama hooga, nagu ta koertel kasutas, kuid väikene armastas teda.

Väline abi saabus lõpuks 3. juunil, kui rannavalve Cutter Karu langenud ankur. Kahe lõikurimeeskonna ühisel jõul hakkasid paljud ellujäänud ohvrid toibuma ja pandeemia vaibus. Kohale jõudsid ka mereväe laevad. Sõnadega Unalga ohvitser Eugene Coffin: & ldquo Pärast meie karjumist saadeti Unalaskasse merelaevad ja õed. & rdquo Sõjalaevade saabumisega USS Vicksburg ja USS Marblehead juuni keskel tarnis Dodge uuesti Unalga purjetama Bristoli lahte. Unalaska ja rsquose viimane surm leidis aset 13. juunil ja selle lahkumisega 17. juunil Unalga & rsquos Unalaska reljeef lõppes ametlikult.


Unalga mehed matavad surnuid Unalaska Vene õigeusu kalmistule. (NOAA)

The Unalga & rsquos Unalaska ja rsquose elanike hooldus oli olnud mõnevõrra karm, kuid tõhus. Lõikuri ja rsquose abistamise ajal oli kohalik suremus umbes 12 protsenti, samas kui teistes Alaska piirkondades oli kuni 90 protsenti.

Rannavalvurid Unalga polnud pühakutest kaugel, kuid aastaid hiljem mäletasid Unalaska elanikud neid kui päästjaid. Juulis 1919 kirjutasid Unalaska ja rsquos vene õigeusu preester Dimitri Hotovitzky ja Aleut Chief Aleksei Yatchmeneff Dodge'ile kirja, milles teatasid, et kui poleks olnud kiiret ja tõhusat tööd, Unalga, kui igaüks paljastas end hea meelega haigetele toeks, võis Unalaska ja rsquose elanikkond väheneda väga väikese arvuni, kui mitte täielikult hävitada. & rdquo

Kuigi Unalga & rsquos esinemine Unalaskal pälvis üldise tunnustuse, lõikur ja USS Marblehead kritiseeriti selle eest, et nad jõudsid Bristoli lahe piirkonda liiga hilja, et midagi muuta. Kuna haigus oli suuresti kulgenud, Unalga & rsquos meeskond töötas koos Marblehead & rsquos mereväe personaliga, et tagada kogukonnas järelejäänud arstiabi ja abi. Kui pandeemia lõpuks Alaska haardest vabastas, oli surnud ligi 3000 elanikku. Peaaegu kõik surnud olid Alaska põliselanikud, mis on korvamatu kahju põlisrahvaste kogukonnale ja selle kultuurile.


Unalga & rsquos ohvitserid, sealhulgas: alalise: leitnant nooremastme Willie B. Huebner USNRF kapten Eugene Auguste Coffin USCG kapten Warner Keith Thompson USCG kapten Theodore Graham Lewton USCG leitnant E. W. Scott USNRF (Dental Corps) leitnant noorem klass Dr. F. H. USP Istub: leitnant Carl E. Anderson USNRF vanemkapten Frederick Gilbert Dodge USCG leitnant Gordon Whiting MacLane USCG.

Iga pandeemia ja selle tragöödiad on ainulaadsed, kuid tänases rannavalve ja rsquose vastuses võime kuulda kajasid 1919. aastast, mil rannavalve Cutteri meeskond Unalga pandi karantiini ja leevendati pandeemiat kaugesse Alaska asulasse Unalaska. Lõikur Unalga ja selle pardale sõitnud mehed tegid ajalugu Alaska pärimuse ja pika sinise joone osana.

See artikkel näib olevat rannavalve kompassi viisakus ja selle võib algsel kujul leida siit.

Siin avaldatud arvamused on autori ja mitte tingimata The Maritime Executive arvamused.


GeoGarage'i ajaveeb

Nagu ülaltoodud testament näitab, tõestab rannavalve vastus Hispaania gripipandeemiale Alaskal ülimat vapruse ja vastupidavuse proovikivi.

Pandeemia, karantiinid, sotsiaalne distantseerumine ja näomaskid - tänapäeval liiga tuttavad.
Need terminid kajasid ameeriklaste jaoks sama muret 100 aastat tagasi, kuna Hispaania gripipandeemia aastatel 1918–1919 mõjutas peaaegu kõiki maakera nurki.
See suri 25–50 miljonit inimest, rohkem kui kõik, kes I maailmasõjas hukkusid.
Isegi kõige arenenuma arstiabiga piirkondades suri Hispaania gripp umbes kolm protsenti kõigist ohvritest.

Arstiabi Alaska kaugel territooriumil polnud kaugeltki arenenud.
Kui pandeemia 1919. aasta kevadel saabus, hävitas see terved külad.
Tol ajal oli Alaska Ameerika koloonia [mis] oli poliitilises staatuses kuskil valitsuse protektoraadi ja tööstusressursi vahel ning#82211 ja föderaalvalitsuse varade olemasolu sellel tohutul territooriumil oli minimaalne.

1919.
Esimene maailmasõda oli lõppenud vaid kuus kuud varem, nii et – nagu kõik rannavalve mehitatud lõikurid ja#8211 Unalga ja selle meeskond kuulusid endiselt USA mereväe koosseisu.
190 jala kõrgusel oli Unalga ’s valge kere vaid mõnevõrra pikem kui tänapäevased Alaska vetes patrullivad kiire reageerimise lõikurid.
Ja kuigi Unalga ’ igapäevased toimingud olid põhimõtteliselt sarnased tänapäevaste FRC -dega, olid need palju laiemad.
Alaska patrull 1919. aastal võib koosneda õiguskaitseorganite pardaletulekust kala- ja hülgelaevadelt, kes kontrollivad posti, tarvikuid, reisijaid ja vange, kes päästavad laevahuku või hukkunud ohvreid, kes osutavad arstiabi ujuva kohusena ja lahendavad töövaidlusi.

26. mail puhkas Unalga ankrus pärast rutiinset meresõidupäeva ja signaalikoolitust.
Kella 16 paiku saabus kiireloomuline raadiosõnum.
Unalaska asula lähedal asuval Unalaska saarel kannatas tõsise Hispaania gripi puhangu all.
Lõikuri ja käsundusohvitser, kapten Frederick Dodge valmistus Unalga käivitamiseks koidikul.

Sel ööl sai Unalga järjekordse röntgenogrammi ja Bristoli lahe ümbrus, Alaska edelaosa mandril, vajas kiiret abi oma haiguspuhanguga toimetulekuks.
Dodge seisis dilemma ees: Unalga ei saanud olla kahes kohas korraga.
Ta edastas raadio teel oma käsu, et seab kursi lähemale Unalaskale olukorra hindamiseks.

Kaugeltki tänapäeval, 1919. aastal olid Unalaska ja sellega külgnev Hollandi sadam pisikesed külad, kus elas kokku umbes 360 inimest, enamasti aleutidest või vene päritolu esivanematest.
Kogu saarel oli ainult üks arst.

Pärast saabumist lahkus Unalga ’s meeskond kohutavasse stseeni.
Peaaegu kogu asula oli nakatunud, sealhulgas Hollandi sadama ja mereväe raadiojaama ainus arst ja kõik peale ühe operaatori.
Olukord oli kriitiline, nagu ajaloolane Alfred Crosby märkis Ameerikas ja#8217 unustatud pandeemias:

Nüüd jäi Unalga meeste ülesandeks pakkuda elupäästvat juhtimist ja arstiabi.

Umbes 80 -liikmelisest Unalga ’s meeskonnast oli ainult kolmel meditsiiniline väljaõpe: Ship ’s Kirurg leitnant j.g. Dr F.H. Johnson (USA rahvatervise teenistus), leitnant E.W. Scott (USA mereväe hambaravi korpus) ja proviisor Mate 1/klass E.S. Chase.
Need mehed hakkasid koordineerima linna arstiabi.
Koos kogusid nad meeskonnast vabatahtlike rühma, kes kasvas pidevalt, kuni see hõlmas personali igast lõikuri pardal olevast osakonnast.

26. maist kuni 4. juunini tõestas Unalga Unalaska elanike erinevust elu ja surma vahel.
Kapten Dodge algatas linna toitmise Unalga ’s toidupoodide abil.
Meeskonnaliikmed tarnisid esimesel päeval 350 valmistoitu ja pandeemia kõrghetkel pakkusid nad üle 1000 toidukorra päevas.
Külaelanikud reastasid laeva hädaabinõud kohutava ja halva vahele, kuid sõid ära.

Iga meeskonnaliige tegeles mõne abitööga.
Hüüdnimega “gobs, ja need, kes haigeid ei hooli, pakkusid logistilist tuge, näiteks pidasid töövõimetutele külaelanikele tulekahjusid või aitasid toitu valmistada või kohale toimetada.
Teised meeskonnaliikmed võtsid üle Hollandi sadama mereväe raadiojaama.
Mehed ehitasid isegi ajutise haigla, mis oli varustatud torustikuga ja elektrifitseeritud lõikuri ja generaatori abil.

Haigete eest hoolitsemine ja surnute matmine oli kurnav ja emotsionaalselt raske töö.
Hispaania daam ” (haigus ja#8217 elegantselt õudne hüüdnimi) oli sageli kohutav.
Ohvrid kannatasid sageli kahekordse kopsupõletiku all ja uppusid, kui kopsud olid vedelikuga täidetud, millest osa suri ninast ja suust välja.
Meeskonnaliikmed põetasid haigeid ilma kaitsevahenditeta, välja arvatud riidest näomaskid, paljastades end nakkustele.
Mitmed mehed haigestusid, sealhulgas Dodge.
Ta otsustas, et on piisavalt hea, et juhtida, ja taastus hiljem.
Kuigi Unalga meeskond tegi kõik endast oleneva, et päästa elusid, pidid nad lõpuks Unalaska kalmistul valgete vene õigeusu ristide all kinni pidama 45 ohvrit.

Unalga ’s meeskond hoolitses ka lahkunu või töövõimetu laste eest.
Erinevalt hooajalisest gripist mõjutas Hispaania gripp teravalt noori täiskasvanuid, tõenäoliselt seetõttu, et see kutsus ohvrite ja#8217 immuunsüsteemi ülereageerimise esile.
Sellel oli traagiline mõju, luues hulga orbusid.
Isegi kui nad ei olnud nakatunud, olid need lapsed metsikute koerte nälgimise, külmumise või rünnakute suhtes haavatavad.
Unalaskal oli oma lastekodu, Jesse Lee kodu, kuid kui see täis sai, rekvireeriti vaba maja ja nimetati see “USS UNALGA orbukoduks.
Kui seegi täitus, hakkas Dodge linna marssaliku hoole all lapsi linna vanglasse majutama.
Nende orbude hulgas oli Benny Benson, kes kujundas hiljem Alaska osariigi lipu.

Unalga ’s Master-at-Arms, Peter “Big Pete ” Bugaras asusid vabatahtlikult orbude eest hoolitsema.
Laevade distsipliini täitmise ja vangide käitlemise eest vastutava meeskonnana oli Bugaras kuulus rannavalveteenistuse tugevaima mehena, ja teda kirjeldati sünnijärgselt kreeklasena, sündinud meeste võitlejana ja kõigi abitute ja väikeste asjade kaitsja.
Ta lasi oma meestel lastele riideid moodustada, jälgides riidepoltidel nende keha piirjooni ja lõigates need välja.
Küla mitu naist kohkusid, kui nägid, kuidas Bugaras entusiastlikult lapsi puhtaks nühkis sama hooga, nagu ta koertel kasutas, kuid väikene armastas teda.

Väline abi saabus lõpuks 3. juunil, kui rannavalve Cutter Bear ankru maha viskas.
Kahe lõikurimeeskonna ühisel jõul hakkasid paljud ellujäänud ohvrid toibuma ja pandeemia vaibus.
Kohale jõudsid ka mereväe laevad.
Unalga ohvitseri Eugene Coffini sõnadega: “Merelaevad ja õed saadeti Unalaskasse pärast seda, kui me nende peale karjusime. Bristoli lahe eest.
Unalaska viimane surm leidis aset 13. juunil ja selle lahkumisega 17. juunil lõppes ametlikult Unalga ’s Unalaska reljeef.

Unalga ’s Unalaska elanike eest hoolitsemine oli olnud mõnevõrra karm, kuid tõhus.
Lõikurite abistamise ajal oli kohalik suremus umbes 12 protsenti, samas kui teistes Alaska piirkondades oli see kuni 90 protsenti.

Unalga rannavalvurid polnud pühakutest kaugel, kuid aastaid hiljem mäletasid Unalaska elanikud neid päästjana.
Juulis 1919 kirjutasid Unalaska ja vene õigeusu preester Dimitri Hotovitzky ja Aleuti pealik Aleksei Yatchmeneff Dodge'ile kirja, milles öeldi: "Me arvame, et kui poleks olnud Unalga kiiret ja tõhusat tööd, kui kõik meelsasti ja paljastas end haigete toeks, oleks Unalaska elanikkond võinud väheneda väga väikese arvuni, kui mitte täielikult hävitada.

Kui Unalga ’s esinemine Unalaskal pälvis üldist tunnustust, siis lõikurit ja USS Marblehead kritiseeriti selle eest, et nad jõudsid Bristoli lahe piirkonda liiga hilja.
As the disease had largely run its course, Unalga’s crew worked with the Marblehead’s Navy personnel to provide for the remaining medical care and relief work in the community.
When the pandemic finally released Alaska from its grip, nearly 3,000 inhabitants had died.
Nearly all of the dead were Native Alaskans, an irreparable loss to the indigenous community and its culture.

Every pandemic and its tragedies are unique, but in the Coast Guard’s response today we can hear echoes of 1919, when the crew of Coast Guard Cutter Unalga quarantined and rendered pandemic relief to the remote Alaskan settlement of Unalaska.
Cutter Unalga and the men who sailed aboard it made history as part of the lore of Alaska and the long blue line.


How coasties saved an entire village in 1919 during the Spanish Flu

Alaska is still considered the last frontier, even in today’s modern times. The unforgiving and extreme weather coupled with the rough terrain makes it a challenging place to live. One hundred years ago – during the Spanish Flu – it was even more deadly.

The world is very familiar with the new words in our daily vocabulary: quarantine, face mask and social distancing, thanks to COVID-19 and the current global pandemic. Just 100 years ago this was the case as well, during the 1918-1919 Spanish Flu. The big difference between then and now are the extreme advancements in technology and medical care. According to the CDC, 500 million people were positive and 50 million people died from the Spanish Flu.

In a wild place like Alaska with scarce medical care, it was a sure death sentence.

When the Spanish Flu arrived in Alaska during the spring of 1919, it wiped out villages – and fast. World War I had just ended and on May 26, 1919, the USS Unalga was patrolling around the Aleutian Islands, near Akun Island located in Seredka Bay. The crew and ship were still technically considered part of the Navy, with the war only ending shortly before that. Their role in that moment was law enforcement, inspection, mail transport and rescues. They were also a floating court and were able to give medical care to those in need.

After a full day of training, the crew was resting when they received a distress call from a newer settlement on Unalaska Island. They reported a severe outbreak of the Spanish Flu. The Coast Guard didn’t hesitate they planned to get underway at dawn. Although they would receive another distress call from a settlement in Bristol Bay, the captain made the decision to head to Unalaska Island first.

When the crew made their way off the ship, they were shocked. It was if the entirety of the settlement had been infected with the Spanish Flu, the doctor included. They also discovered that all but one operator of the small U.S. Navy radio station had it as well. The coastie crew of the USS Unalga was their last hope of survival.

With that, the 80 coasties dove in. Pharmacist’s Mate First Class E.S. Chase, Lieutenant Junior Grade Dr. F.H. Johnson and Lieutenant E.W. Scott (a dentist), were the only men on board with advanced medical training. Despite that, they were all in. For over a week they were the only resource of support for Unalaska with nothing but cloth masks to protect themselves.

The captain made the decision to utilize the food on board to feed the entire town. At one point, they were providing up to 1,000 meals a day. The coasties even built a temporary hospital with pumping and electricity that was powered through the ship’s own power plant.

Without the proper protective equipment that today we know is critical, many of the crew fell ill themselves, including the captain. Despite this, they charged on and continued working. Although the 80 coasties fought to save everyone, they did bury 45 villagers who succumbed to the Spanish Flu.

The crew was not only caring for the ill, but for the children of those who died because the orphanage became full. Without their willingness to step forward, the children were at risk of dying from starvation, the elements and even documented feral dogs that were roaming the island. Some of the crew even made clothing for the children.

On June 3, 1919, the Coast Guard Cutter arrived to support their efforts. With both crews nursing and caring for the sick, recovery began. Due to the dedication of these coasties, the mortality rate of the village was only 12 percent. The majority of Alaska was at 90 percent mortality. At the end of the Spanish flu, around 3,000 Alaskans lost their lives, most of them natives.


Ajalugu

On July 30, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law the bill that led to the Medicare and Medicaid. The original Medicare program included Part A (Hospital Insurance) and Part B (Medical Insurance). Today these 2 parts are called “Original Medicare.” Over the years, Congress has made changes to Medicare:

For example, in 1972, Medicare was expanded to cover the disabled, people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis or kidney transplant, and people 65 or older that select Medicare coverage.

At first, Medicaid gave medical insurance to people getting cash assistance. Today, a much larger group is covered:

  • Low-income families
  • Pregnant women
  • People of all ages with disabilities
  • People who need long-term care

States can tailor their Medicaid programs to best serve the people in their state, so there’s a wide variation in the services offered.

Medicare Part D Prescription Drug benefit

The Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA) made the biggest changes to the Medicare in the program in 38 years. Under the MMA, private health plans approved by Medicare became known as Medicare Advantage Plans. These plans are sometimes called "Part C" or "MA Plans.”

The MMA also expanded Medicare to include an optional prescription drug benefit, “Part D,” which went into effect in 2006.

Children’s Health Insurance Program

The Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) was created in 1997 to give health insurance and preventive care to nearly 11 million, or 1 in 7, uninsured American children. Many of these children came from uninsured working families that earned too much to be eligible for Medicaid. All 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the territories have CHIP plans.

Affordable Care Act

The 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) brought the Health Insurance Marketplace, a single place where consumers can apply for and enroll in private health insurance plans. It also made new ways for us to design and test how to pay for and deliver health care. Medicare and Medicaid have also been better coordinated to make sure people who have Medicare and Medicaid can get quality services.

50th Anniversary - Medicare & Medicaid Event: 50 Years, Millions Of Healthier Lives

Medicare & Medicaid: keeping us healthy for 50 years

On July 30, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed into law legislation that established the Medicare and Medicaid programs. For 50 years, these programs have been protecting the health and well-being of millions of American families, saving lives, and improving the economic security of our nation.

Though Medicare and Medicaid started as basic insurance programs for Americans who didn’t have health insurance, they’ve changed over the years to provide more and more Americans with access to the quality and affordable health care they need.

We marked the anniversary of these programs by recognizing the ways in which these programs have transformed the nation’s health care system over the past 5 decades. We continue to look to the future and explore ways to keep Medicare and Medicaid strong for the next 50 years, by building a smarter and healthier system so that these programs will continue as the standard bearers for coverage, quality and innovation in American health care.


UNALGA WPG 53

Selles jaotises on loetletud laeva eluajal olnud nimed ja nimetused. Nimekiri on kronoloogilises järjekorras.

    Miami Class 190-ft Revenue Cutter
    Keel Laid - Launched and Christened February 10 1912

Mereväe kaaned

Selles jaotises on loetletud aktiivsed lingid lehtedele, millel kuvatakse laevaga seotud kaaned. Iga laeva nime jaoks peaks olema eraldi lehtede komplekt (näiteks Bushnell AG-32 / Sumner AGS-5 on sama laeva erinevad nimed, nii et Bushnelli jaoks peaks olema üks lehtede ja Sumneri jaoks üks lehtede komplekt) . Kaaned tuleks esitada kronoloogilises järjekorras (või nii hästi kui võimalik).

Kuna laeval võib olla palju kaaneid, võib need jagada mitmele lehele, nii et lehtede laadimine ei kesta igavesti. Iga lehe lingiga peaks kaasnema selle lehe kaante kuupäevavahemik.

Postitemplid

Selles jaotises on toodud näited laeva kasutatud postitemplitest. Iga nime ja/või kasutuselevõtu perioodi jaoks peaks olema eraldi postitempli komplekt. Igas komplektis tuleks postitemplid loetleda klassifikatsiooni tüübi järgi. Kui sama klassifikatsiooniga on rohkem kui üks postitempel, tuleks need edasi sorteerida varaseima teadaoleva kasutamise kuupäeva järgi.

Postitempli ei tohi lisada, kui sellele ei ole lisatud lähivõtet ja/või kaanepilti, millel on see postitempel. Kuupäevavahemikud PEAVAD põhinema AINULT MUUSEUMI KAANEDEL ja eeldatavasti muutuvad, kui lisandub rohkem katteid.
 
& gt & gt & gt Kui teil on mõne postitempli jaoks parem näide, asendage see olemasolev näide.

Postitempli tüüp
---
Tapjariba tekst

1st Commissioning May 23 1912 to February 16 1931

USPO Slogan
Machine Cancel

San Francisco, CA
"BUY/
U.S. /
GOVERNMENT BONDS /
3RD LIBERTY LOAN"

Nagu USS UNALGA. Ship's identity revealed in the enclosed letter.

2nd Commissioning April 23 1932 to October 10 1945

Muu info

NIMESAKE - An island off Alaska.

Kui teil on sellele lehele lisada pilte või teavet, võtke ühendust kuraatoriga või muutke seda lehte ise ja lisage see. Üksikasjalikku teavet selle lehe redigeerimise kohta leiate jaotisest Saatmislehtede redigeerimine.


The Rainbow. A World War One on Canada's West Coast Timeline

A steamer was emerging from behind American Waldron Island, ahead of the squadron and to the south-east. The vessel was really only visible as a dark shape moving against the dark backdrop of Orcas Island behind.

“Single funnel, no lights, armed, range 6000 meters,” called out the lookout. “In American waters.”

“Guns! Stand down!” ordered Von Schönberg. “Train fore and aft. Helm, keep our heading. Bring us back up to 18 knots.” The Germans were coming out of the confines of the shipping channel through the southern Gulf Islands and into the more open waters of Georgia Strait. They could not yet come up to full speed, since they would soon have to make several turns to follow the line of the International boundary and avoid straying into American waters. Especially now that the Americans are observing, though Von Schönberg.

“Wireless reports transmission, sir,” reported a sailor, “most likely from the unknown vessel. Message appears to be in code. Shall we jam sir?”

“No,” replied Von Schönberg. “Leave be.”

The mystery ship turned north-east, to match the squadron’s course, and turned on her running lights. “Unknown ship is approximately 1000 tons displacement,” called the lookout. “50 meters in length. Two guns forward, one aft.” Minutes passed. The Germans squadron swiftly overtook the American vessel, despite the latter producing an impressive amount of smoke from its tall single stack. To the east an orange glow showed the location of the city of Bellingham, in Washington State. Behind, with the morning’s light starting to define the edges of the sky, the silhouette of Mount Baker’s volcanic cone dominated the eastern skyline.

At 0500 hours, on Mueller’s instructions, Von Schönberg ordered a course change to due north. The squadron rounded East Point on Saturna Island with its flashing lighthouse a mere 2000 meters distant. The American vessel also turned north, following the International boundary, attempting to maintain its relative position of to the German squadron, but continuing to fall behind.

“Unknown vessel is flying stars and stripes,” reported the lookout. “Name on bow is USRC Unalga. Ship seems to be making no more than 12 or 13 knots. ”

“The American has not signaled us,” noted Von Schönberg. “They seem content to just follow the boundary, and make sure we stay outside.

When 0515 hours came, Von Schönberg ordered a turn to the north-west, and the ships accelerated to 20 knots. Unalga continued faithfully to shadow the Germans, but now rapidly fell astern. Before them, in rising light, was laid out the Strait of Georgia, an inland sea separating Vancouver Island from the mainland of British Columbia. This body of water was the highway for the province’s industry. At this hour, on this morning, it was smooth as glass. Ahead, at the narrowest spot between Point Roberts and Mayne Island, the Strait was 9 miles across, but it soon opened wider. A smoky haze to the north was lit by the pre-dawn light.

“Vancouver,” said Von Schönberg. “That is where we are bound. Ah, what a morning it is. And this sea state is particularly good for spotting periscopes.”

To the north, the mountains behind the city brooded in dark green, the low light casting the valleys in deep shadow. To the east, the sky was lighting up pink and orange over the Fraser River valley. In the ships’ wakes, to the south, the cones of Mount Baker and more distantly, Mount Rainier, loomed above all the other terrain, their eastern faces already catching the rising sun. Gulls fell into formation alongside the squadron, effortlessly keeping up where the hapless Unalga was unable.

“Ship!” called a lookout. “Dead ahead!”

A smaller cloud of smoke had separated from the smudge of Vancouver’s urban pall.

“Steamer,” continued the lookout. “Distance approx. 15 nautical miles. Oriented end on, so details unclear. Appears to be a on southerly heading.”

Von Schönberg took his own binoculars to survey the oncoming ship. The unidentified steamer appeared to be a merchant, and was just off the mouth of the North Arm of the mighty Fraser River, where it met salt water south of Vancouver. “Soon we shall have a better view,” he said. At a speed of 20 knots, the German squadron was covering a nautical mile every three minutes. Looking over his shoulder he noted that his ships were making quite a smoke cloud of their own. “We certainly have no time to stop and take a prize at this juncture.”

At 0545 hours the range had closed to 9 nautical miles. By now, all the stars had disappeared, and the sky was a speckless blue. The steamer ahead was indeed southbound and still approaching head on. She had a black hull, and what appeared to be a single funnel, with masts fore and aft. From the derricks on the masts, Von Schönberg took her to be a passenger cargo liner, and judging from the width of her bridge structure, he estimated her displacement to be around 5000 tons. Her single funnel featured a wide horizontal stripe on centre with a narrow stripe above and below. He had a crewman consult the Lloyd’s Registry, and determined this was the livery of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha Line. So a neutral. He looked at the bridge chronometer. For another couple of days, or more like 38 hours give or take.

Nürnberg crossed a sharp line in the ocean. South of the line, the sea was blue, north the water was brown. “The silt from the Fraser River,” said Mueller. “That river drains half this province. Your ship will actually be sitting a bit lower, in the sweet water.” A huge number of shorebirds circled over the mudflats at the shoreline. “The shallows extend two miles or more out into the Strait. This is where we want to be, in nice deep water.” Fishboats became visible close inshore, first a few, then more and more, maneuvering around each other for position. Soon it became apparent that the fishboats were attracted to the mouth of a great river, the South Arm of the Fraser. Now visible along the north bank of the river stood rows of hungry canneries, processing the bounty of the river for export to the wide world.

Shortly after 0600, the oncoming ships passed each other at a distance of 1000 meters. The liner proved to be the 6200 ton Shidzuoka Maru. Bridge crew on the Japanese ship were lined up at the rail with binoculars. A spirited discussion seemed to be taking place among them. “They are saying to each other, that is not the Japanese navy,” said Von Schönberg.

“Prepare to jam their transmissions, sir?” asked a runner from the wireless cabin.

“I believe it is too late for that,” said Von Schönberg. “Either the Japanese transmit who we are, or we jam them and by doing so announce who we are. I expect word has already come from some lighthouse, or perhaps the American Revenue Cutter. No we have passed the time for stealth, we have arrived at the time for action.”

“There is a Dominion Wireless Service station on Point Gray,” Mueller said, pointing to a headland at the entrance to Vancouver harbour. “They would immediately detect and interpret your jamming.”

“Ah,” said Von Schönberg, interested, “Perhaps we can shell the station.”

Mueller was taken aback. It is so hard to adjust, he thought. I am too used to these waters. I keep forgetting what we are here to accomplish. With the Japanese ship running south at 12 knots, and the Germans headed north at 20, the ships passed one another by quite rapidly.

“It is a pity,” mused Von Schönberg, “that we do not still have aboard the Kincolith Brass Band. Some Wagner would be very inspirational just now.”

At 0610 hours, Von Schönberg had a semaphore message sent to Lieutenant Von Spee on the Princess Charlotte. DETATCH AND MAKE WAY TO YOUR OBJECTIVES STOP GODSPEED STOP. The liner acknowledged and turned west, her coarse diverging from the cruisers. Princess Charlotte turned decisively towards the east shore of Vancouver Island and shrank away. Dark mountains bounded the scene in every direction. Directly ahead, the broad expanse of the Strait of Georgia extended to the horizon. In the distance to the west, a faint black soot cloud hinted at the coal fields of Nanaimo. To the east, another of the innumerable channels on this coast lay, this one the entrance to Howe Sound, and further east, Vancouver harbour.

At 0630 hours, Leipzig turned westward, and Nürnberg made a corresponding turn to the east. At this moment the disk of the sun rose over the mountain tops to the east, and lit the long Fraser Valley a golden yellow. Nürnberg’s bridge crew all squinted, dazzled from looking directly into the sun.

East Point (Saturna Island) Lighthouse

Mt Baker Sunrise

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Bregil

Aug 21, 0500 hours, SMS Galiano, Barclay Sound.

“We attack Bamfield Cable Station at dawn,” Hauptbootsmann Krüger had said to his crew, in preparation the night before. But even something as simple as dawn comes in matters of degree. Astronomical Dawn on August 21st arrived at 0408 hours, as the stars began to dim against the sky. The crew rose, prepared the ship, and steamed from silent Ucluelet harbour, blacked out at dead slow. Krüger had studied the channel from charts and in daylight enough to be able to find his way out into open water, but with no experienced local pilot on board, he dared not attempt to weave a path through the treacherous reefs and islets of the Sound in the dark, and instead headed out into the swells of the open Pacific, far enough off shore to ensure deep water below Galiano’s keel. The patrol vessel followed the coast south-east.

“Raise the Red Ensign,” Krüger ordered.

From time to time wireless messages were received, in unreadable code. Nautical Dawn arrived at 0456 hours, when Krüger could see the horizon clearly to seaward, and could distinguish the mountaintops from the sky and shoreline from the background in the maze of islands and passages of the Sound to the east. With this improvement in visibility, Krüger ordered his helmsman to take Galiano north-east up the 3 nautical mile wide stretch of open water called Imperial Eagle Channel. To the south-east, on Cape Beale, he could now clearly see the tapered white tower and black cap of the lighthouse 4 miles off. And so, the lighthouse keeper could also see Galiano’s every movement.

Galiano was making a course down the center of Imperial Eagle Channel in the low light at around 0510, with a mile of open water on either side and the smooth surface of the channel perfectly reflecting the indigo eastern sky, when a cruiser appeared to seaward 6000 meters to Galiano’s stern. The warship was a dark grey mass against the grey western horizon. Krüger startled, then took his binoculars to view the new arrival. The ship was a light cruiser, with two funnels, one large gun behind a shield on her turtleback fo’c’sle and another astern. She was flying the British White Ensign.

So, that Canadian training cruiser Captains Von Schönberg and Haun were so dismissive of, though Krüger. The Rainbow. Just when and where I am utterly helpless. Doesn’t God just have the best sense of humour.

The cruiser flashed Galiano a greeting by Morse light, then asked WHAT STATE ARE MATTERS IN THE TOWN OF UCLUELET? The question made no sense to Krüger. He was so alarmed by the sudden appearance of this enemy bearing his immanent death, that he considered he might be taking leave of his senses. Then he realized, the Canadians think we are a different ship! We are silhouetted by the light conditions, and end on. Galiano must be part of a class of patrol craft on this coast.

ALL IS WELL IN THE TOWN, Krüger had Galiano signal. TELEGRAPH IS STILL BROKEN BUT ALL IS OTHERWISE WELL. That sounds so suspicious, he thought. Next we will be stopped and boarded.

But instead the cruiser signalled farewell and turned to her starboard, making a course due south. If she maintained that heading, she would end up off the US coast, outside of the 3 mile limit. Despite the rising light, the warship soon disappeared into the seaward gloom, leaving only a smoke trail to show her location. For the next while, Galiano received wireless messages, in a code they could not decrypt. I hope none of those messages are for the ship Rainbow thinks we are, though Krüger, for we will not be able to reply.

The cruiser did not reappear. As Krüger’s head cleared, he recalled that he had encountered the name Malaspina on some of the manuals he had skimmed when familiarizing himself with this ship. And he also realized that this doppelganger must be expected to be in his immediate area, or else the Rainbow would not have so easily mistaken the two vessels. Did this endanger his mission? He might need to be extra vigilant, but if Captain Von Schönberg was steaming strait into Vancouver harbour, then Krüger could hardly stray from his target for fear of running into another fisheries patrol vessel. Galiano steamed onward.

It would be very useful, Krüger thought, for Captain Von Schönberg to know that there was a Canadian cruiser here, 6 hours from Esquimalt and blocking the squadron’s path of retreat back to the ocean. But he also knew that there was a Dominion Wireless Station nearby at the Pacheena Point light, and if they received a wireless message in an unfamiliar code they would sound an alarm. It had been Captain Von Schönberg’s hope that he could maintain surprise until his ships appeared right among the merchants in their target harbours. If this surprise was still holding, Krüger did not want to spoil it himself. Once his men severed the cables to the Telegraph Station, he might attempt a warning. The Canadian cruiser was still a minimum of 6 hours away from meeting Von Schönberg. Much could happen in that time.

At 0522 hours, SMS Galiano entered Satellite Passage, taking her through the Deer Group of islands from Imperial Eagle Channel into narrower Trevor Channel. No sooner had Galiano disappeared into the passage, that CGS Malapina, her identical sister ship, rounded Cape Beale, steaming on a north-westerly heading, just offshore for headed for Ucluelet at her full speed of 14 and a half knots. By the time the German ship fully emerged into Trevor Channel ten minutes later, its Canadian twin had passed by and disappeared behind King Edward Island to the north-west, leaving only a wake and faint trail of coal smoke. The lighthouse keeper, atop his tower, casually observed these movements, of Canadian flagged patrol vessels patrolling, and thought them unremarkable.

Now in Trevor Channel, Krüger sized up the situation, and compared the land and water he saw in front of him to his charts. The channel itself was about a mile wide, running on a southwest to northeast axis, bounded by the Deer Group of islands generally to the north and the main body of Vancouver Island to the south. If one followed Trevor Channel far enough, it turned into fjordlike Alberni Canal, and one could steam all the way to the mill town of Port Alberni, another 25 miles inland.

Krüger could see a notch in the coastline on the far shore to his south, the entry to the small inlet where lay the hamlet of Bamfield, to the seaward end of the peninsula. Nagu Galiano steamed north and the aspect changed, some wood frame buildings could be seen through the narrow gap into Bamfield Inlet. The Cable Station building was not visible from this angle. North of Bamfield, Krüger could follow the land portion of the telegraph line on its poles as in snaked along the shoreline, headed inland.

“Landing party, form up!” ordered Krüger. 18 men lined up on the port main deck, sheltered by the overhang of the upper deck above, with Stabbootsman Lange in command. The two petty officers carried stocked Navy Luger carbines, the rest carried rifles. All wore webbing with magazine pouches for their respective weapons. A wooden crate with rope handles held Dynamite, blasting caps, fuses, and various wire cutting pliers. Two riflemen also carried axes. Overhead, the sound of boats being swung out could be heard.

“You have your orders,” said Krüger. “Once the cables are cut, Galiano will return to provide you with cover. Naval gunfire support,” he said in an exaggerated tone, gesturing towards the 6 pounder deck gun. “We will have to use discretion. If the Cable Station proves to be too well defended, we may have to withdraw. That could prove to be trouble depending on how far we have committed. I would personally be happy if we manage to burn down the Cable Station building, even if we must resort to throwing some Dynamite through the windows before retreating.”

Two gasoline engine powered boats were lowered, and the landing parties embarked. All 18 men could have fit in the single larger boat, but Krüger decided that since the landing party might, in a the worst case, be performing something of an opposed amphibious landing at the cable station, that redundancy was a benefit. The boats cast off and headed for the shore.

Galiano turned about and travelled to seaward down the channel. She steamed past the entrance to Bamfield Inlet, her Red Ensign flapping high on the mast. The Transpacific Cable Station revealed itself, sitting high atop a narrow peninsula that divided the inlet in two. The four story wood frame building looked very handsome, appearing to Krüger like a jolly resort hotel. Various smaller buildings servicing the station and for other miscellaneous purposes were scattered around the peninsula and on the opposite side of the inlet. A long wooden ramp descended to the wharf below the station, and several smaller wharves served the opposite shore. A few small boats were moored here and there. Krüger noticed a few figures moving about, none of them seemed to be in a state of alarm. Then the Galiano passed by, and the trees of the forest intervened in his view. Civil Twilight, the period that is effectively daylight before the sunrise, arrived at 0539 hours.

Krüger had Galiano continue down the center of Trevor Chanel for another 2000 meters, then the ship reduced her speed to dead slow. From this position, he could not see the Cape Beale lighthouse. On the either shore were large signs saying No Anchorage, Submarine Cable. Galiano’s charts confirmed the approximate location of the cable, at a depth of 75 meters, but it took nearly 15 minutes of dragging with a hawser and anchor from a ship’s boat to hook the cable and bring it to the surface. Kruger had given orders for the landing party to cut their telegraph cable at 0600 precisely. The work party on Galiano’s fantail had to hurry to synchronize cutting the submarine cable at the same time, then worked up a sweat as two men with axes chopped repeatedly at the 5 centimeter diameter cable, hacking through first the gutta-percha waterproofing, then the steel armour cables, and finally the copper transmission strand. Krüger could not tell if the resulting sparks were from the axes striking the steel of the cable, or if it was a final telegraph message, cut short.


F. A. Zeusler Photograph and Film Collection, ca. 1897-1950s

Frederick A. Zeusler was born in Baltimore in 1890. He joined the Coast Guard as a cadet in 1908 and graduated in 1911, from what would later become known as the U. S. Coast Guard Academy. His was the first class to graduate from its New London, Connecticut home. He served on the vessels Onondoga, Unalga, Snohomish, Bear, McCulloch, Modoc, Tampa, Seneca, Monahan, Cassin, Chelan, Northland, and Spencer, and others, from 1911 until he retired finally from the Coast Guard, as an admiral, in 1947.

He spent his first two years on the East Coast, then moved to Bering Sea patrol on the Unalga in 1913. In 1914 he met Clarice in Port Angeles, where he was based on the Snohomish and she was a teacher. After explaining to her what kind of life she could expect married to a Coast Guard officer who spent significant time at sea, they became engaged. They married in April 1916.

In the meantime Zeusler had been assigned to the Bear on Bering Sea Patrol and Arctic Patrol. Then before World War I he was assigned to the McCulloch on Bering Sea Patrol, based in Sausalito. Zeusler’s first daughter was born in Sausalito in 1917. After the war he returned to duty on the Snohomish and again was based in Port Angeles. His second daughter, Jean, was born there.

In 1923 Zeusler was sent to Washington, D.C. as communications and ordinance officer. His family enjoyed living there, but he was anxious to get back to the sea. After receiving training for three months at Harvard in oceanography, Zeusler served as an oceanographer on ice patrol for several seasons, May to September, in the North Atlantic.

From 1926 Zeusler was sent on rum patrol in the Atlantic out of New York. As a result of volunteering as commanding officer of the second division of rum patrol, he served from June 1931 to January 1933 as commanding officer of the Coast Guard destroyer Abel P. Upshur. After a short tour of duty on the Hunt, he was placed in command of the cutter Chelan, which was on the Bering Sea Patrol. He was very happy to get back to the West Coast. He was appointed U.S. Commissioner, Third Judicial Division, District of Alaska in addition to his duties on the Chelan.

The Chelan was based in Alaska in the summer and in Seattle in the winter. In October 1934, he was designated chief of staff of the Seattle Division and while acting in this capacity was a special lecturer and later instructor in oceanography at the University of Washington.

To his dissatisfaction, he was transferred back to Coast Guard headquarters in Washington, D.C. in October 1935 where he acted as chief communications officer until April 1937 when he was placed in command of the Coast Guard cutter Northland. American journalist and war correspondent Ernie Pyle had occasion to visit aboard the cutter Northland during the 1937 season, and his column for September 14, 1937 gives us an idea of what type of commanding officer Captain Zeusler was:

Captain Zeusler is rather a young man, although he first came to the Arctic in 1913. This is his ninth cruise in the Bering Sea. He has a fine home in Seattle, and a daughter in college. He is a widely informed and studious man.

I am surprised at the discipline aboard ship. I had supposed that the Coast Guard, being an organization which actually does work, would have rather slipshod workaday discipline. But not so. It is just as strict as in the Navy.

I like the way Captain Zeusler runs this ship. Discipline is strict, but it is a discipline of reason. There is no overfamiliarity with the captain, and yet there isn’t a lot of false kow-towing like you see on many service ships. He treats his men as though they were humans.

Zeusler was assigned as commander, Juneau District, Alaska and in March 1942 was designated as captain of the port for the Territory of Alaska, and served on the staff of commander, Alaska Section as off shore patrol commander, and head of the Sitka subsection.

He was transferred to the Thirteenth Coast Guard District, Seattle, in April 1944 and served in that capacity until July 8, 1946, when he retired after 38 years in the Coast Guard.

Admiral Zeusler was recalled to active duty in November 1946 as a consultant to a congressional committee studying the shipping problems of Alaska. He served with the committee until March 1, 1947, when he was again released from active duty.

In addition to World War I and II campaign medals, Admiral Zeusler held the Bronze Star for his World War II service as commander of naval forces in the Sitka, Alaska area, and the Legion of Merit for service as district commander of the Seventeenth (Juneau) and Thirteenth (Seattle) Coast Guard Districts during the war.

After retiring from the Coast Guard, Zeusler wrote and spoke frequently on maritime topics. Admiral Zeusler was also known on the Seattle waterfront as a steamship executive, having served as executive assistant to the president of the Alaska Steamship Company from 1947 to 1954. He was also active in civic organizations related to the Port of Seattle.

In the 1960s Zeusler was active in the Pacific Northwest Maritime Historical Society. His wife, Clarice died in 1966, 15 days short of what would have been their 50th wedding anniversary.

After his retirement, he lived in the Seattle area for many years before moving to California in 1975. Admiral Zeusler died in Santa Barbara in December 14, 1981, at age 91.

Most of the information in this biography came from the following sources:

The Coast Guard career of Admiral Frederick A. Zeusler : a portrait of a career at sea as taken from the writings, diaries, and oral history of Admiral F. A. Zeusler. Compiled by Fred Olson, December 1990.

“Rear Admiral F. A. Zeusler,” Marine Digest, v. 60, no. 19, December 19, 1981, p. 6+.

Extent

13 Volumes (13 Boxes) : 35 Glass Lantern slides 216 Glass slides 231 Slides 462 Negatives 7 nitrate negatives 21 - 16mm films 3 – 32mm films 35mm motion picture film cuts 2 b/w photo albums Approximately 1325 b/w photographs from album 127 Loose b/w photographs 1 Magazine article 1 calendar 1 booklet 6 matted photos


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