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Millal algas esimene barbaarsõda?

Millal algas esimene barbaarsõda?


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Ma loen Esimesest barbaarsõjast nii Rootsi kui ka Ameerika vaatenurgast. Mul on minu arvates väga usaldusväärne allikas rootsi keeles ja seal öeldakse, et Tripoli Pascha kuulutas USA -le sõja 9. jaanuaril 1801. Aga kui loete teisi allikaid, näiteks Vikipeediat, väidab see, et sõda kuulutati välja Pasha poolt 10. mail 1801.

See on oluline erinevus, kuna Jefferson avati 4. märtsil 1801. See tähendab, et sõda kuulutati välja enne Jeffersoni presidendiks saamist või Jefferson kuulutas selle välja, keeldudes presidendiks maksmast.

Mulle tundub, et tegelikult oli John Adams see, kes lõpetas austusavalduste maksmise? Lugu, mida mõned autorid näivad edastavat, on see, et Jefferson oli kaua oodanud võimalust Barbari osariike trotsida ja kasutas võimalust kohe, kui ta selle sai (kuna oli nende käitumisele ideoloogiliselt tugevalt vastu). Kuid samal ajal muutusid Tripoli nõudmised naeruväärselt kõrgeks ja sõda oli enam -vähem aja küsimus?

Kas esimese barbaarsõja algus oli John Adami eesistumise tulemus või Thomas Jeffersoni otsus, kui ta oli president? Kust ma saan lugeda nende oluliste kuude kohta lähemalt 1800. aasta lõpust 1801. aasta keskpaigani?


Lühike vastus

Aastal kuulutas Tripoli USA -le sõja 14. mail 1801.


Üksikasjalik vastus

Esmapilgul tundus see tühine küsimus. Üllataval kombel näib vastus olevat Interneti -ringluses mitmete vastuoluliste kuupäevade taga. Püüan allpool selgitada, miks ma arvan, et need vastused on valed.

(A) 9. jaanuar 1801

Ma ei leidnud tegelikult viiteid sellele kuupäevale, kuid tundub, et selle kohta pole mingeid tõendeid. Olgu viidatud James Leander Cathcarti, Ameerika Ühendriikide konsuli Tripolis kuni 24. maini 1801 kirjadelesee kuupäev on vihje. Cathcart kirjutas täpselt sel kuupäeval, et olles Rootsist austusavalduse saanud:

Nii on Bashaw kehtestanud oma suure punkti - see on alaline annuiteet; ja need on terminid või sarnased, mida ta nõudis Ameerika Ühendriikidelt, taanlastelt ja batavlastelt ... Kui Dey sellesse sekkumisse ei sekku, ei näe ma muud võimalust kui sõda.

- Cathcart, James L. Kiri aule. William Smith, Lissabon. 9. jaanuar 1801.

Ja ometi ei maini ta järgmistes kirjades seda puhkenud sõda. Selle asemel kirjutas ta kaks päeva hiljem:

Nii on Bashaw kehtestanud alalise annuiteedi, mis on olnud tema suur eesmärk alates ajast, kui ta anastas Tripoli trooni, ja need tingimused ta on kuulutanud (kuid mitte ametlikult, vaid tema saadikute vihjete ja vihjete abil), mida ta täpsustab Taanist, Ameerika Ühendriikidest ja Bataavia Vabariigist ...

- Cathcart, James L. United Letter. 11. jaanuar 1801.

Nii et nõudmisi polnud isegi ametlikult surutud. Pealegi ootaksite konsulilt, et ta mainib sõda, kuid ülejäänud jaanuari kirjadest pole selle kohta mingeid tõendeid. On selge, et sõda ei alanud jaanuaris.


(B) 26. veebruar 1801

Leidsin teisi allikaid, mis väitsid, et sõda algas enne Jeffersoni ametisseastumist, veebruaris:

1801 26. veebruar Tripoli kuulutab sõda Ameerika Ühendriikide vastu, Ameerika valitsus keeldus pasha nõudmisi täitmast; paar nädalat hiljem astub Thomas Jefferson ametisse kolmanda USA presidendina.

- Fremont-Barnes, Gregory. Barbaride piraatide sõjad: Tripoli kallastele - USA mereväe ja merejalaväe tõus. Kd. 66. Kirjastus Osprey, 2006.

On tõsi, et Tripoli ähvardas veebruaris kaks korda sõda, 8. ja 16. kuupäeval. Täpsemalt ähvardas Bashaw 8. päeval Alžeerias saabuvate kingituste saabudes 40 päeva jooksul sõja kuulutada.

Tegelikult juhtus see, et tujukas Bashaw muutis peagi meelt. Ta otsustas deklaratsiooni edasi lükata andke USA -le rohkem aega oma bluffi tegemiseks kirjutage kõigepealt Alžeeriasse kiri:

Mulle on teatatud, kuid mitte ametlikult, et Tripoli bashaw on kirjutanud Alžeeriale ega kavatse kuulutada USA -le sõda enne, kui ta on saanud Alžeeriast uudised, mille eel ma loodan, et meie laevad on konvoi all.

- Cathcart, James L. Kiri härra O'Brienile ja Eatonile. 23. veebruar 1801.

Hinnanguliselt oli vastus "umbes kaheksa nädala pärast". Järelikult tundub, et veebruaris ei kuulutatud sõjakuulutust. Tegelikult kirjutaks Cathcart märtsis ja aprillis teemadest "kui peaks sõda tulema" ja "kui sõda kuulutatakse". Jällegi ebatavalised sõnad, kui sõda oleks kuulutatud juba 26. veebruaril.

See ekslik kuupäev võis tekkida seetõttu, et Cathcart kirjutas 26. kuupäeval, et kui Bashaw keeldus tema tingimustest, siis "sõda on vältimatu".


(C) 10. mai 1801

See kuupäev, mida Vikipeedia kasutab, on omamoodi õige. Vikipeedia viide on järgmine:

10. mail 1801 kuulutasid tripoliidid Ameerika Ühendriikidele sõja oma maalilisel moel - hüpates Ameerika konsulaadi ees lipuvarda alla.

- Miller, N. USA merevägi: ajalugu. Naval Institute Press, 1997.

Kuupäev on aga veidi väljas:

9. mail 1801 sai Cathcart teate, et sõdurid tulevad järgmisel päeval sõjakuulutuseks oma konsulaadi ees lipumasti maha lõikama. traditsiooniline viis seda teha Põhja -Aafrikas. Alles 14. mail jõudsid nad kohale. Kui mehed üritasid lipuvarda pooleks murda, saatis Cathcart pasale sõna, et ta võib sõja vältimiseks kohe pakkuda 10 000 dollarit. Yusuf lükkas summa tagasi ja tema mehed hakkasid kirvega varrasse häkkima, kuludes tund aega, et see lõpuks maha kukutada. Langenud lipumast andis märku, et Tripoli ja USA vahel on nüüd sõda.

- Baumgartner, Frederic J. Sõja kuulutamine varauusaegses Euroopas. Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

Teisisõnu, Tripoli teatas oma kavatsusest sõda kuulutada, kuid viis selle ellu ("traditsioonilisel viisil") 14. mail 1801, pärast viimast pingutust rahu nimel ebaõnnestus. Ma väidan, et viimane kuupäev on formaalselt õigem.

10. mail 1801 saatis Bashaw Hadgi Mahomude la Sore härra Cathcartile koos teabega, et "ta kuulutas sõja Ameerika Ühendriikide vastu" ja võtab neljapäeval, 14. mail maha Ameerika lipu staabi; et kui tal on hea meel, võib ta jääda Tripolisse ja teda tuleks kohelda lugupidavalt, kuid ta võib lahkuda, kui ta valib… 14. päeval lõigati Ameerika lipu staap maha ja kuulutati seega ametlikult sõda.

- Goldsborough, Charles Washington. Ameerika Ühendriikide mereväe kroonika. Kd. 1. J. Wilson, 1824.

Sõltumata kuupäevast tähistas see sündmus Esimese barbaarsõja algust. Ameerika Ühendriikide konsul James Leander Cathcart lahkus Tripolist kümme päeva hiljem, 24. mail 1801. Tema lahkumist kinnitab ka tema tütre avaldatud kirjade kogumik.


(D) Hilisemad kuupäevad

Mõned allikad andsid kuupäevaks 10. juuni 1801:

Dey hoiatas, et kui Bainbridge seda ei täida, kuulutab ta USA -le sõja ning viib George Washingtoni ohvitserid ja meeskonnad orjusesse. Pärast Bainbridge'i keeldumist kuulutas Tripoli 10. juunil 1801 sõja USA vastu.

- Dooley, P. toim. Varane vabariik: esmased dokumendid sündmuste kohta aastatel 1799–1820. Kirjastus Greenwood, 2004.

Kuid tundub, et enamik teisi allikaid on sellele vastuolus. Näiteks tundub, et ta viibis 2. mail USA -s ja nimetati 20. mail USS Essexi juhtkonnaks pärast sõda oli alanud.

Mõned allikad leiavad ka, et Ameerika Ühendriikide Kongress kuulutas sõja vastuvõtmise ajal sõja Seadus Ameerika Ühendriikide kaubanduse ja meremeeste kaitseks Tripoliidi korsaaride vastu. Kuid ilmselgelt polnud see sõja algus, vaid pigem Ameerika reaktsioon. Ja ka vähem sõjakuulutust ja rohkem vägede volituste seaduseelnõu.


Küsimus:
Millal algas esimene barbaarsõda?


Lühike vastus

Tripoli pasha ega Ameerika Ühendriigid ei esitanud ametlikku sõjakuulutust esimese barbaarsõja alustamiseks.

Esimene barbaarsõda
mail 1801 kuulutas pasha USA -le sõja, mitte ametlike kirjalike dokumentide kaudu, vaid tavapärase barbarliku kombel USA konsulaadi ees lipulaeva maha raiudes. [

Kuigi Kongress ei hääletanud kunagi ametliku sõjakuulutamise poolt, volitasid nad presidenti andma relvastatud Ameerika laevade ülematele ülesandeks konfiskeerida kõik Tripoli pasha laevad ja kaubad. vaenulikkus kui sõjaseisukord õigustab. "

Ma väidan, et sõda algas kas siis, kui Tripoli rikkus 1796. aasta lepingu USAga ja hakkas Ameerika Ühendriikide kaubalaevu hõivama. See on Juuli 1800 kui Tripoli Katariina haaras. või 6. veebruar 1802 aastal, kui kongress andis USA mereväele vastulöögiks Tripoli laevad. Esines esimene USA mereväe poolt Tripolile kuulunud korsaar 1. august 1802 millal USS Enterprise tegi seda, ühepoolses lahingus. Ükskõik millist neist kuupäevadest võiks nimetada esimese Barbarsõja alguseks, kus kummalgi poolel polnud ametlikku sõjakuulutust.

The 9. jaanuar 1801 kuupäev oli tähtaeg, mille Tripoli pasa andis James Leander Cathcartile Tripoli konsoolile iga -aastase maksegraafiku tingimustega nõustumiseks. Ta väitis, et USA maksis 1797. aasta lepingu eest, kuid polnud jätkuva rahu eest maksnud. Kui USA poleks 9. jaanuariks leppinud, siis Pasha hoiatas, lähevad Tripoli piraadid sõtta. Alles siis, kui Pasha selle nõudmise / ultimaatumi esitas, olid tema Barbary Pirates juba hõivanud ja Ameerika kaubalaeva Cathrine ning rikkusid nende USAga sõlmitud lepingu.

10. mail 1801 peetakse ekslikult Tripoli ametlikuks sõjakuulutuseks, kuigi USA -le ega selle agentidele ei kirjutatud alla ühtegi dokumenti ega esitatud seda. Väidetavalt on see ametlik kuupäev, sest see oli kuupäev, mil Tripoli pasha käskis Ameerika lipu maha võtta Tripoli Ameerika konsulaadis. Nii öeldi, et see sümboliseerib ametlikku pausi USA -ga, sõjakuulutamist "tavapärasel" Barbari piraatide moel. See pole aga täpne. Pasha hakkas Ameerika laevandust haarama Juuli 1800, peaaegu aasta varem ja USA konsulaat jäi avatuks veel kaks aastat.

Varasemas postituses öeldi, et pasha sulges Ameerika konsulaadi 1801. aasta mai, kui Tripoli konsol James Leander Cathcart lahkus Tripolist. Cathcart oli Tripoli konsul, kuid peakonsul, kes palkas Cathcarti algselt konsultandiks, oli William Eaton.

  • Peakonsul - kõrgeima järgu konsulaarametnik kui isik, kes on paigutatud olulise kaubandusliku tähtsusega kohta või juhendab teisi konsule.

Eaton ei määratud ametlikult Tripolisse, vaid kutsuti Tripolisse, kui pinged hakkasid kuumutama. William Eaton jäi Tripolisse Ameerika esindajana veel kaheks aastaks pärast seda, kui Cathcart lahkus. Eaton saadeti riigist välja, 10. märts 1803; pärast seda, kui Tripoli pasha ameerika kommodoorilt 22 000 dollarit välja pressis. Eatoni kohalolekut ja äritegevust võib kinnitada kiri, mille Carthcart saatis tolleaegsele riigisekretärile James Madisonile, 15. märtsil 1803, milles ta nimetas William Eatoni Tripoli konsuliks ja kurdab, et pashal ei tohiks lubada valida Ameerika konsuli. vallandas härra Eatoni ja nägi teda asendamas.

Pasha püüdis alati rohkem raha saada ja rohkem raha ei saa, kui teiste riikide lohutus pole avatud ja konsulaarametnikud on kohal sundimiseks ja läbirääkimiste pidamiseks. USA lipu mahavõtmine 1801. aasta mais oli seega rohkem seotud Pasha pettumusega, et Ameerika konsulaadi ametnik William Eaton ei olnud võlga tasunud, mitte sõjategevuse algusega, mis sel ajal oli peaaegu aasta vana. Vastuseks Pasha tegevusele (lipu langetamine) rahuldas Eaton (sildlaenuga) oma võla aastal Juuni 1801. Kõigil neil kuupäevadel jäi USA konsulaat aga avatuks ja maksed USAst Tripolisse jätkusid. (Esmalt William Eatoni makse juunis ja seejärel kommodoor Morrise makse 1803. aastal).


Taust

Lõppkokkuvõttes ei olnud esimene Barbari sõda klassikaline sõda. See ei puudutanud territooriumi ega mõne teise objekti saamist teiselt. See puudutas väljapressimist, et sundida suurendama aasta austusavalduses maksis Ameerika Tripolile. Selle meetme järgi hakatakse tundma ametlikke sõjakuulutusi, mida kunagi ei toimunud, et muuta Ameerika esimene välisõda auväärsemaks. Vaidlus, mis võib tekkida mis tahes kahe riigi vahel ja mitte see, mis see oli, uurimine, nõrkuse eristamine, väljapressimine, kapituleerumine ja alistumine. Kõik, mida Pasha tegi, oli uurida USA tugevust või nende puudumist; ja siis sundida ja raha välja pressida. Raha, mida Tripoli pasha otsis, suurendas Ameerikast jätkuvat austust. Pasha uskus, et teistele Barbari osariikidele, nagu Maroko ja Tuneesia, on antud iga -aastane suurem austusavaldus ning ta püüdis seda probleemi lahendada. Kõik, mida Ameerika lõpuks tegi, oli püüda parandada oma läbirääkimispositsiooni, et maksta vähem raha. 1897. Pasha võtaks vastu.

Minu isiklik äravõtmine esimesest Barbari sõjast ei olnud kumbki rahvas auväärne. Barbari piraadid olid klassikalised gangsterid, kes tajusid nõrkust ja hüppasid nõrkade osapoolte verest välja kuni nende maksevõimeni. Ameerika ei seisnud kaugeltki piraatide vastu ega keeldunud väljapressimist maksmast ja oli alati nõus seda austust maksma isegi siis, kui see jõudis USA valitsuse aastaeelarve uskumatute protsentideni. Isegi kui tundus, et võit on USA -le peaaegu käes, eelistas Tobias Leari esindatud Jeffersoni administratsioon avaldada austust, mitte järgida seda, mis näis olevat potentsiaalne sõjaline lahendus. Jeffersoni administratsioon võttis sõna otseses mõttes võidu lõualuult lüüasaamise ja nõustus iga -aastase austusavalduse uuendamisega, kui edukas maapealne sissetung Tripolisse oli. Ainus auväärne asi kogu selles sõjas oli William Eatoni, tumeda, allumatu, õnnetu ja ambitsioonika endise revolutsioonilise sõjakangelase tegevus, kes liigutas taevast ja maad ning riskis kõigega, et teha seda, mida ta pidas auväärseks isegi siis, kui tal puudusid isiklikud huvid. kaalul. William Eaton, keda õõnestasid igal sammul bürokraatia ja poliitikud. William Eaton, kes selle peaaegu ära tõmbas. Ta mitte ainult ei võitnud peaaegu esimest barbaarsõda, mille Ameerika Ühendriigid jämedalt kaotas, vaid tegi peaaegu sõja ka väljapressijate ja pättide vastu seismiseks, millest ajalugu sõda valesti mäletab.

Huvitavad asjad esimese Barbari sõja kohta ei olnud Ameerika Tripoli piraatide vastu. Sest seda tegelikult ei juhtunud. Ameerika pühendumus maasõjale, mis sundis Tripoli pasat lõpuks nõustuma oma iga -aastase makse väiksema suurendamisega, kui ta algselt soovis, oli 8 mereväelast. Ameerika kaks kõige silmapaistvamat mereväe võimu selles sõjas olid USA mereväe ebakompetentsuse ilmingud. Esiteks, veebruar 1803, USA kommodoor Morrise eskadron sisenes Tripoli sadamasse pärast seda, kui kõik mõistlikud kuupäevad sõjategevuse/sõja alguseks olid möödunud. Kommodoor tabati kergelt relvastatud dessandi eesotsas Tripolisse sisenedes. Seejärel oli kommodoor sunnitud oma isikliku vabaduse eest maksma 22 000 dollarit, enne kui taganes nagu rumal loll, kes ta kindlasti oli. William Eaton ütles Ameerika Ühendriikide mereväe kohta, et kveekerite koosolekumajade eskadrill oleks sama tõhus olnud. Teine oli oktoober 1803, kui hirmuäratav püssilaev USS Philadelphia sisenes Tripoli sadamasse, jälitades ja püüdes tabada piraatkorsaari, et seejärel karile joosta. Seejärel alistub see ilma laskmata, tunde enne seda, kui Euroopa diplomaat Tripolis ütles, et tõusulaine vabastas laeva.

Esimese Barbari sõja huvitavad tähelepanuväärsed asjad ei puudutanud osariike, kes võitlesid. Ma ei usu ka, et see puudutas Pasha ennustatavat käitumist oma väljapressimisskeemi edendamisel. See puudutas kahe funktsionääri kaasamist.

William Eaton, milline kompromissitu idealistlik erakordne blokeerimispea ja kuidas ta selle peaaegu ära tõmbas. 8 merejalaväelase ja julge plaaniga Tripoli maarünnaku korraldamine ja elluviimine, vallutades lõpuks Tripoli suuruselt teise linna. Teiseks, Tobias Lear, üks suurimaid ja vähemtuntud korduvaid kaabakaid Ameerika ajaloos ning see, kuidas ta ilmub järjekordsesse skandaali ja keerab selle oma räpasele ja alusetule huvile.

Olulised mõisted:

  1. Barbari piraatriigid hõlmasid järgmist:

    • Tripoli
    • Tuneesia
    • Alžeeria
    • Maroko
  2. Barbari piraatriigid olid ühendatud piraatluses, kuid mitte valitsemises. Rahu sõlmimine ühe riigiga ei tähendanud rahu sõlmimist kõigiga. Iga riik pidas oma rahuläbirääkimised ja sai oma austuse.

  3. Esimene Barbaride piraadisõda oli USA ja Barbari osariigi Tripoli vahel.
  4. Ameerika Ühendriigid maksid Barbari piraatriikidele suuri iga -aastaseid austusi enne esimest Barbari sõda ja selle ajal.
  5. USA maksis enne ja pärast esimest Barbari sõda Tripolile iga -aastast austust.


Tähtsad kuupäevad:

  • 1778 Ameerika allkirjastab Prantsusmaaga liidulepingu, mis kaitseb Ameerika laevandust revolutsioonilise sõja ajal Barbaride piraatide eest.
  • 1783 Lepinguliit Prantsusmaaga lõpeb ja Ameerika laevandus on Põhja -Aafrika Barbari piraatriikide eest kaitsmata.
  • 11. oktoober 1784 - Ameerika kaotab oma esimese laeva The Betsy to Barbary Coast Pirates. Maroko võtab laeva.
  • 23. juuni 1786 - USA allkirjastab oma esimese lepingu Maroko Barbaririigi osariigiga.
  • 25. juuli 1785 - Alžeeria alustab Ameerika laevandust, alustades Mariast ja seejärel Dauphinist, orjastades nende meeskonna.
  • Märtsil 1786 - Thomas Jefferson ja John Adams alustavad kõigepealt läbirääkimisi Barbari ranniku piraatriigi Tripoli osariigiga Londonis.
  • 1796Ameerika kirjutab alla oma esimesele lepingule Tripoliga ja avab seal konsulaadi.
  • 27. märts 1794 Kongress võtab vastu 1794. aasta mereväe seaduse, millega rahastatakse USA mereväe esimese kuue laeva ehitamist. nemad on.
    1. Ühendriigid
    2. Tähtkuju
    3. Põhiseadus
    4. Chesapeake
    5. kongress
    6. president
  • 1795 - Ameerika lunastab 116 Alžeeria meremeest, kes nõustuvad tasuma kuuendiku kogu USA eelarvest. Sellest saab iga -aastane austusavaldus ja seda makstakse järgmise 15 aasta jooksul Alžeeriale.
  • 3. septembril 1798, Tripoli rünnakupidu võtab kinni 12 -aastase kuninganna Anna Porcile San Pietros.
  • Juuli 1800 Tripoli pasha rikub USAga sõlmitud lepingut ja võtab Ameerika brigaadi Catharine. Kaebab, et tema aastane makse oli väiksem kui muud Barbary Coast'i piraatide maksed.
  • 11. oktoober 1800, William Eaton Ameerika konsulaadis lubab Ameerika krediiti 5000 dollari eest, et tagada Anna Porcile vabastamine.
  • 1800, Adamsi administratsiooni kongress läbib
  • 4. märts 1801, Thomas Jeffersoni ametisseastumisel nõuab Tripoli pasha Yusuf Karamanli 225 000 dollarit, umbes 33% föderaaleelarvest iga -aastase austusavalduse eest, et mitte piraatida Ameerika laevandust.
  • 10. mai 1801, Tripoli pasha langetas USA lipu USA Tripolis asuvas konsulaadis. Seda tegu käsitletakse kui sõjakuulutust, millega alustatakse esimest Barbari piraadisõda.
  • Juuni 1801, William Eaton saab Tripoli kaupmehelt sildlaenu, et maksta oma võlg Tripoli pasale Anna eest.
  • 6. veebruar 1802, USA kongress võtab vastu "Ameerika Ühendriikide kaubanduse ja meremeeste kaitse seaduse Tripolitan Cruiserite vastu", millega antakse Jeffersonile ülesandeks anda USA mereväe laevadele meres Tripoli laevad. See pole siiski ametlik sõjakuulutus.
  • 1. august 1802, Kuunar Enterprise (juhtis leitnant Andrew Sterret) alistas pärast ühepoolset lahingut 14 relvaga Tripoliidi korsaari Tripoli.
  • Veebruar 1803, Ameerika kommodoor Richard Morris tabatakse, kui tema partei lahkub sõjalaevadelt ja maandub Tripoli linnas. Kommodoor on sunnitud maksma 22 000 dollarit, tasudes William Eatoni võla oma sildlaenult, et kindlustada oma (kommodoori) vabadus
  • 10. märts 1803, William Eaton astub USS Chesapeake'i pardale, et naasta häbiga USA -sse. Tuneesia pasha saatis ta riigist välja, kuna tema võla tasus USA kommodoor Morris.
  • Oktoober 1803, Tripoli piraadid tabavad puutumatult USS Philadelphia, sundides Thomas Jeffersoni loovaks, kuidas nendega toime tulla.
  • 1805, William Eaton Thomas Jeffersoni juhtimisel naaseb Põhja -Aafrikasse 8 merejalaväelasega ja tungib edukalt Tripolisse, vallutades Barbari osariigi suuruselt teise linna.

Pikem vastus

Pakun, et sõja alguse kuupäev 1801 on meelevaldne. Esimest korda kohtusid Thomas Jefferson ja John Adams Tripoli piraatide esindajatega märtsis 1786. Tol ajal tegi Tripoli esindaja selgeks, et piraadid pidasid kristlike kaupmeeste saagiks pidamist usuliseks kohustuseks.

Esimene barbaarsõda
Nende Koraanis oli kirjutatud (et kõik rahvad, kes ei olnud tunnistanud prohvetit, olid patused, keda rüütamine ja orjastamine oli ustavate õigus ja kohustus; ja et kõik selles sõjas tapetud mussulmanid lähevad kindlasti Ta ütles ka, et mehel, kes esimesena laeva pardale astus, oli oma orjast üle üks ori ja et kui nad vaenlase laeva tekile hüppasid, hoidis iga meremees mõlemas käes pistoda ja kolmas suus; mis tabas vaenlast tavaliselt nii hirmunult, et nad karjusid veerandit korraga.

Esimeses barbaarsõjas ei olnud kunagi ametlikku sõjakuulutust Tripoli pasha ja Ameerika Ühendriikide vahel. Bey tegu USA lipu langetamisega USA konsulaadis Tripolis 10. mail 1801 on meelevaldne kuupäev, mida peetakse sõja alguseks. Enne seda kuupäeva oli Tripoli pasha rikkunud 1897. aasta lepingut ja vallutanud oma esimese Ameerika kaubalaeva Catherine. Pärast seda kuupäeva jätkas USA Tripolile austust. Isegi pärast 1801. aasta maikuut jäi konsulaat Tripolis äritegevuseks avatuks ja Ameerika ametnikud Tripolisse. Ameerika lipu langetamine toimus Bey vaatenurgast mitte sõjategevuse tõttu Ameerika Ühendriikidega, vaid pettumuse tõttu ning selleks, et motiveerida Ameerika konsulaadi ametnikku nimetatud lipu läheduses, William Eaton, oma võlg tasuma. Mida tegi härra Eaton pärast seda sündmust.

Tõenäolisem oleks sõja algusena võtta veel üks kuupäev. Ma arvan, et parem kohting oleks.

Juulil 1800, kui Tripoli pasha rikub oma 1897. aasta lepingut Ameerika Ühendriikidega ja vallutab Brigi, USS Catherine'i. Seda tehti siiski USA -le surve avaldamiseks. Selleks jäi konsulaat avatuks ja USA -st väljapressimismaksed jätkusid.


Vastus teie küsimusele sai alguse sõdadest, kus Adamsi administratsioon andis ametisse Tripoli pasha antagoniseerimise eest vastutava ameeriklase. Kuid just Jeffersoni kohmakas väärkäitumine kaotas Ameerika esimese sõja pärast revolutsiooni.

Seega oli Ameerika ametnik, kes alustas kõiki probleeme, William Eaton, kes astus pasha poole vahele 12 -aastase kuningliku tüdruku Anna Porcile nimel, kelle piraadid tabasid 3. septembril Sardiinia lähedal San Pietro saarel toimunud rünnakul. 1798. Pärast seda, kui lapse perekond ei suutnud Euroopa suurriikidele pöördumistelt lunaraha tõsta, esitas viimane kaebuse äsja vermitud USA vabariigile ja hr Eaton lubas lapse vabastamiseks oma riigi krediiti 5000 dollari eest (11. oktoober 1800). Kuue kuu lõpus vastutab USA, kui Porcile'i perekond ei suuda ikkagi maksta. Juunis 1801 oli Eaton sunnitud laenama raha, et katta Bey võlg Tripoli kaupmehelt. Veebruaril 1803, kui võlga veel ei tasutud, tabas Tripoli Bey USA mereväe kommodoor Richard Morrise, kes oli koos dessandiga maandunud Tripolis. Bey nõuab ja saab Eatoni võla tasumiseks 22 000 dollarit.

Kommodoor Morrise vend oli USA senaator Vermontist, kes andis lõpphääletuse, pannes Thomas Jeffersoni Valgesse Majja.

10. märts 1803 astub Eaton USS Chesapeake'i pardale, et naasta USA -sse. Tuneesia Bey saatis ta riigist välja.

Juba enne Eatoni saabumist Ameerika Ühendriikidesse tabab Tripoli Bey nüüd, uskudes, et USA on lihtne märk, tema esimene USA mereväe laev. USS Philadelphia jookseb Tripoli sadamas madalikule ja alistub ilma tulistamata ega vastupanu avaldamata. Pealtnägijad Tripolis ütlevad meile, et laev vabastati mõne tunni jooksul pärast loovutamist, kui tõusulaine tuli sisse. Jefferson otsis meeleheitlikult Tripoli luureandmeid, läheneb Eatonile ja saadab ta koos metsiku plaaniga Pasha troonilt kõrvaldamiseks.

Kahe aasta jooksul juhatab see häbiväärne diplomaat (Eaton) kaheksast merejalaväelasest, kaheksast ja mitusada välismaisest palgasõdurist koosneva bändi, Aleksandria hülgajad, hullumeelsele lootusetule missioonile marssida üle Liibüa kõrbe põrgu. Ta prooviks missiooni rahastada vahenditega, mis olid talle võlgu Itaalia orjatüdruku Anna lunaraha eest. Thomas Jefferson saadaks Eatoni Ameerikasse esimesena varjatud sõjaväe opereerima välismaale, et proovida kukutada Tripoli valitsus, et vabastada seal orjastatud kolmsada Ameerika meremeest. See isikliku hävingu äärel olev mees ja tema käputäis mereväelasi, sealhulgas viiulimängijat Presley OBannon, ründaks üllatuslikult Tripolise suuruselt teist linna ja saavutaks peaaegu imelise võidu. Ta aitaks tembeldada toonasele teise klassi teenistusele, Ameerika Ühendriikide merejalaväelastele, uue julguse maine. Tema teod paneksid tulevased ameeriklaste põlvkonnad uhkelt laulma: Montezuma saalidest Tripoli kalda poole võitleme oma kodumaa lahingutega maal ja merel.

Allikad:

  • Piraatide rannik: Thomas Jefferson, esimesed merejalaväelased ja salajane missioon 1805
  • Esimene barbaarsõda
  • Monticello: Esimene barbaarsõda
  • USA mereväe originaalsed kuus fregaati
  • James Leander Cathcart
  • Võit Tripolis: kuidas Ameerika sõda Barbari piraatidega rajas USA mereväe ja ehitas rahvuse
  • Ameerika Ühendriikide kaubanduse ja meremeeste kaitse seadus Tripolitan Cruiserite vastu
  • James Madisonile James Leander Cathcartilt, 15. märts 1803
  • Tripoli: USA esimene sõda terrorismi vastu
  • James Madisonist James Leander Cathcartini, 6. veebruaril 1802
  • Sõnastiku peakonsul

Barbarite sõjad

Stephen Decaturi teod Barbaririikide vastu tegid temast ühe noorima mehe, kes kunagi kapteni auastmesse tõsteti.

Veebruari lõpus 1804. aastal kuulis Lord Horatio Nelson, kes oli hõivatud Touloni Vahemere -äärse sadama piiramisega, kuulnud uudiseid konfliktist lõuna pool Tripoli Barbaride piraatide ja Ameerika meremeeste vahel. Nii nagu ta seda kuulis, oli piraatidel õnnestunud eelmise aasta oktoobris oma käe külge panna Ameerika fregatt, USS Philadelphia, vallutades ja orjastades suurema osa meeskonnast. Need, kes pääsesid, peitsid end, kuid kadumise asemel naasid nad Tripoli sadamasse, kus laeva peeti kohalikeks maskeerituna, hiilisid keset ööd pardale, tapsid valvurid ja süütasid ta. põgeneda, takistades selle kasutamist vaenlase poolt, kaotamata ühtki meest. Seda uudist kuuldes kuulutas lord Nelson, võib -olla ajaloo kõige kuulsam mereväe tegelane, lihtsalt ameeriklase saavutuse „ajastu kõige julgemaks ja julgemaks teoks”. Ta polnud ainus tegelane, kes Ameerika mereväge kiitis. Ka paavst Pius VII kiitis ameeriklasi ja nende juhti kapten Stephen Decaturit, öeldes: „Ameerika Ühendriigid olid küll lapsekingades teinud ühe ööga rohkem alandamaks ja alandamaks Aafrika rannikul asuvaid kristlusevastaseid barbaare kui kõik Euroopa riigid olid seda teinud pikka aega. ” Aga miks oli Ameerika merevägi Põhja -Aafrika ranniku lähedal üldse, kuni need piraadid võisid ühe oma fregati vallutada, ja miks nende sõda nende piraatide vastu kandis Euroopas Euroopas keset Napoleoni Sõjad?

Piraatlus oli Vahemere meremeestele juba ammu suur probleem. Rooma riigimehed ja kindral Julius Caesar olid piraatide poolt kuulsalt röövitud ja kord lunaraha eest kinni peetud. Kuid 15. kuni 19. sajandini kimbutasid Barbary Corsairs nii lõunarannikut kui ka eurooplaste meelt. Märgitud sellisena nende ühise kodumaa jaoks Põhja -Aafrika (Barbari) rannikul, eriti Tunise, Alžiiri ja Tripoli sadamates, ei tegutsenud need meremehed kunagi ühtse organiseeritud rühmana. Türklaste, araablaste ja berberite mitmekesine etniline segu, mida nad jagasid, oli kohalike võimude, tavaliselt autonoomsete, sallivus ja sageli vaikiv toetus beys (Türgi keeles "Issand"), mis pidas Ottomani impeeriumi suhtes nominaalset varandust. Selle põhjuseks oli asjaolu, et erinevalt piraatluse üldisest kuvandist mängisid korsaarid olulist rolli Põhja -Aafrika ja Ottomani majanduses, eriti orjakaubanduses. Nad ei jälginud kaupmeeste kaupa ega jahtinud maetud varandust. Selle asemel kasutasid piraadid kergelt vananenud, aerujõuga kambüüsid, mis olid täis võimalikult palju relvastatud mehi, sihtimata kaitsmata laevu ja rannikuäärseid asulaid ning hoidsid kinni kõik mittemoslemid, keda nad lunarahaks leidsid. Kui lunaraha õigel ajal ei makstud, müüdi õnnetud ohvrid kohalikel orjaturgudel või suurematel Istanbuli turgudel. Need, kellel oli veel vähem õnne, allusid kambüüsi orja kohutavatele tingimustele. Euroopa riigid suunasid oma mereväge sageli rannikualadelt piraatlusest, mis töötas vaid ajutiselt, ning leidsid, et diplomaatia ja austusavaldus beys et see oleks odavam lahendus.

Suurbritannia kontrolli all olid Vahemere vetes sõitvad Ameerika kaupmehed just sellise kokkuleppe alusel kaitstud piraatluse eest, kuid see muutus pärast iseseisvuse saavutamist aastal 1783. Tunise, Alžiiri ja Tripoli valitsejad osutusid palju tülikamaks. Hoolimata varasematest vastuväidetest kutselise mereväe vastu, üritas president Thomas Jefferson seda nüüd piraatide alistamiseks kasutada, kuid väikesel eskaadril, mille ta Vahemerele saatis, oli ainult neli laeva, mis ei olnud piisavalt suured, et ohtu kujutada. võitlus edukalt ilma ohvriteta. Vahepeal kuulutas Tripoli valitseja Yusuf Karamanli peagi Ameerika Ühendriikide vastu sõja ning USA merevägi alustas linna blokaadi Rootsi flotiili abiga. Just selle blokaadi ajal ümbritses ja vallutas rühm piraate Philadelphiat, enne kui Decatur mõni kuu hiljem neile auhinna ära keelas. The war continued indecisively just outside Tripoli Harbor until the Spring of 1805. In late April, a small group of U.S. Marines landed in Alexandria, Egypt, hired a few hundred Greek, Arab and Turkish mercenaries and began a long march towards the town of Derna, where they fought and routed a defensive force of 4,000 with the aid of naval bombardment. Hearing of the defeat, Karamanli sued for peace and brought the First Barbary War to a close, promising to release all prisoners of war and refrain for antagonizing American merchants further.

A typical Barbary galley. Most of the space on the ship was taken up by armed men, meaning that the pirates could not go hunting on long voyages and relied on coastal support.

Peace in the Mediterranean did not last, however. While the Americans were busy with the War of 1812 and the rest of Europe busy with Napoleon Bonaparte, Barbary pirates began attacking American and European vessels once again. President James Madison authorized Stephen Decatur, now commodore, to set sail for the Mediterranean and bring the ruler of Algiers to heel with ten warships under his command in the May of 1815. Decatur fought two battles with the pirates off the coast of Spain, both of which were overwhelming American victories and allowed him to capture almost 500 prisoners. The Bey of Algiers, now facing pressure from both Britain and the Netherlands as well as the United States, surrendered to Decatur.

North African piracy proved to be a difficult problem until 1830, when French conquest and colonization of the region put an end to the issue for good. For America, the Barbary Wars were minor conflicts compared to the contemporary wars in Europe and America at the time but proved to be an important proving ground for the United States Navy. William Bainbridge, Stephen Decatur and Oliver Hazzard Perry all saw some of their first action in the Mediterranean, which proved to be valuable experience in the later War of 1812. More broadly, the wars were a sign that the young nation could maintain its independence in the truest sense, managing its own foreign policy and successfully defending its own interests against outside aggression.


The First Barbary War 1801–05

The First Barbary War (1801–1805), also known as the Tripolitanian War and the Barbary Coast War, was the first of two Barbary Wars between the United States and the four North African states known collectively as the “Barbary States”. Three of these were nominal provinces of the Ottoman Empire, but in practice autonomous: Tripoli, Algiers, and Tunis. The fourth was the independent Sultanate of Morocco. The cause of the war was pirates from the Barbary States seizing American merchant ships and holding the crews for ransom, demanding the U.S. pay tribute to the Barbary rulers. United States President Thomas Jefferson refused to pay this tribute.

The First Barbary War 1804. Image is taken from the book American Battles and Campaigns

Tripoli Harbour, 1804

Cdre Edward Preble assumed command of the US Mediterranean Squadron in 1803 and blockaded Tripoli harbor to prevent raids by the Barbary pirates. The first significant action of the blockade came on 31 October, when the 36-gun frigate USS Philadelphia ran aground on an uncharted reef and was captured by Tripolitan gunboats together with its crew and Capt William Bainbridge. Although the frigate was unfit for sea, it was anchored in the harbor as a floating battery.

If the Philadelphia could be repaired, it would become the Barbary pirates’ most powerful naval unit and its destruction was Preble’s top priority. The defenses of Tripoli harbor ruled out a conventional naval attack and it was decided that a night raid offered the best chance of success. On the night of 16 February 1804, a captured Tripolitan ketch renamed USS Intrepid disguised as a local merchant vessel sailed into the harbor under the command of Lt Stephen Decatur, Jr. He bluffed his way alongside the Philadelphia, allowing his detachment of marines hidden below decks to board the frigate and set her on fire. Despite heavy fire from the shore batteries, Decatur and his men successfully escaped in Intrepid.

Stephen Decatur boarding a Tripolitan gunboat during the First Barbary War, 3 August 1804. By Painter: Dennis Malone Carter – Naval Historical Center. Image is in the public domain via Wikimedia.com

In August 1804, Intrepid was converted into a ‘floating volcano’ to be sent into the harbor and blown up in the midst of the corsair fleet. The vessel was loaded with 100 barrels of powder and 150 shells, with their fuses set to burn for 15 minutes. On the evening of 4 September, Intrepid sailed into the harbor commanded by Master Commandant Richard Somers, but was hit by fire from shore batteries and blew up with the loss of all hands before reaching the enemy fleet.

Derna, 27 April–13 May 1805

Six months after failing to destroy the pirate fleet at Tripoli, American forces turned against Derna, which was attacked by a force from Alexandria, comprising a small detachment of US Marines and 500 Arab and Greek mercenaries under Capt William Eaton, Marine Lt Preston O’Bannon and the deposed Tripolitan ruler Hamet Karamanli. The USS Nautilus, the USS Hornet and the USS Argus were detailed to supply the force and provide naval gunfire support. On 27 April, the three vessels bombarded the defenses of Derna, and Eaton’s force successfully stormed the city, whose garrison fled after a short fight. The Pasha of Tripolitania, Yusuf Karamanli, had sent reinforcements to Derna, which arrived too late to prevent its capture. They made several attempts to retake the city, all of which were beaten off with the loss of 2000 men. Thus ended the First Barbary War.

Dr. Chris McNab is the editor of AMERICAN BATTLES & CAMPAIGNS: A Chronicle, from 1622-Present and is an experienced specialist in wilderness and urban survival techniques. He has published over 20 books including: How to Survive Anything, Anywhere — an encyclopedia of military and civilian survival techniques for all environments — Special Forces Endurance Techniques, First Aid Survival Manual, and The Handbook of Urban Survival. In his home country of Wales, UK, Chris provides instruction on wilderness hunting techniques and he is also an experienced martial arts instructor.


What was the cause of the Barbary Wars?

The cause of the U.S. participation was pirates from the Barbary States seizing American merchant ships and holding the crews for ransom, demanding the U.S. pay tribute to the Barbary valitsejad. United States President Thomas Jefferson refused to pay this tribute. Sweden had been at sõda with the Tripolitans since 1800.

Subsequently, question is, why was the Barbary War important? He demanded that all hostages be released, and that they pay for any damages as a result of their earlier actions. It was with this, that America had won a decisive victory in the Barbary Wars. This military victory was vitally oluline in the formation of the United States of America.

Keeping this in consideration, what was the result of the Barbary Wars?

The Barbary Wars were a series of conflicts culminating in two main wars fought between the United States, Sweden, and the Barbary states (Ottoman Empire, including Tunis, Algiers, and Tripoli) of North Africa in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Barbary Wars.

Kuupäev 10 May 1801 &ndash 10 June 1805, July 1815
Tulemus American victory

Which act best describes the reason for the Barbary War?

The correct answer is D. The reason for the Barbary War was an attempt to increase protection money from American ships by Tripoli. Explanation: This sõda would end with the taking of Derna by US forces, which would trigger the start of negotiations for the release of hostages and the end of the sõda.


Järeldus

The United States military reputation improved after the victory in the first Barbary war. The military was tested and passed the test.

The victory showed that America was capable of handling a war away from home competently. The fact that the eight states won the war by working together was a good example of how the United States should work together for a greater common good. Furthermore, the navy and the Marines became part of the United States history as well as a significant component of the American government. More importantly, this war set out a precedent that America has followed ever since of fighting wars abroad to date.


Sisu

The First Barbary War (1801–05) had led to an uneasy truce between the US and the Barbary states, but American attention turned to Britain and the War of 1812. At the prompting of Britain, the Barbary pirates returned to their practice of attacking American merchant vessels in the Mediterranean Sea and ransoming their crews to the United States government. [7] At the same time, the major European powers were still involved in the Napoleonic Wars, which did not fully end until 1815. [8]

At the conclusion of the War of 1812, however, the United States returned to the problem of Barbary piracy. On 3 March 1815, Congress authorized deployment of naval power against Algiers, and the squadron under the command of Commodore Stephen Decatur set sail on 20 May. It consisted of USS Guerriere (lipulaev), Tähtkuju, Makedoonia, Epervier, Ontario, Firefly, Säde, Flambeau, Tõrvikja Spitfire. [9]

Shortly after departing Gibraltar en route to Algiers, Decatur's squadron encountered the Algerian flagship Meshuda and captured it in the Battle off Cape Gata, and they captured the Algerian brig Estedio in the Battle off Cape Palos. By the final week of June, the squadron had reached Algiers and had initiated negotiations with the Dey. The United States made persistent demands for compensation, mingled with threats of destruction, and the Dey capitulated. He signed a treaty aboard the Guerriere in the Bay of Algiers on 3 July 1815, in which Decatur agreed to return the captured Meshuda ja Estedio. The Algerians returned all American captives, estimated to be about 10, in exchange for about 500 subjects of the Dey. [10] Algeria also paid $10,000 for seized shipping. The treaty guaranteed no further tributes by the United States [11] and granted the United States full shipping rights in the Mediterranean Sea.

In early 1816, Britain undertook a diplomatic mission, backed by a small squadron of ships of the line, to Tunis, Tripoli, and Algiers to convince the Deys to stop their piracy and free enslaved European Christians. The Beys of Tunis and Tripoli agreed without any resistance, but the Dey of Algiers was less cooperative, and the negotiations were stormy. The leader of the diplomatic mission, Edward Pellew, believed that he had negotiated a treaty to stop the slavery of Christians and returned to England. However, just after the treaty was signed, Algerian troops massacred 200 Corsican, Sicilian and Sardinian fishermen who had been under British protection thanks to the negotiation. This caused outrage in Britain and Europe, and Pellew's negotiations were seen as a failure. [12]

As a result, Pellew was ordered to sea again to complete the job and punish the Algerians. He gathered a squadron of five ships of the line, reinforced by a number of frigates, later reinforced by a flotilla of six Dutch ships. On 27 August 1816, following a round of failed negotiations, the fleet delivered a punishing nine-hour bombardment of Algiers. The attack immobilized many of the Dey's corsairs and shore batteries, forcing him to accept a peace offer of the same terms that he had rejected the day before. Pellew warned that if the terms were not accepted, he would continue the action. The Dey accepted the terms, but Pellew had been bluffing since his fleet had already spent all its ammunition. [13]


When did the First Barbary War start? - Ajalugu

The story of the United States of America is dynamic. From discovery of the Americas to the first elected African American president, U.S History is thriving, alive, and well. However, to become the rich, successful, and prosperous nation that we are today, America had to overcome obstacles and face many battles. These battles include international warfare as well as war against other nations such as the Revolutionary War, Spanish War, WW I and II, Vietnam War, Desert Storm, to the war in Iraq and Afghanistan. In order face these battles, our nation created a strong military that was able to face these conflicts. Consequently, the Army, Navy, Coast Guard, Air Force, Marines, and National Reserve were set in place. Each force has its own obligations, missions, and capabilities and can work separately as a strong power force. However, it was the war against Barbary pirates that ultimately brought our nation together, creating military power acting collectively as one entity for the name of the United States of America. The Barbary War tested the endurance of a country newly formed and became a staple of freedom and success for the United States armed forces.

From England and Great Britain, thirteen colonies formed themselves along the eastern coast of the New World. Found by Christopher Columbus and funded by the English, the colonies continued to send shipments of goods, services, and materials to and from the New World, Africa, the Caribbean, and Europe. These voyages were accomplished with little molestation from Pirates that caravan the open seas of the Mediterranean. However, when the thirteen colonies fought and won independence from the English, things changed dramatically. Thereafter, the newly formed country of America was now separated from the royal nation and to left to fend for themselves. Previously, U.S ships sailed the seas unbothered by convoying with the British Navy[i]. Now a sovereign nation, the U.S was soon troubled by pirates, specifically the Barbary Pirates.

Who were the Barbary Pirates?

The Barbary pirates were notorious. They were known for their ruthlessness as they captured islands and ships, took materials, and enslaved its people. Originating from the coast of North Africa, the Barbary Pirates gained pride, riches, and notoriety from thievery, bullying, and enslavement. For centuries the Barbary pirates killed and stole, so much so that some islands were left abandoned and neglected[ii]. In some instances, entire nations were stolen from their land and taken to Africa for enslavement[iii]. In 1784, when Barbary pirates seized American ships, enslaving shipmates and taking goods and materials, the newly formed U.S government angered and frustrated took action.

Before the colonies formed a union, tributes or taxes were paid to the Barbary pirates. With payments and treaties in place, the Barbary pirates allowed ships to cross through the Mediterranean safe and unharmed. Various countries including Spain, Portugal, Britain and France paid the pirates large sums of money[iv]. Abraham Lincoln, focused on the Civil War, willingly paid annual fees to reduce conflict. Not only were American ships able to sail the seas without harassment, upon payment American captures were released from African enslavement. It was estimated that Lincoln paid up to 20% of U.S gross income to these pirates[v]. By 1793 up to 12 American ships were captured[vi]. However, in 1801 Thomas Jefferson was elected the third president of the United States of America. Jefferson held a different view regarding the Barbary pirates.

Thomas Jefferson Takes Charge

In 1786, Jefferson, then U.S ambassador of France, met and talked with Ambassador Sidi Haji Abdrahaman of the Tripoli nation, home of Barbary pirates. Upset about the enslavement of Americans and frustrated by the treaty, Jefferson questioned him seeking to understand the brutality and harsh treatment. Ambassador Abdrahamn answered, “It was written in their Koran, that all nations which had not acknowledged the Prophet were sinners, whom it was the right and duty of the faithful to plunder and enslave”[vii]. Jefferson made up his mind. Standing strong and unwilling to pay such high taxes, President Jefferson refused to commit to the former treaty. In 1801, just two months into his presidency, Barbary pirates declared war against the United States of America.

The United States Armed Forces

This signified the beginning of the Barbary War. Before this event, the only battles America faced were that of the Civil War and battles against the Native Americans for land rights. The New World had little war experienced in comparison to other nations. A country with no real military force was then put to the test. “With the Continental Navy and Marines created and disbanded over a decade earlier”[viii], the armed forces were reunited. The United States Navy was formed, officially created October 13, 1775[ix]. This was only the beginning of what would later become the most powerful band of armed forces in the world, the U.S military. That same year on November 10, the nation officially gave birth to the U.S Marine Corps[x]. Originally created to “maintain security on naval ships”[xi], the Marine’s job was to “act as a unit aboard ships and engage in combat”[xii] with enemies. The Marine’s function allowed the Navy to continue their voyage and reach its objective. From the beginning of its military history, the U.S Navy and Marines worked together in missions to obtain the common goal of freedom and victory.

The staple, symbol, and showmanship of the United States military, Jefferson quickly put the new force into action. In May of 1801, the same year he was inaugurated into presidency, Jefferson sent a ship named the “Enterprise” into the Mediterranean. The mission of this deployment was to take over Tripolian ships, “establish blockades, and calm the situation”[xiii]. This objective was obtained quickly and swiftly with little combat. However, in 1803 the American offense soon turned to defense when the Barbary pirates arrested the American ship “Philadelphia”. Rumored that the pirates would use the “Philadelphia” against them, one courageous sailor stepped forward and took action.

In 1804, Lt. Stephen Decatur of the U.S Navy, who was 25 at the time, apprehended an enemy ship. Under the guise of Tripoli, Lt. Decatur gained access to the coast and entered the Tripoli port on February 15. He bravely battled with Tripoli combat. During the fight, Lt. Decatur was able to take back “Philadelphia” and burn the ship and all its contents[xiv]. This way, the ship would not be put to use by the Barbary. He then continued to lead his platoon, killing many Tripoli sailors and escaping back into the seas without harm. The act of Lt. Decatur became a legend of Naval history. For his bravery and quick thinking, Lt. Decatur was promoted to Captain. To this day, he is the youngest person in American military history to be named captain[xv]. His successful concur engrained him in times past as a national hero.

By April of 1805, the Barbary war was still raging. Once again, the U.S Marines and Navy banded together, again gaining victory and making history. Lead by Marine Lt. Presley O’Bannon, troops landed on the Tripolian coast, now known as Liberia. With a “mission to reinstate a new ruler”[xvi], over 500 troops marched 600 miles through the dessert and into the city of Derma. There, they quickly overcame the enemy, rescuing the enslaved crew of “Philadelphia” and allowing Prince Hamet Bey to reclaim his rightful throne as ruler of Tripoli. This event marked the first victory made on foreign soil[xvii]. Furthermore, it was the first time the American Flag was raised over alien territory. This historical moment was memorialized by two separate events. Grateful of the defeat of the Barbary, Prince Bey presented a “Mameluke” sword to Lt. O’Bannon. “Mameluke”, meaning North African Warrior[xviii], symbolized success and conquest. Today, the sword is used as a ceremonial weapon and is an official part of the Marine Corps uniform. The conquest is also commemorated in the U.S Marine’s official hymn. It further documents the importance of the event by giving tribute. The first line of this hymn reads: “From the Halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli, we fight our country’s battles in the air, on land and sea.”[xix]

A New War and A Broken Treaty

The first Barbary war officially ended June 4, 1805 with the signing of a peace treaty[xx]. The Tripoli, the combined nation of North Africa’s Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli known as the Barbary States, agreed to allow American sea merchants to caravan the sea in peace. However, by 1807, the Barbary pirates had continued the over take sea vessels. They maintained their antics by stealing goods and enslaving American people. By this time, the U.S military was distracted by the war of 1812 and made little passage through the Mediterranean. America was in battle with the British again, however this time over U.S commerce. This distraction allowed piracy to continue as the treaty between the nations remained broken. However, by 1815 the war of 1812 was over, and the United States Military refocused its attention upon the Barbary nation and war continued.

The United States Military Endures and Conquers

The Barbary made a wrong assumption. The Tripoli thought of America as weak from battle and indebt from the war of 1812. Once the conflict between Great Britain and America ended in 1815, the Dey of Algiers declared war on the United States. The military quickly responded. By July of 1815, 10 ships set sail for the coast of North Africa[xxi]. Commanded by Capt. Decatur and Capt. Brainbridge from the first Barbary war, these leaders displayed confidence and fearlessness. Within a couple of weeks, the captains had captured several Algerian ships, awakening fear and apprehension within the Barbary. Soon after this battle, the Dey relented his armed forces. After witnessing and experiencing the strength and mite of the American military, the Dey adhered to the regulations of the signed treaty.

The Foundation of History of the U.S Navy and Marine Corps

The Barbary War had within it, the first of many accomplishments. In this war was the first victory won on foreign soil, the first official battle of the U.S Navy and Marines, and the first raising of the flag on alien land. Furthermore, the battle became a significant part of militaries uniform, ceremonial rituals, and monuments. The “Tripoli Monument”[xxii] is known as the oldest military sculpture. The tribute honors the many heroes that participated in the Barbary War and helped to win the battle over the pirates. The historical monument that once sat amidst the Capitol, now stands confidently at the U.S Naval Academy in Annapolis Maryland. The U.S was able to gain so much privilege and accomplishment through wining great battles and obtaining victory. The United States came together as a people, as well as joined military forces for the name of liberty.

The Barbary war remains a battle of great precedence in relation to the history of the United States armed forces. The war created the beginning of a nation. The Barbary helped America to institute its independence, as they fought for freedom and established the strong reputation that America continues to hold to this day. As a militia, America is a force to be reckoned with. After fighting internal battles within the nation, the government was able to unite thirteen colonies and form this great nation. The U.S remains the riches, successful, and prosperous country in the world. People from different parts of the world come to America for equal opportunity, freedom, and liberty. However, these things did not come easily. If the Barbary War was a test of what our nation was to become, America passed with flying colors the war continues to symbolize triumph and sovereignty not only for our nation as a whole but also the commanding presence of the United States military.

[i] Chidsey, Donald. The Wars in Barbary. New York: Crown Publishers, 1971. Pg 52

[ii] Zacks, Richard. The Pirate Coast. New York: Hyperion Publishers, 2005. Pg 103


Forgotten U.S. History: The Barbary Wars

America’s new belligerent engagement in Libya, along with its NATO allies, has led me to think of our old engagement in Libya, which inspired the U.S. Marine anthem, “From the Halls of Montezuma to the Shores of Tripoli.” Not only have most Americans never heard of that war fought during Thomas Jefferson’s administration, but today’s schools don’t even bother to teach it.

About a year ago, I visited a prestigious private school in Oregon and was joined at lunch by a group of the school’s best students of high-school age. I assumed that they were well versed in American history. But to find out if I was right, I asked if they could tell me what was the first war the United States was engaged in after we had established an independent government under the new constitution.

There was a moment of silence while they wracked their brains for the correct answer. “The War of 1812,” they responded confidently. “No,” I said. “That was not the first war we were engaged in.” They seemed puzzled and disappointed. After all, they were the best students in the school. How could they be wrong? But they were. America’s first conflict is known as the Barbary Wars, fought in 1801-05 and 1815 against the Islamic powers of North Africa.

The Muslims of North Africa had begun attacking and capturing the ships of Christian nations after their expulsion from Spain and France in the 15th century. By the 17th century there were as many as 20,000 Christian captives in Algiers. Ransom payments were the sole means of freeing some of the captives. Others were condemned to slavery by the Muslims.

Incapable of conquering the North African coast, the European nations were able to gain a modicum of immunity from Barbary piracy by paying an annual tribute to the governments there. Prior to independence, American shipping was protected by payments made by the British government. However, after independence, American ships were on their own. They were seized in the Mediterranean and their crews held as hostages subject to ransom or enslaved. In response to these depredations, the Congress voted in 1794 to build a navy. However, in 1795 and 1797, under Presidents Washington and Adams, the United States signed extortion treaties with the Muslim Barbary states of Morocco, Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis in order to protect hundreds of American merchant vessels from harassment in the Mediterranean.

However, in 1801 the Pasha of Tripoli, Yusuf Karamanli, declared war on the United States and seized several Americans and their vessels. In 1803, Commodore Edward Preble was sent to the Mediterranean with the Põhiseadus, Philadelphia, and several brigs and schooners. Making a naval demonstration before Tangiers, which brought the Emperor of Morocco to make amends for treaty violations, Preble set up a blockade of Tripoli itself. On October 31, 1803, the Philadelphia ran on a reef and was captured by the Tripolitans, who anchored her in their harbor. But on February 16, 1804, Lieutenant Stephen Decatur and eighty officers and men recaptured and burned her in a daring night attack.

During August and September of 1804, Preble harassed Tripolitan shipping and fortifications with frequent attacks. The massive fortifications had been built by Christian slaves. Preble’s actions reached a climax when the fire-ship Hirmuäratav, loaded with a cargo of gunpowder and explosive shells, was maneuvered into the harbor at night. But the ship exploded prematurely, doing little damage to Tripolitan shipping.

Meanwhile, William Eaton, the U.S. Consul at Tunis, got permission from Jefferson and Madison to attack Tripoli by land with the help of the Pasha’s exiled older brother Hamet, whose throne had been usurped by Yusuf. With the help of seven United States Marines, Eaton was able to organize a small army made up of Greeks and discontented Arabs who marched from Alexandria to Derna, halfway to Tripoli, in 30 days. The small army, led by the seven Marines, stormed Derna, which fell after a two-hour battle.

The Pasha in Tripoli was so alarmed by the fall of Derna that he signed a peace treaty with the United States on June 4, 1805. It abolished all annual payments, but provided for $60,000 ransom money for the officers and crew of the Philadelphia.

But payments were continued to the other Barbary states until 1815, when Commodore Stephen Decatur was sent to the Mediterranean where he captured the Algerian flagship Mashuda in a fight off Cape de Gat. Appearing off Algiers, Decatur demanded and obtained a treaty humiliating to the once proud piratical state: no future payments, restoration of all American property, the emancipation of all Christian slaves, civilized treatment of all prisoners of war and $10,000 for a merchantman recently seized. And so ended the Barbary Wars for the United States.

However, it wasn’t until France invaded North Africa in 1830 and set up a permanent government there that the Barbary pirates were finally put out of business. France then encouraged over a million Europeans to settle in Algeria, making it a permanent part of the French Republic. The settlers created industries, farms, vineyards, and cultural institutions. Thus, Algeria became a productive part of France until the 1950s when the Soviet Union helped Algerian communists create a national liberation movement using terrorism to create fear among Muslims who were, on the whole, loyal to France.

French patriots brought Charles de Gaulle out of retirement to help win the war for France. But he did just the opposite in one of the most cynical betrayals in all of French history. He surrendered Algeria to the communists, which forced over a million Europeans and loyal Muslims to leave Algeria and settle in France.

Today France is overrun with Algerians who don’t want to live in their own liberated state where radical Islamists have killed thousands of Algerians. And so, we are now fighting barbaric Muslims all over again. Now they are called al-Qaida and radical Jihadist Islamists who are preparing to become the dominant religious power in Europe.

Lesson to be learned? We are threatened today by the same kind of terrorism and barbarism we fought in our first foreign war. However, distinct differences exist, since U.S. ships have not been attacked by an Islamic state, nor have Americans been held for ransom. As for the attacks against our nation on 9-11, the al-Qaeda terrorists responsible have actually been linked to the rebel opposition in Libya, posing a problem to America in determining who is “friend” and who is “foe” in the Libyan conflict. An article in Britain’s Telegraph for July 11 quoted the Libyan rebel leader, Abdel-Hakim al-Hasidi, as stating that “jihadists who fought against allied troops in Iraq are on the front lines of the battle against Muammar Gaddafi’s regime.” However, if an unmistakable enemy threatening American interests in northern Africa or the Middle East should be determined, a Congressional declaration of war would be in order, as our Constitution mandates.

Apparently, the Muslim world is reverting to its age-old barbaric practices, which forced the Europeans to fight back and subdue them in North Africa. Under the French, they were pacified and productive. Today, the Muslims have invaded France and believe they are in a position to conquer the Europeans. As the French say, “Plus ça change, plus c’est la même chose.” The more it changes, the more it remains the same. Or perhaps better put by George Santayana: “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.”


Barbary Wars

On a mission to free the 307 men taken prisoner from the captured Philadelphia, the USS Constitution, under the command of Commodore Edward Preble, blasts the shore batteries in the harbor of Tripoli.

“Barbary Wars” is a collective name for two naval conflicts, the Tripolitan War of 1800–05 and the Algerine War of 1815. Both were USN actions against the state-sanctioned piracy of Muslim mariners operating out of the “Barbary states” (present-day Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya) on the coast of North Africa. Such piracy had been directed against the shipping of Christian (i. e., non-Muslim) nations since the 17th century, and governments became accustomed to paying extortionate tribute money to the Barbary states for protection against the pirates. Beginning in the administration of Thomas Jefferson, however, U. S. policy would no longer brook extortion, which was seen as a threat to sovereignty.

The origin of the Tripolitan War may be traced to 1785, when Great Britain encouraged Algiers to capture two American vessels. At the time, Jefferson was American minister plenipotentiary to France from this post, he attempted to draw Portugal, Naples, Sardinia, Russia, and France into an anti-Algerian alliance. A French refusal to cooper- ate brought the collapse of the alliance, and Britain incited Algeria to an even more vigorous piracy, in which a dozen American ships were captured and more than 100 American sailors imprisoned. The U.S. government negotiated a treaty with the bey of Algiers in 1795, pledging tribute to secure release of the captives and to ensure freedom of navigation. Additional treaties were concluded with Tunis and Tripoli. The United States, however, delayed sending the tribute money, which, shortly after the inauguration of President Jefferson in 1801, moved Pasha Yusuf Qaramanli, Tripoli’s ruler, to declare war, albeit informally.

Jefferson responded by creating a coalition with Sweden, Sicily, Malta, Portugal, and Morocco against Tripoli, forcing Qaramanli to back down. From 1801 to 1803, one USN frigate and several smaller USN vessels patrolled the Tripolitan coast. In October 1803, USS Philadelphia ran aground and was captured 300 American sailors were imprisoned in Tripoli. In February 1804, however, Lieutenant STEPHEN DECATUR led a daring raid on Tripoli harbor and burned Philadelphia, thereby denying the prize to the bey. Following this, Commodore Edward Preble increased an ongoing bombardment of Tripoli while the American consul at Tunis, William Eaton, proposed an alliance with Ahmed Qaramanli, the brother Yusuf had deposed in 1795. At the same time, Eaton recruited a force of Arabs and Greeks who joined a contingent of U.S. Marines to support the restoration of Ahmed. In coordination with the USN bombardment, Eaton’s force captured Derna in 1805. Eaton had never secured the authorization of the Jefferson government, however, and the president concluded a treaty of peace with Yusuf Qaramanli on June 4, 1805. Although the treaty stipulated a $60,000 ransom to be paid for the release of the American prisoners, it also ended the practice of annual tribute payment, establishing unhindered commerce between the United States and Tripoli. Americans hailed the war as a triumph of U. S. seapower.

Despite the Treaty of Tripoli, Barbary piracy soon revived, especially during the W AR OF 1812, when U. S. Navy vessels that had been patrolling the Barbary waters had to be withdrawn for service closer to home. The bey of Algiers exploited the absence of patrolling vessels to resume piracy. After expelling the U. S. consul and imprisoning or enslaving American nationals, the bey formally declared war in 1815. His timing, however, was bad. With the War of 1812 ended, Commodore Stephen Decatur was able to lead a 10-ship squadron into the Mediterranean and, between March 3 and June 30, 1815, capture two Algerian warships. He then sailed into the harbor of Algiers, where, at the mouth of his cannon, he demanded an end to tribute and the release of all prisoners without ransom. The bey acquiesced, concluding on June 30, 1815, a treaty ending state-sanctioned piracy. Decatur continued on to Tunis and Tripoli, where he also coerced treaties and even secured compensation for American vessels that had been seized by those states (at British prompting) during the War of 1812. Like the Tripolitan War, the briefer Algerine War was a triumph for the U. S. Navy as an instrument of American international policy. Nevertheless, despite the treaty of 1815 and another concluded in 1816, Algerian piracy remained a threat—although at a significantly reduced level— until France captured Algiers in 1830.

BARBARY PIRATES VERSUS US MARINES

For a long time, the Muslim rulers of the so-called Barbary States—Morocco, Algiers, Tripoli, and Tunis—sanctioned piracy against the vessels of Christian nations plying the Mediterranean near the coast of North Africa. The so-called Barbary Pirates demanded tribute—protection money—in return for allowing shipping to be conducted unmolested. In its early years, the United States, a struggling young republic in no position to wage war against the Barbary Pirates, concluded tribute treaties. However, in May 1801, a new bey assumed the Tripolitan throne, demanded a more exorbitant tribute, then declared war on the United States in an effort to get it. In 1803, during the course of the war, the bey’s navy captured the USN frigate Philadelphia. Lieutenant Stephen Decatur, USN, led a daring raid, which included marines, to set fire to the Philadelphia while it was in harbor, thereby depriving the bey of his prize.

In 1804, while the U. S. Navy blockaded the harbor of Tripoli, a mixed force of Egyptians, European troops, and eight U. S. Marines under the command of Lieutenant PRESLEY O’BANNON in- cited a revolt against the bey. O’Bannon and his marine detachment led the force 600 miles across the Libyan desert and attacked and took Derna on April 27, 1805, defeating superior forces. Shortly afterward, the bey concluded a favorable peace treaty with the United States—and presented O’Bannon with a jeweled MAMELUKE SWORD , which became the model for that worn by USMC officers on ceremonial occasions. O’Bannon’s victory was also the source of the reference to the “shores of Tripoli” in the MARINE HYMN .

EDWARD PREBLE, (1761–1807) NAVY CAPTAIN

One of the early heroes of the U. S. Navy, Preble was born in Falmouth (modern Portland), Maine, and, during the AMERICAN REVOLUTION , enrolled as a midshipman, not in the fledgling Continental navy but in the state navy of Massachusetts, one of sev- eral navies raised by the states during the conflict. He rose to lieutenant in this service and, after the war, shipped out with the merchant marine. When the QUASI – WAR WITH FRANCE heated up in 1798, Preble joined the USN and, the following year, was promoted to captain. As skipper of the USS Essex, he led an expedition to Batavia, Dutch East Indies. and his ship became the first USN vessel to show the flag beyond the Cape of Good Hope. With the outbreak of the BARBARY WARS , Preble commanded a squadron against the Tripolitan raiders and against Tripoli itself. He enjoyed great success during 1804, then returned to the United States, where he took charge of the construction of a much-needed fleet of GUNBOATS .


Legacy of the Wars Against the Barbary Pirates

The threat of the Barbary pirates faded into history, especially as the age of imperialism meant the African states supporting piracy came under the control of European powers. And pirates were mainly found in adventure tales until incidents off the coast of Somalia made headlines in the spring of 2009.

The Barbary Wars were relatively minor engagements, especially when compared to European wars of the period. Yet they provided heroes and thrilling tales of patriotism to the United States as a young nation. And the fights in distant lands can be said to have shaped the young nation's conception of itself as a player on the international stage.

Gratitude is extended to the New York Public Library Digital Collections for the use of images on this page.


Vaata videot: Embrapa Extrato De Algas Marinhas (Juuni 2022).


Kommentaarid:

  1. Nikozilkree

    I cannot disagree with you.

  2. Garlan

    Vabandust, aga ma arvan, et te eksite. Ma olen kindel. Arutame. Saada mulle e -kiri, me räägime.

  3. Meztizilkree

    Täname abi eest selles küsimuses.

  4. Zulukasa

    See ei too midagi kasulikku. !!! IMMA!!!

  5. Collins

    Spetsialistina saan aidata.

  6. Buckley

    At all is not present.



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