Ajalugu Podcastid

United Artists lõi

United Artists lõi

5. veebruaril 1919 tulid Hollywoodi raskekaalu esindajad Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks ja D.W. Griffith ühendas jõud, et luua oma filmistuudio, mida nad nimetasid United Artists Corporationiks.

United Artists saavutas Hollywoodis kiiresti prestiiži tänu oma tähtede, eriti Chaplini filmide edule Kuldpalavik (1925), samuti selliste näitlejate tööd nagu Buster Keaton, Rudolph Valentino ja Gloria Swanson. Chaplin lavastas UA filme ja mängis neis ning Pickford keskendus tootmisele pärast seda, kui ta 1930ndatel näitlejatööst loobus. Heli tõusuga sellel kümnendil aitasid UA -d veteranprodutsentide talendid (ja rahakogud) nagu Joseph Schenck, Samuel Goldwyn, Howard Hughes ja Alexander Korda. Korporatsioon hakkas aga 1940. aastatel rahaliselt vaeva nägema ning 1951. aastal müüdi tootmisstuudio ning UAst sai ainult finantseerimis- ja turustusvõimalus.

1950. aastate keskpaigaks olid kõik esialgsed partnerid müünud ​​oma ettevõtte aktsiad, kuid UA hakkas uuesti õitsema, avaldades selliseid filme nagu Aafrika kuninganna (1951), Keskpäev (1952), Prokuratuuri tunnistaja (1957), Mõnele meeldib see kuumalt (1959), Korter ja Suurepärane seitsmes (mõlemad 1960) ja West Side'i lugu (1961). Lisaks vastutas ettevõte James Bondi ja Pink Pantheri filmide frantsiiside eest. UA läks börsile 1957. aastal ja sai kümne aasta pärast TransAmerica Corporationi tütarettevõtteks.

UA filmid kogusid 1970ndate jooksul hulgaliselt parimaid filmiakadeemia auhindu Kesköö kauboi (1969), Lendas üle käopesa (1975), Rocky (1976) ja Annie Hall (1977). Varsti pärast seda lahkusid aga viis tippjuhti ettevõttest erimeelsustes ja moodustasid Warner Brothersi toetatud Orion Pictures. UA sai veelgi laastavama löögi 1980. aastal, kui avaldas suure eelarvega flopi Taeva värav, režissöör Michael Cimino. Kaks aastat valmimisel ja eelarve ületamisel teenis film USA kassas vähem kui 4 miljonit dollarit. Pärast seda ebaõnnestumist võitles UA kogu 1980. aasta. 1981. aastal ostis MGM ettevõtte, liitudes sellega 1983. aastal, saades MGM/UA Entertainmentiks. Nende suhteliselt pimedate aastate esiletõstmisel avaldas UA veel ühe parima filmi võitja, Vihma Mees, 1988. aastal.

1992. aastal omandas ettevõtte Prantsuse pank Credit Lyonnais ja muutis selle nimeks Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Inc., loobudes täielikult United Artists nimest. James Bondi ja Pink Pantheri frantsiisid taaselustati vahelduva eduga. MGM vahetas omanikku ja reorganiseeriti järgmise pooleteise kümne aasta jooksul korduvalt, mille jooksul UA paigutati ümber butiiktootjaks väiksematele nn kunstimajafilmidele nagu Bowling Columbine'i jaoks (2002), Hotell Rwanda (2005) ja Capote (2006). 2006. aasta novembris kinkis MGM näitlejale/produtsendile Tom Cruise'i (staar Vihma Mees) ja tema tootmispartner Paula Wagner kontrollivad United Artists'i tootmisplaati, teatades sellest otsusest kui UA kaubamärgi „taaskehtestamisest” selle asutajate vaimus. Cruise ja Wagner, kelle varasem tehing Paramount Picturesiga lõppes 2006. aastal varem teatatud kurbuste tõttu, avaldasid oma esimese ühistootmise UA-ga, Lõvid talledele, 2007. aastal. Seejärel liideti UA kaubamärk MGM -i ja taaselustati 2018. aastal United Artists Digital Studios.


United Artists loodud - AJALUGU

UA stuudiopartii varajane ajalugu: Mary Pickford ja Douglas Fairbanks Santa Monica puiestee ja Formose avenüü nurgal 1922.

& quot; partii & quot;

Ühendatud kunstnike partii ajalugu (tuntud ka kui Samuel Goldwyni stuudio)

1041 Põhja -Formosa avenüü
Hollywood, California

Kui United Artists'i 1919. aastal Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks ja D. W. Griffith asutasid, ei soovinud asutajad kunagi, et ettevõte oleks nagu tavaline Hollywoodi stuudio. See sai alguse ainult jaotusettevõttena. Selle missiooniks oli välja anda sõltumatute produtsentide tehtud filme, seega ei olnud tal stuudiopartiisid. Kuid paljud sõltumatud tootjad omasid oma kinnisvara, näiteks Charlie Chaplini stuudio Sunset Boulevardil.

Stuudioplatsile kõige lähemal oli 18 aakri suurune kinnistu, mis kuulus Pickfordile ja Fairbanksile Santa Monica puiestee ja Hollywoodi Formosa avenüü nurgal. See kuulus algselt Jesse Durham Hamptonile ja sai seejärel nimeks Pickford-Fairbanksi stuudio. Kui United Artists hakkas sõltumatuid tootjaid peamistest stuudiotest eemale meelitama, rentisid paljud produtsendid nagu Samuel Goldwyn ja Joseph Schenck kinnistul kontorid ja lavad. 1920. aastate alguses nimetati partii ümber Ühendatud Kunstnike Stuudioks, kuigi seda kasutati levitusettevõttest United Artists eraldi üksusena.

Goldwyn ja Schecnk rahastasid stuudio laiendamist, luues ebamugava omandistruktuuri. Pickford ja Fairbanks kontrollisid seda maale, kuid Goldwyn ja Scheck omasid krundi tegelikke rajatisi. Aastal 1935, kui Scheck United Artistsist lahkus, võttis Goldwyn tema osa üle. Ja kui Fairbanks 1939. aastal suri, nõudis Pickford oma osa tagasi. Nii jäid Mary Pickford ja Samuel Goldwyn maa ühisomanikeks, mis tekitasid aastate jooksul kibedaid vaidlusi, kuna mõlemad olid tugevad sõltumatud, kuid kummalgi polnud selget enamuse kontrolli.

Kui Goldwyn 1940. Goldwyn ja Pickford tülitsesid stuudio üle, kuni nende lahkarvamused tekitasid ummikseisu, mis pani nad kohtusse ja panid partii 1955. aastal oksjonil müüki. Goldwyn, keda abistas James Mulvey, tegi Pickfordi üle ja sai kinnisvara ainuomanikuks.

See krunt pakkus aastate jooksul kodu paljudele sõltumatutele tootmisettevõtetele ja seda tunti Samuel Goldwyni stuudio nime all kuni aastani 1980. Filmitud kuulsate filmide hulgas oli Wutheringi kõrgused (1939), Mõnele meeldib see kuumalt (1959) ja West Side'i lugu (1959). Teleprodutsendid kutsusid stuudiot ka koju, sealhulgas Sid & amp; Marty Krofft. Aastal 1977, pärast seda, kui George Lucas oli põhimõttelise fotograafia peale pannud Tähtede sõda Inglismaal Elstree stuudios tegi ta mõned Cantina stseenid Samuel Goldwyni stuudios uuesti üles.

UA-Samuel Goldwyni stuudio, nüüd tuntud kui The Lot (1998).

1980. aastal ostis Warner Bros. selle saidi oma Burbanki peakorteri abina ja nimetas selle ümber Warner Hollywoodi stuudioks. Pärast seda, kui Warner 1999. aastal kinnisvara eraettevõttele müüs, jäi see uue identiteediga The Lot tööle.

KLIKI SIIA, et saada lisateavet UA-Samuel Goldwyni stuudio kohta, mis on nüüd tuntud kui The Lot.


Ajalooline Detroit

Ühendatud kunstnike teatri teine ​​telk

Foto Burtoni ajalookogust.

Ühendatud kunstnike teatri vana telk

Foto Burtoni ajalookogust.

Hilisem United United Artists telkreklaam "Kilimanjaro lumesadu" peaosades Gregory Peck ja Ava Gardner

Foto Burtoni ajalookogust.

Ühendatud kunstnike teatri vana telk

Foto Burtoni ajalookogust.

Ühendatud kunstnike teatri vana telk

Foto Burtoni ajalookogust.

UA interjööris oli hispaania gooti hõngu.

Foto Walbridge-Aldingeri arhiivist

Ühendatud kunstnike telk 1982.

UA, mis oli kunagi üks Detroiti juhtivaid kinosid, kasutas pehmet pornograafiat, et jääda avatuks, nagu siin 1970.

Foto Detroiti Free Pressi arhiivist.

Toolid ja sisustus on maha müüdud ning UA istub 1977. aastal ja ootab oma pikka aeglast surma.

Foto Detroiti Free Pressi arhiivist.

Kate McCarthy istub kaunil, nikerdatud pähklitoolil UA -st, mis müüakse oksjonil 1976. aastal

Foto Detroiti Free Pressi arhiivist.

Üks põliselanike piigadest, kes kaunistavad UA finaali seinu

Foto Detroiti Free Pressi arhiivist.

Foto Detroiti Free Pressi arhiivist.

Ühendatud kunstnike teater Bagley's

Foto Detroiti Free Pressi arhiivist.

Detroiti sümfooniaorkester salvestab UA -s 1979. aastal. UA akadeemika osutus sümfoonia salvestamiseks ideaalseks.

Foto Detroiti Free Pressi arhiivist.

Nathaniel Gurin harjutab 1981. aastal oma bassitrompetit kooriva, laudadega ühendatud UA fuajees. Detroiti sümfooniaorkester salvestas seal oma suurepärase akustika tõttu.

Foto Detroiti Free Pressi arhiivist.

Üle 100 poisi Fordi Vabariigist Farmingtonis, Michiganis, olid 1938. aasta septembris United Artists Theatre külalised filmi "Poisid linn" linastamiseks.

Foto Detroiti Free Pressi arhiivist.

Ühendatud kunstnike ja selle rivaali Michigani teatri valgustatud telgid.


Tom Cruise ja The Failed United Artists Experiment

2006. aasta lõpus kuulutati suure käraga Tom Cruise pealkirjaks taaselustatud United Artists. Aga mis läks valesti?

See artikkel ilmus algselt veebisaidil Den of Geek UK.

Netflixi Ühendkuningriigi nurkades varitsemine on mitte eriti levinud Tom Cruise'i film, mis kümme aastat tagasi oli valmis kuulutama uut filmitegemise koitu. Režissöör Robert Redford ja näitlejate koosseisus Redford, Cruise, Meryl Streep ja tollal suhteliselt tundmatu Andrew Garfield, Lõvid talledele nägi paberil raskekaalu poliitilise draamana. Selle fookus on kolmel lool: ambitsioonikas poliitik, kes annab intervjuu karmile reporterile, sõjaväe rühm, kellelt nimetatud poliitik käsib minna ülisalajasele missioonile, ja professor, kes üritab paljutõotavat tudengit oma elu ümber pöörata.

See nägi välja nagu Oscar-sööt. See osutus joonealuseks märkuseks, et United Artistsit ei õnnestunud ellu äratada.

United Artists asutati algselt 1919. aastal Charlie Chaplini, Mary Pickfordi, D W Griffithi ja Douglas Fairbanksi poolt, eesmärgiga võimaldada näitleja- ja loomingulistel talentidel oma töö üle kontrolli teha, mitte stuudios dikteerida. Järgnevatel aastakümnetel elas ettevõte konarlikku elu, kuid mitte edutult. Eelkõige 1950ndatel ja 1960ndatel saavutasid United Artists palju edu, võites ka kotte Oscarit. Samuti omandas see teadlikult James Bondi romaanide õigused. Pole paha ettevõtmine.

Reklaami – sisu jätkub allpool

Kuid dramaatiline kukkumine saabus tõepoolest 1970ndate lõpus, kui tulid uued omanikud Transamerica ja otsus toetada Michael Cimino kurikuulsalt kallist pommi. Taeva värav. Taeva värav veritses ettevõttelt raha välja ja järgnes ühinemine MGM -iga. Ka MGM seisab peagi silmitsi oma finantsraskustega.

Kiirelt edasi 2006. aastasse ja silmapiiril oli paljutõotav tulevik. Tom Cruise ja tema produtsentpartner Paula Wagner olid alates 1990ndate algusest sõlminud Paramount Picturesiga ainuõigusliku tootmislepingu, mis viis Võimatu missioon filmide frantsiis, muu hulgas projektid - kuid kui see tehing lõppes, otsisid nad muid võimalusi. See oli umbes sel ajal, kui Paramount'i tollane ülemus Sumner Redstone oli teinud vähem kui lisamärkusi Cruise'i kassahinna vähenemise pärast. Võimatu missioon III kassa roheline.

Paus oli vältimatu ja avanes võimalus. MGM otsis, mida oma United Artists'i sildiga peale hakata, ning algasid läbirääkimised ebatavalise tehingu üle. 2006. aasta novembris kuulutati tehing välja. Paula Wagner ja Tom Cruise võtaksid United Artists'i viimases iteratsioonis vähemusosaluse. Plaan oli, et Wagner tegutseb tegevjuhina, samas kui Cruise'i peaks oma filmides esinema, kuid teda ei lukustata ainult UA lavastustega (see oleks mõnevõrra vastuolus United Artists'i algsete põhimõtetega, kui ta oleks olnud). Cruise'il ja Wagneril oleks siis autonoomia kuni nelja filmi aastas, eeldusel, et eelarved on tagasihoidlikud.

Sel ajal ei olnud MGMi pressiesindaja Jeff Pryor huvitatud sellest, kas Cruise ja Wagner maksid omakapitali eest või kas see oli vastutasuks Cruise tähtjõu kaasamise eest UA toodangusse. "Soovin Tomile ja tema kaaslastele nende uues ettevõtmises palju õnne," ütles Sumner Redstone oma avalduses, vaevalt võitleb selle eest, et teda Paramount partiis hoida.

Isegi algusest peale oli vastus uutele United Artistsile vastuoluline. Mõned kahtlesid, kas Cruise'il oli piletikassa, et see ikka veel töötaks. Teised mõtlesid, kas see on Cruise'i näidend, mis näitab, et tal on Hollywoodis endiselt mõjuvõimu. Mõni, vähem küüniline, soovitas, et ta tahaks lihtsalt rohkem filme teha, mida ta näha soovis.

Ükskõik, millisele teooriale allkirjastati, oleksid kõik silmad paratamatult uue UA esimese pildi peal.

Reklaami – sisu jätkub allpool

Nagu juhtus, oli film juba sügaval arengus. Matthew Michael Carnahani stsenaariumi põhjal Lõvid talledele Robert Redford oli juba järgmise režissöörina filmi vastu huvitatud. Ta polnud lavastanud pilti alates 2000ndatest Legend Bagger Vance'ist selles etapis ja oli huvitatud projektist, mis läks vastuollu Hollywoodi trendiga puhtalt meelelahutusprojektide osas. Ta allkirjastas punktiirjoonel ja filmimine algas 2007. aasta jaanuari lõpus - vähem kui kolm kuud pärast uue UA tehingu väljakuulutamist. See oleks esimene pilt selle vihmavarju all.

Redford märkis hiljem, et see oli kõige tihedam ajakava, mille kallal ta kunagi töötas, filmi teatamise ja linastumise vahele jäi vähem kui aasta. Kuid suurem probleem oli see, kuidas seda müüa. Lõpuks nõudis MGM, et see oli pigem Robert Redfordi projekt kui Tom Cruise'i film, kuid üks pilk plakatile näitas, et see ei vähenda ka Cruise'i suhteliselt tagasihoidlikku ekraanil osalemist.

Lisaks sellele ei saanud filmi kolm lugu - kuigi iseseisvalt huvitavad - tegelikult veenvalt üheks sidusaks mängufilmiks. Sellisena ei soostunud kriitikud filmiga ja ka MGM-i katsed seda kassafilmiga pooleks müüa ei töötanud. Film, mis maksis negatiivi eest umbes 35 miljonit dollarit, teenis kogu maailmas 63,2 miljonit dollarit. See liiguks oma koduväljaandel ainult kasumi poole ja kuigi see pole uudishimu, mida liiga paljud otsivad.

Sellegipoolest oli Cruise'il United Artistsile suurem projekt ja seekord võttis ta peaosa. Juba 2002. aastal hakkasid stsenarist ja režissöör Christopher McQuarrie kokku panema filmi, mis põhineb saksa sõdurite poolt 1944. aastal Adolf Hitleri tapmise süžeel. Hiljem kujundas ta sellest stsenaariumi, millest saab film Valkyrie.

McQuarrie huvitas režissöör Bryan Singerit, kes oli oma filmiga teema vastu harjunud Apt Õpilane. Ta nõustus režissööriga ja McQuarrie pakkus, et film oleks projekt, millest uued United Artistsid huvitatud oleksid. Tal oli õigus.

Paula Wagnerile meeldis plats kohe ja 2007. aasta märtsis sõlmiti kokkulepe filmi rahastamiseks. Cruise'il paluti peaosa mängida ja ta nõustus seda tegema. Filmimine algas nõuetekohaselt juulis 2007. Kuid pärast seda Lõvid talledelePettumust valmistavas kassas muutusid panused palju suuremaks Valkyrie. 75 miljoni dollariga oli see alustuseks kallim film. Kuid see oleks ka kõnekam audit selle kohta, kus Tom Cruise'i kassajõud tegelikult selles etapis oli.

Reklaami – sisu jätkub allpool

Film jõudis aga peagi filmiajakirjanduse ristteele, filmi tegemise ajal kerkis esile halvustavate lugude salv. Mitte, et väljalaskekuupäevade pidev nihutamine aitaks. Valkyrie oli algselt linastus augustis 2008. Seejärel kolis see 2008. aasta juunisse. Seejärel kolis see oktoobrisse 2008. Seejärel veebruarisse 2009. Seejärel kolis ta tagasi detsembrisse 2008. Vähemalt üks kuupäevamuutustest oli filmivõtted. täiendavast jadast, kuid teised reetsid lekkiva enesekindluse, mille MGM filmis omas. Kui film, mida ta tahtis Oscari kandidaadina sihtida, arvas ta lõpuks, et auhindu ei anta, ja läks selle asemel maksma piletikassa. Lisaks seadis ta oma turunduse ümber, et vähendada Tom Cruise'i osalust ja filmi pidevat vallandamist Cruise'i silmalappideks. ”

Vastupidiselt levinud arvamusele, Valkyrie oli ka korralik kaubanduslik edu. Filmil on kindlasti probleeme, kuid arvustused olid korras ja 200,3 miljoni dollari suurune ülemaailmne kassa ei olnud halb tootlus, arvestades lavastuse läbielatud probleeme.

Kuid juba enne tema kinode filmimist varisesid uued Ühendatud Artistid kokku. 14. augustil 2008, mitu kuud enne filmi ilmumist teatati, et Paula Wagner lahkus United Artistsist ja hakkab selle asemel iseseisva produtsendina filme arendama. Ta hoidis filmis oma osalust, kuid vastavalt Mitmekesisus Tollal raportis ütles ta, et üritas filme rohelise valgusega „tihtipeale MGM -iga pead lüüa”. MGM ise oli vahepeal stuudiojuhti vahetanud ja selle uus ülemus oli rohkem huvitatud piltide ise väljatöötamisest, mitte ressursside suunamisest United Artistsile. MGM omakorda väitis, et Wagner "ei arene piisavalt agressiivselt".

Wagnerit takistas umbes samal ajal Ameerika Kirjanike Gildi streik, mis tõi kaasa UA lavastuse kokkuvarisemise, Pinkville. Bruce Willis oli allkirjastanud filmi peaosa, mille Oliver Stone oleks lavastanud. Aga kui tekkisid skriptiprobleemid, ei saanud UA selle parandamiseks kirjanikke palgata. Talent liikus edasi. Sellel oli ka tantsufilm nimega Liiguta, alates Camp Rock režissöör Matthew Diamond, stardiplokkide lähedal. Ka see lagunes.

Wagneri lahkumishetkel oli plaan, et Cruise võtaks rohkem osa stuudio juhtimisest. Kuid pole ühtegi märki, mis kunagi oleks juhtunud. Valkyrie oli Cruise'i viimane projekt, millel oli United Artists'i logo, ja ta keskenduks selle asemel taas näitlemisprojektidele, näiteks Rüütel ja#038 päev, Missioon: võimatu - kummitusprotokoll (mis taaselustas selle frantsiisi tagasi Paramountis) ja Aegade kivi.

UA nimi kannataks edasi. Selle logo ilmus veel kahes MGM -filmis: Mullivanni ajamasin ja ümbertegemine Kuulsus. Aastaks 2011 oli MGM ostnud tagasi täieliku kontrolli United Artists bänneri üle, kuid aastaaruande avaldus, mis kuulutas selle „võib jätkata United Artists bänneri kasutamist uute filmide väljatöötamiseks ja tootmiseks”, ei saanud kunagi teoks.


Ajalooline Detroit

Ühendatud kunstnike teater oli üks paljudest Detroitis, mis aitas määratleda terminit "filmipalee". "See vaimustas sadu tuhandeid Detroitere oma filmide ja interjööriga, lummas kuulajaid Detroiti sümfooniaorkestri salvestusstuudioks - ja arendas omapärase harjumuse purustades Oldsmobiles'i.

Selleks ajaks, kui legendaarne teatriarhitekt C. Howard Crane istus oma joonistuslauale UA -d visandama, oli USA juba kinofilmidest vaimustuses. 1920. aastatel oli Grand Circus Parki ümbrus täis pimestavaid kohti etenduste vaatamiseks, iga teater üritas oma rivaale rikkuses ja elegantsis edestada. UA võistles peamiselt lähinaabrite, Michigani ja Crane'i disainitud Foxi, osariigi ja Capitoli teatritega. Kuid läheduses oli palju teisi, näiteks idamaised ja Adamid. Nende niinimetatud filmipaleede keerukad kujundused ja uhked interjöörid võimaldasid ühistel, töötavatel Detroitersil nautida rikaste hiilgust. Teatrid said sama palju viiki kui filmid ise ja olid osa etendusest. Ja Detroiti United Artists polnud erand.

Töö teatris

Crane kujundas teatri ja sellega külgneva büroohoone Hispaania gooti ja art deco stiilis 1927. aastal, kuigi büroohoone avati 28. jaanuaril 1928 ja teater järgnes paar päeva hiljem.

18-korruseline 200 000 ruutjalga kontoritorn ehitati juhuks, kui teater muutus kahjumlikuks ning seal asusid algselt karusnahad, rätsepad, ilusalongid ja isegi reisibürood. Rahvaste riigipank hõivas Bagley ja Clifford Streeti nurga. Hoone hinnasilt oli umbes 5 miljonit dollarit (täna umbes 63 miljonit dollarit, kui seda arvestada inflatsiooniga) ja see oli kolmas osa Bagley avenüüle kavandatud ja Stormfeltz-Loveley kinnisvarafirma sponsoreeritud ambitsioonikas ehitusprogrammis. Teised kaks võtmetükki olid Michigani teater ja 22-korruseline hotell Detroit-Leland.

Enne kui Michigani teater 1926. aastal tõusis, oli Bagley idaosa kvootide ulatuses lagedaks jäänud, läbisõiduks mittekuuluvate hoonetega, mis hõlmasid enamiku selle pikkusest, "kirjutas Detroiti vabaajakiri jaanuaris 1928." Äri kasv Bagley avenüü selles osas, kus ettevõtluse maagia-mis on tundnud selle kaugeleulatuva grupi, nende avaliku meelega kodanike-juhtivat kätt, on üks Detroiti kaubanduslikke imesid. … Keskmine põliselanik Detroiter usub, et on täiesti loomulik, et ebatavalised asjad on Detroitis tavalised, kuid see suur investeering sellisesse arenemata linnaossa pani teda imestama. "

The United Artists Building & quotis pakub suurepärast hoonet ja nägusat hoonet ning läbimõeldud planeeringuga, kaunilt teostatud, hästi korraldatud hoonet, mis oli loodud vastama loovtöötajate nõudmistele ja tavalistele ärinõuetele. … Hoone on varustatud kõigi kaasaegsete mugavustega… ja ilmselt on kõik mõeldav tehtud üürniku mugavuse ja heaolu nimel ning tema äri hõlbustamiseks. "UAst saaks" paljude ja erinevate ettevõtete, sealhulgas suurepärase teatri suurepärane kodu . & quot

Kolm ainulaadset

See teater oli hoone peamine vaatamisväärsus. UA oli Detroiti filmipaleede laps, kuna see oli hiiglastest väikseim. UA ehitati eranditult filmidele - tol ajal harulduseks - ja näidati peamiselt United Artists filme. Filmistuudio asutasid 1919. aastal näitlejad Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks ja režissöör D.W. Griffith - näituseäri neli suurimat nime ülaosas. Detroiti UA oli üks kolmest, mille Howard kujundas Hispaania gooti stiilis United Artists Theatre Circuiti jaoks ning järgis Chicago ja Los Angelese teatreid. Detroiti teatrit peeti Los Angelese asukoha õeks. Crane'il, kes oli siiani teinud peamiselt klassikalisi teatrikujundusi, paluti minna eksootilise gooti stiiliga, sest Los Angeles Theatersi veebisaidi andmetel armastas Pickford Euroopa losside väljanägemist. Väidetavalt on Pickford ja Fairbanks selle disaini isiklikult heaks kiitnud.

Hoone idapoolse külje külge klammerdus kaheksakorruseline lõuatõmbav teraga telk, mis kirjutas mitme jalaga mitmevärvilistes pirnides nime "Ühendatud kunstnikud". Telk oli 7,5 jalga lai ja selle põhjas oli päikesekiirgusega kujundus.

2070-kohaline Detroiti teater avati 3. veebruaril 1928, näidates "Sadie Thompsoni". Näitusel pöördus filmi staar Gloria Swanson publikuga telefoni teel, tõmmates kaugjuhtimispuldist ja avades teatri kardina. #39s 18-jala-22-jala ekraan esimest korda. Templistiilis teatri hinnasilt oli umbes 1,2 miljonit dollarit (umbes 15 miljonit dollarit).

UA -l oli uhke ümmargune fuajee koos peeglite ja tohutute India piigadega seintel, mis vaatasid publikule halvasti. United Artists'i auditoorium oli nagu kinokatedraal ja väidetavalt akustiliselt täiuslik ning seda kaunistas gooti krohv ja huvitavad messingist valgustid. Selle UA teatri jaoks oli Crane'il värvilised tuled, mis filtreerusid auditooriumi kuplikujulise lae perforatsioonidest allapoole, võimaldades keerulisi detaile ilusas valguses supelda. Teatris olid "koonilised koonilised ventilaatorivõlvid, keerukas kullatud kuppel ja suurepärased projitseeritavad varikatused prostseeniumi ja orelivõrede kohal," kirjutas ajaloolane Andrew Craig Morrison saates "Opera House, Nickel Show ja Palace".

Patroonid maksid matiinide eest 35 senti ja õhtuste etenduste eest 65 senti. Suitsetajatele pakuti lisatasu, et istuda loge'i tasemel, mis oli kaetud siidist eesriiete ja seinavaibade ning kaunite krohvide ja valgustitega.

Isegi kui United Artists oli loodud ainult filmide jaoks, oli sellel "kinofilmi pühakojal" ka Hugo Riesenfieldi juhitud orkester, mis andis esimestel aastatel tummfilmidele heliribasid. Teater ehitati ka kolme käsiraamatuga 15-auastmelise Wurlitzeri oreliga.

Paljudel kordadel olid United Artistsil reserveeritud istekohad, näiteks kui 1940. aastal toimus Detroiti esietendus "Tuulest kadunud" (esietendus Wilsoni teatris, nüüd Music Hallis). Ühendatud kunstnike ja teiste kassahittide esietenduste hulgas: "Põrgu inglid", "Kleopatra", "Lumivalgeke", "Ozi võlur", "Pinocchio", "Mõrva anatoomia", "Vaikse ookeani lõunaosa" & quot; & quot; Maailma ümber kui nimetada mõnda. See, et see oli väiksem, võimaldas intiimsemat elamust kui suuremates teatrites. Tegelikult oli see sel põhjusel mõnikord tuntud kui Detroiti esmakordsete teatrite "Jewelbox". Lisaks esilinastustele oli United Artists esimene teater Detroitis, mis paigaldas 1953. aastal CinemaScope'i ja 1956. aastal 70-millimeetrise.

1950. aastal moderniseeriti teatrit 200 000 dollari suuruse (täna 1,8 miljoni dollari) ümberehitustööga, pannes fuajeesse ripplae ja suure kontsessioonialuse ning auditooriumisse uued projektorid, ekraani ja helisüsteemi. Hoone välisküljel olid mõned selle kaunistatud detailid kaetud tumeda marmoriga ja suur 10-korruseline telk asendati kaasaegse telgiga, mis oli alles kuni 2005. aastani. 1956. aastal sai UA-st esimene teater aastal osariik, et näidata filme 70 mm formaadis koos filmiga "Oklahoma!" "UA oli jätkuvalt linna silmapaistvaim reserveeritud istekohaga filmimaja ླྀndatel.

31. juulil 1957 müüs Bagley Building Corp. United Artists Building'i 3,2 miljoni dollari eest (täna umbes 24 miljoni dollari eest) Michigani autoklubi Detroiti autode vahelisele kindlustusteenuste börsile. Börs ostis hoone, et pakkuda vahetusele ja autoklubile püsivat kontoripinda. Need kaks rühma hõivasid umbes 65% hoone kontoripindadest. Panga asukoht Cliffordi nurgal oli sel ajal hõivatud Detroiti keskpangaga.

Porno, soodusjaht ja langevad tellised

Aastaks 1969, kui linn võttis elanikelt ja ettevõtetelt pärast 1967. aasta rassirahutusi verd, oli United Artists ' äri dramaatiliselt langenud. Roadhow lavastus “Hüvasti, härra kiibid” avati 9. novembril 1969 pikaks puhkuseks, kuid suleti varakult halva osavõtu tõttu. Ilma raha ja esmakordsete esifilmideta oli kirjutamine seinal. Pärast „hr. Chips ”katastroof, UA suleti lühidalt nädalaks jaanuaris 1970, enne kui samal kuul uuesti pornofilmidega avati. Selle kuu luksusliku UA aurusaadete hulgas: “Kurikuulsad liignaised” ja “Romeo ja Julia salajane seksielu”. X-reitinguga katse katkestati veebruaris 1970, kui UA pöördus tagasi korralikuma piletihinna juurde, nagu "The Only Game in Town", mille peaosades on Elizabeth Taylor ja Warren Beatty ning "It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World" ”Koos Spencer Tracyga.

Kuid teater oli endiselt hädas ja 1971. aasta märtsis naasis UA alastietenduste juurde eksklusiivse sarjaga “Tuck Me In” ja “Infrasexum”. Lisaks pornole töötas UA ka grindhouse'ina, näidates gore ja õudusfilme. Kuid see projekt ei kesta kaua ja teater suleti 14. septembril 1971, selle luigelauluks oli blaxploitation film "Sweet Sweetback 's Badass Song". Isegi erootilised filmid eksootilises teatris ei suutnud UA -d päästa.

"Täiskasvanute filmid teenisid toona tavaliselt 2000–3000 dollarit nädalas, kuid sellest ei piisanud, et tõeliselt kasumit teenida," ütles teatriajaloolane Michael Hauser HistoricDetroit.org -le: . Lisaks oli Detroit selleks ajaks täiskasvanute pileteid mängivatest teatritest üle küllastunud. Kesklinnas mängisid teil lisaks UA -le ka Gem, National, Roxy, Summit (endine Cass), Bijou ja Globe.

UA andis sellele uue võimaluse detsembris 1971, avades uuesti 22. detsembril 1971 kahekordse funktsiooni "She Freaks" ja "Dr. Jeckyl ja õde Hyde. ” See pommitas ja uksed suleti lõplikult umbes nädal hiljem.

Aastal 1974 kolis Ameerika autoklubi Michi Dearborni, jättes kontoritorni ja teatri vabaks ning aidates oluliselt kiirendada Grand Circuse äripiirkonna hävimist. Kuna pole kedagi, kes hoonet valvab, hakkaks see lagunema. Sel hetkel kasutati rikkalikku kompleksi enamasti ülistatud laona. 15. veebruaril 1975 müüs Automobile Club, kellele kuulus endiselt United Artists Building, oksjonil Detroiti kesklinnas asuvate DuMochelle kunstigaleriide kaudu kogu teatri sisustuse, inventari ja kunstiteose. Teatri fuajeede, koridoride, salongide ja treppide sisustus müüdi tükkhaaval maha. Kapid, marmorist kattega lauad ja jumalate, nümfide ja satüüride kujud ning käsitsi nikerdatud toolid ja pingid läksid gaasi alla hinnanguliselt 400 pakkujaga. Toolid ja diivanid maksid 125 dollarit ja mõned kunstiteosed tõid igaüks 1000–2000 dollarit. "Kui viimane tool oksjonil maha müüdi, sõitis suur osa rahvahulgast Bagley vanasse teatrisse, kus müüdi tosinat lühtrit, sealhulgas kaunist 15 meetri kõrgune paar teatri põhiosa kohal," vahendas Detroit News. järgmisel päeval.

UA Wurlitzer ei osalenud DuMochelle'i oksjonil ja müüdi kinnise pakkumisega Detroiti Henry Huntile, kes juhtis tol ajal Royal Oakis kohalikku Rodgersi kiriku orelimüüjat. Hunt ostis UA oreli oma restoranile Pied Piper Pizza Peddler and Pipes, mis avati paar aastat hiljem Warreni Universal Mallis. Restoran suleti umbes 1983. aastal ja orel lõpetati Indias Lafayette'i lavakunstikeskuse pikas keskuses, kus see on tänaseni.

Redfordi teater, armas ja intiimne atmosfääristiilis naabruses asuv teater, mis näitab endiselt vanu filme, ostis UA Genarco süsinikukaare järgneva tähelepanu keskpunkti. Oksjonist sõltumatult ostetud prožektor on endiselt Redfordi putkas ja töötab nagu võlu.

Teatriajaloolane ja orelinäitleja John Lauter viibis jaanuaris 1975 UA -s ja kirjeldas HistoricDetroit.org -le, mida nägi: „Teatri avalike ruumide seinad olid kõik valgeks värvitud, peaaegu lubjatöö. Proseniumi kaar oli laia ekraaniga esitluste mahutamiseks lahti näritud. Uue laia kumera ekraani raamimiseks oli paigaldatud terasest raam kuldsete klaaskiust kardinate riputamiseks, andes auditooriumi esiküljele kaasaegsema kino välimuse. Tuhmvalge pesuvärv pidi vist dekoratiivse detaili varjama. When I was there, everything was still in place from opening night all of the light fixtures, lobby furniture, projection equipment, the organ, minus two brass ranks, was there and fantastically intact.”

Starting in 1979, the Detroit Symphony Orchestra used the acoustically perfect United Artists as a recording studio until 1983, when they said they couldn't take the lack of heat, rain falling through the ceiling or lack of electricity in the building. The series of recordings for London Records, led by DSO conductor laureate Antal Dorati, included the music of Aaron Copeland, Bartok, Strauss, Tchaikovsky, Gershwin and Stravinsky.

In February 1983, the United Artists joined the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Grand Circus Park Historic District. But as time has shown in Detroit, such a designation does not always bring protection. On Nov. 2, 1987, a shower of hundreds of bricks fell from the 13th floor of the UA's tower onto Clifford between Bagley and Middle Street, crushing Detroiter Barbara Simons' 1984 Oldsmobile Cutlass Ciera. "At first the police were telling me they couldn't make an accident report because this was an act of God," she told the Detroit News at the time. While no one was injured, it was at least the second time a car had been destroyed by bricks falling off the UA Kevin Moloney of Detroit said his 1972 Cutlass Supreme was hit in the same spot in August 1984. Apparently, the United Artists Building had a thing against Oldsmobiles. The UA's owner at the time, Whitney Management Co. of Montreal, said it would shore up the wayward bricks and continued to try to sell the crumbling landmark.

A brush with death

The UA hit the auction block in New York on Sept. 22, 1989, fetching a mere $460,000 it was expected to go for up to $1 million. The winning bidder was New York investor David Grossman bought the United Artists complex with the intent of restoring it and developing the office tower into lofts. He began restoring the lobby and turned the old National Bank of Detroit branch office into a club called the Vault. His plans were never fully realized.

On Oct. 27, 1995, Mayor Dennis Archer and Detroit Tigers owner Mike Ilitch announced that they would jointly build a new baseball stadium on 25 acres on the west side of Grand Circus Park. It was to straddle Cass Avenue and knock out a significant number of buildings over the 13-block area, including the United Artists. In its place was to be the main entrance to the stadium. The ballpark was ultimately built on the east side of Woodward instead, taking out the old YMCA, Detroit College of Law, Hotel Wolverine and YWCA instead.

Businessman and cable television tycoon Don Barden secured a development option on the UA in the mid-1990s, and when that option expired Dec. 31, 1996, he bought the building for an undisclosed amount the following month. He was speculating on using either the building -- or the site -- for one of the city's three casinos that had been approved by voters. At the time he bought the UA on Jan. 13, 1997, some in the casino industry said the property was too small and couldn't be developed into a Las Vegas-style gaming hall.

Barden was soon approached by city officials who said they wanted the property for the baseball stadium project. Barden gave them an option to buy the property, and the city flipped that option to Ilitch's Olympia Development in mid-March. "I was left with the impression that it could not be used for a casino site, so that inspired me to assign my interest to the city," Barden told the Free Press at the time, adding that he wanted to be cooperative. The amount of money Barden got for the UA was not made public. He later lost out on his bid to land one of the casino licenses.

A spokeswoman for Olympia Development told the Free Press in late March that the Ilitches planned to tear down either the theater, the building or both, and use the site for parking. Ilitch has bought many historic structures surrounding his Comerica Park and theater district and done just that.

Changing hands, unchanging condition

Today, the theater still stands, and Ilitch's companies have not made public any plans to redevelop the property. Perhaps because he planned to have the building meet the wrecking ball, the UA was left to sit and rot, demolished by neglect and at times left wide open to trespass. The interior has been stripped of most of its decor and has been exposed to the elements. The Detroit City Council ordered the building to be demolished in 2001, but an Ilitch lawyer asked for a reprieve and said it would be refurbished. In May 2003, the building went back on the city's hit list.

"Our history in the City of Detroit is one of restoration," an Olympia spokesman told the Free Press in 2004. "However, it is not possible to save every building in the city because it's not economically feasible for every structure."

The buildings leveled by the Ilitch family include the historic Madison-Lenox Hotel, the Adams Theatre and Fine Arts Building, the Chin Tiki, the Hotel Vermont, the Ancient Egyptian Arabic Order of Noble Mythic Shrine and others. Ilitch has a fortune of about $1.5 billion and is in the top 250 wealthiest people in the country, according to Forbes magazine. His family owns or controls more than 160 properties in downtown Detroit.

Starting in the late 1990s, the building's windows became a blank canvas for the region's graffiti artists. Like the Lafayette Building before it fell to the wrecker's ball in late 2009, hundreds of the UA's windows were filled with artwork, including many inspired by Mayan hieroglyphics in gold, reds and blues. Riders on the Detroit People Mover got a close-up look at the art as the trains slowly wound around western Grand Circus Park. The Free Press even backed the illegal art project in an editorial in August 2004, writing the tags "show how enlivening art can spring from a blighted canvas" and that "even those who don't like urban art would be hard pressed to argue that it makes the façade of a rotting building any worse." The artwork graced the front cover of the National Trust for Historic Preservation's September-October 2005 issue of Preservation magazine. Free Press columnist Bill McGraw noted that December that "the United Artists tableau has caught the attention of artists and urban experts across the country because of its massive scale, originality and skilled execution." Still, critics and many metro Detroiters deemed it nothing but vandalism.

In February 2005, the bottom of the 1950s theater marquee collapsed onto the sidewalk below. The city of Detroit placed multiple tickets and barricades. After a few months, the site was cleaned of the debris showing hidden detailing of the former exterior. In December 2005, with the Super Bowl fast approaching, the Ilitches cleaned up the building, possibly to avoid negative media attention. The UA's rusty marquee was dismantled and the graffiti was removed from every window. The Free Press decried the scrub-down in an editorial that December as "a misguided attempt to clean up for the Super Bowl, as if the urban art is more offensive than the empty building" and added: "Out-of-towners would have found it fascinating, the kind of cool government planners can't possibly manufacture."

Kevin Joy was one of the main artists ("I am not a vandal," he says) behind the Mayan art in the windows. "The idea came to me in a dream," Joy told the Free Press in August 2006. "I saw a building covered in Mayan hieroglyphics." As for the removal of his masterpieces, Joy said: "What's more preposterous: a giant Mayan temple in Detroit or spending money to have it all removed and let it continue to sit empty?"

Since 2005, the UA also has received new doors and a new roof, and a yellow garbage chute for debris dangles from the top floor. Video surveillance cameras have been mounted near the building's entrances, and a fence was erected around its perimeter in late 2006. The building is significantly cleaner and more secure, but is still vacant. However, such work has led to hope that the building could be saved.

The property had banners hung in January 2006, advertising a "premier development opportunity." The property has been jointly marketed since with the sites of the Hotel Tuller and Statler Hotel by Olympia Development and the Downtown Development Authority.

On May 26, 2017, the Ilitch family announced that the UA's tower into 148 new residential units and first-floor retail as part of its District Detroit development around the new hockey arena.


Sisu

The early years [ edit | allika muutmine]

The first United Artists logo, used until the 1967 sale to Transamerica

UA was incorporated as a joint venture on Februaryم, 1919, by four of the leading figures in early Hollywood: Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, and D. W. Griffith. Each held a 20% stake, with the remaining 20% held by lawyer William Gibbs McAdoo. Ώ] The idea for the venture originated with Fairbanks, Chaplin, Pickford, and cowboy star William S. Hart a year earlier as they were traveling around the U.S. selling Liberty bonds to help the World War I effort. Already veterans of Hollywood, the four film stars began to talk of forming their own company to better control their own work as well as their futures.

They were spurred on by established Hollywood producers and distributors who were tightening their control over actor salaries and creative decisions, a process that evolved into the rigid studio system. With the addition of Griffith, planning began, but Hart bowed out before things had formalized. When he heard about their scheme, Richard A. Rowland, head of Metro Pictures, is said to have observed, "The inmates are taking over the asylum." The four partners, with advice from McAdoo (son-in-law and former Treasury Secretary of then-President Woodrow Wilson), formed their distribution company, with Hiram Abrams as its first managing director.

List of UA stockholders in 1920

The original terms called for Pickford, Fairbanks, Griffith and Chaplin to independently produce five pictures each year. But by the time the company got under way in 1920–1921, feature films were becoming more expensive and more polished, and running times had settled at around ninety minutes (or eight reels). It was believed that no one, no matter how popular, could produce and star in five quality feature films a year. By 1924, by which time Griffith had dropped out, the company was facing a crisis: either bring in others to help support a costly distribution system or concede defeat. The veteran producer Joseph Schenck was hired as president. Not only had he been producing pictures for a decade, but he brought along commitments for films starring his wife, Norma Talmadge, his sister-in-law, Constance Talmadge, and his brother-in-law, Buster Keaton. Contracts were signed with a number of independent producers, most notably Samuel Goldwyn, Alexander Korda and Howard Hughes. Schenck also formed a separate partnership with Pickford and Chaplin to buy and build theaters under the United Artists name. They also began international operations, first in Canada, then in Mexico, and by the end of the 1930s, United Artists was represented in over 40 countries.

D.W. Griffith, Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin (seated) and Douglas Fairbanks at the signing of the contract establishing United Artists motion picture studio in 1919. Lawyers Albert Banzhaf (left) and Dennis F. O'Brien (right) stand in the background.

Still, even with a broadening of the company, UA struggled. The coming of sound ended the careers of Pickford and Fairbanks. Chaplin, rich enough to do what he pleased, worked only occasionally. Schenck resigned in 1933 to organize a new company with Darryl F. Zanuck, Twentieth Century Pictures, which soon provided four pictures a year to UA's schedule. He was replaced as president by sales manager Al Lichtman who himself resigned after only a few months. Pickford produced a few films, and at various times Goldwyn, Korda, Walt Disney, Walter Wanger, and David O. Selznick were made "producing partners" (i.e., sharing in the profits), but ownership still rested with the founders. As the years passed and the dynamics of the business changed, these "producing partners" drifted away, Goldwyn and Disney to RKO, Wanger to Universal Pictures, Selznick to retirement. By the late 1940s, United Artists had virtually ceased to exist as either a producer or distributor. It sold off its Mexican releasing division to Crédito Cinematográfico Mexicano, a local company.

Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers (1940s and 1950s) [ edit | allika muutmine]

The Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers was founded in 1941 by Mary Pickford, Charlie Chaplin, Walt Disney, Orson Welles, Samuel Goldwyn, David O. Selznick, Alexander Korda, and Walter Wanger – many of the same people who were members of United Artists. Later members included Hunt Stromberg, William Cagney, Sol Lesser, and Hal Roach.

The Society aimed to advance the interests of independent producers in an industry overwhelmingly controlled by the studio system. SIMPP also fought to end ostensibly anti-competitive practices by the seven major film studios – Loew's, Columbia Pictures, Paramount Pictures, Universal Pictures, RKO Radio Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Bros./First National – that controlled the production, distribution, and exhibition of films.

In 1942, the SIMPP filed an antitrust suit against Paramount's United Detroit Theatres. The complaint accused Paramount of conspiracy to control first-run and subsequent-run theaters in Detroit. It was the first antitrust suit brought by producers against exhibitors alleging monopoly and restraint of trade.

In 1948, the U.S. Supreme Court Paramount Decision ordered the major Hollywood movie studios – Loew's/MGM, Paramount, Warner Bros./First National, 20th Century Fox and RKO – to sell their theater chains and to eliminate certain anti-competitive practices. This effectively brought an end to the studio system.

By 1958, many of the objectives that led to the creation of the SIMPP had been obtained and SIMPP closed its offices.

The 1950s and 1960s [ edit | allika muutmine]

Script error: No such module "Unsubst". On February 16, 1951, two lawyers-turned-producers Arthur Krim (of Eagle-Lion Films) and Robert Benjamin approached Pickford and Chaplin with a wild idea: let them take over United Artists for five years. If, at the end of those five years, UA was profitable, they would be given an option to buy the company. Since UA was barely alive, Pickford saw nothing to lose and agreed. Chaplin was against the deal, but changed his mind in late 1952 when the US government revoked his re-entry visa while he was in London for the UK premiere of Limelight. He sold his remaining shares of UA several years later.

In taking over UA, Krim and Benjamin created the first studio without an actual "studio". Primarily acting as bankers, they offered money to independent producers. UA leased space at the Pickford/Fairbanks Studio, but did not own a studio lot as such. Thus UA did not have the overhead, the maintenance, or the expensive production staff that ran up costs at other studios.

Among their first clients were Sam Spiegel and John Huston, whose "Horizon Productions" gave UA one major hit, The African Queen (1951) and one slightly less successful one, Moulin Rouge (1952), based on the life of Toulouse-Lautrec. Others followed, among them Stanley Kramer, Otto Preminger, Hill-Hecht-Lancaster Productions, and a number of actors, newly freed from studio contracts and anxious to produce or direct their own films.

UA production-head Arnold Picker selected the properties the company would back. With UA's new success, Pickford saw a chance to exit gracefully, though she still held out for top dollar, walking away with $1.5 million in 1955. That same year, UA won its first Best Picture Oscar, for the film Marty. It starred Ernest Borgnine, who won a Best Actor Oscar for his performance.

UA went public the following year, and as the other mainstream studios fell into decline, UA prospered, adding relationships with the Mirisch brothers, Billy Wilder, Joseph E. Levine and others. In 1961, United Artists released West Side Story, an adaptation of the Leonard Bernstein-Stephen Sondheim stage musical, which won a record ten Academy Awards (including Best Picture).

In 1958, United Artists Records was created, initially to release soundtracks from UA films, but it later diversified into many types of music. In 1968, UA Records was merged with Liberty Records, along with their many subsidiary labels such as Imperial Records and Dolton Records. In 1972, the group was consolidated into one entity as United Artists Records. It was later taken over by EMI.

Also in 1958, UA acquired Ilya Lopert's Lopert Pictures Corporation a company that released foreign films in the United States to release foreign films that may have attracted criticism or cause censorship problems. ΐ] In 1964 UA released the controversial Billy Wilder American-made film Kiss Me, Stupid under the Lopert name. Lopert later became vice-president of United Artists in Paris.

In 1959, United Artists offered its first ever television series, The Troubleshooters (after failing to sell several pilots in the previous few years), an adventure/drama on NBC, starring Keenan Wynn and Bob Mathias, as employees of an international construction company. Α] In 1960, United Artists purchased Ziv Television Programs and, using the idea of financial backing for television, UA's television division was responsible for shows such as CBS's Gilligan's Island and three ABC programs, The Fugitive with David Janssen, Outer Limits, a science fiction series, and The Patty Duke Show with Patty Duke and William Schallert. The television unit also had begun to build up a substantial – and profitable – rental library, having purchased Associated Artists Productions, owners of Warner Bros. pre-1950 Β] Γ] features, shorts and cartoons, as well as the Popeye cartoons, purchased from Paramount Pictures a few years earlier. (See note below at Film archives for more on this).

In 1963 United Artists released two Stanley Kramer films, the epic comedy It's A Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World and the drama A Child is Waiting. In 1964, UA introduced U.S. film audiences to The Beatles by releasing producer Walter Shenson's A Hard Day's Night (1964) and Help! (1965). (The group had already made wildly successful television appearances on The Ed Sullivan Show).

At the same time it backed two expatriate North Americans in Britain, who had acquired screen rights to Ian Fleming's James Bond novels. For $1 million, UA backed Harry Saltzman and Albert Broccoli's Dr. No (which was a sensation in 1962) and launched the James Bond series. The franchise has outlived UA's time as a major studio, still running half a century later. Other successful projects backed in this period included Blake Edwards's Pink Panther series, which began in 1964, and Sergio Leone's Spaghetti Westerns, which made a star of Clint Eastwood.

In 1964, the French subsidiary Les Productions Artistes Associés released its first production, That Man From Rio. On the basis of its fantastic string of film and television hits in the 1960s, the company was an attractive property, and in 1967 Krim and Benjamin sold control of UA to the San Francisco-based insurance giant, the Transamerica Corporation.

UA released another Best Picture Oscar winner in 1967, In the Heat of the Night, starring Sidney Poitier and Rod Steiger, and a nominee for Best Picture, The Graduate, an Embassy production that UA distributed overseas.

The 1970s [ edit | allika muutmine]

Script error: No such module "Unsubst".

United Artists opening and closing logo, 1971–1981. From 1981 to 1982, it was just United Artists on a black screen with no Transamerica indicator.

For a time the flow of successful pictures continued, including the 1971 screen version of Fiddler on the Roof. (However, the 1972 film version of Man of La Mancha was a failure.) New talent was encouraged, including Woody Allen, Robert Altman, Sylvester Stallone, Saul Zaentz, Miloš Forman, and Brian De Palma. In 1973, UA took over the sales and distribution of MGM's films in Anglo-America, while Cinema International Corporation took over international distribution rights.

In 1975, Harry Saltzman sold UA his 50% stake in Danjaq, the holding-company for the Bond films. UA was to remain a silent partner, putting up money, while Albert Broccoli took producer credit. Danjaq and UA have remained the public co-copyright holders for the Bond series ever since, and the 2006 Casino Royale release shares the copyright with Columbia Pictures, part of the consortium that now owns MGM/UA.

However, Transamerica was not pleased with UA's frequent releases of films rated X by the Motion Picture Association of America, such as Midnight Cowboy ja Last Tango in Paris in these instances, Transamerica demanded the byline "A Transamerica Company" be removed from the UA logo on the prints and in all advertising. At one point, the parent company expressed their desire to phase out the UA name and replace it with Transamerica Films. Finally in 1978, following a dispute over administrative expenses, UA's top executives, including Arthur B. Krim, chairman, Eric Pleskow, president and chief executive officer, Robert S. Benjamin, chairman of the finance committee, walked out. Within days they announced the formation of Orion Pictures, with backing from Warner (Orion would eventually be a part of MGM along with United Artists, while Warner retained the rights to the pre-1982 Orion library along with acquiring the rights to a few post-1982 Orion films.) The departures of Krim, Pleskow and Benjamin concerned several Hollywood figures enough that they took out an ad in a trade paper warning Transamerica that it had made a fatal mistake in letting them go.

The Heaven's Gate fiasco [ edit | allika muutmine]

The new leadership of UA agreed to back Heaven's Gate, the pet project of director Michael Cimino, who had won Academy Awards for Best Picture and Best Director for his 1978 film The Deer Hunter. A western starring Kris Kristofferson and Christopher Walken, Heaven's Gate had an unusually protracted shooting schedule (Cimino reportedly wanted 50 takes for a single scene, for instance) which generated adverse publicity about runaway costs and Cimino's autocratic style. The almost four-hour film opened to scathing reviews and alienated audiences. Cimino pulled it in favor of a 149-minute version, but the damage was done. It turned out to be a colossal box office bomb, netting only $3 million in earnings compared to a budget of $44 million. United Artists recorded a major loss for the year due almost entirely to the Heaven's Gate fiasco. To Transamerica, it was only a blip on a multi-billion dollar balance sheet, but it soured the relationship forever. To the greater Hollywood community, it also signaled that UA was a company that could no longer produce bankable pictures. The Heaven's Gate fiasco may have saved the United Artists brand as UA's final head before the sale, Steven Bach, wrote in his book Final Cut that there was talk about renaming United Artists to Transamerica Pictures. Despite the financial ruin, UA's blockbuster franchise films (The Pink Panther, James Bond, and eventually Rocky) were emphasized more heavily than the financially unsuccessful films.

United Artists Classics [ edit | allika muutmine]

In 1981, United Artists Classics, which had formerly been a division of the company that re-released library titles, was turned into a first run art film distributor by Nathaniel T. Kwit Jr. Tom Bernard was hired as the division's head of sales, and Ira Deutchman Δ] Ε] Ζ] as its head of marketing. Later the division added Michael Barker and Donna Gigliotti. Deutchman left to form Cinecom, and Barker and Bernard later went on to form Orion Classics and Sony Pictures Classics. The label mostly released foreign and independent films such as Ticket to Heaven ja The Grey Fox, and occasional first-run reissues from the UA library, such as director's cuts of Joan Micklin Silver's Head Over Heels and Ivan Passer's Cutter's Way. When Barker, and Bernard left to form Orion, the label was briefly rechristened MGM/UA Classics before it was finally shut down in the late 1980s.

United Artists opening logo, 1982–1987. This logo also would replace the Transamerica "T" from most pre-1981 prints.

The 1980s and 1990s: MGM/UA [ edit | allika muutmine]

Around 1980, Transamerica was retiring from the filmmaking business, and United Artists was put up for sale. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, led by Kirk Kerkorian (the company that United Artists had a 10-year distribution deal since 1974), made a bid for UA by estimating that MGM would pay UA $350 million in distribution fees if the expiring distribution deal was renewed and used the estimated amount to offer the $350 million Η] to Transamerica to buy United Artists. Transamerica said yes and MGM absorbed UA. The studio, which was essentially bankrupt following the disaster of Heaven's Gate, cut its production schedule sharply. MGM and UA were merged into MGM/UA Entertainment Co. from 1981 to 1986. Because MGM was not able to drop out from CIC (which distributed MGM's films outside Anglo-America), which they had previously joined in 1973, UA's international operations were merged with CIC the venture eventually changed their name to United International Pictures. MGM/UA would drop out from the venture in 2000, to have their films released internationally by 20th Century Fox.

UA was essentially dormant after 1990, releasing no films for several years. In part this was due to the continuing turmoil at MGM/UA bought by Ted Turner in 1986, he could not get financial backing to complete the deal and, seventy-four days later, re-sold UA and the MGM trademark to Kerkorian, and sold the MGM studio lot to Lorimar (now the location of Sony Pictures Studios), while keeping almost all of the MGM/UA library for himself (with the exception of the United Artists library). (See below for a note on the film library.)

As a result of the MGM split from Turner, United Artists and what was left of MGM/UA (at the time called MGM/UA Entertainment Co.) was subsequently reorganized, and became MGM Entertainment Co. after Kerkorian bought back the MGM trademark. As a result, both MGM and UA became merely brands of MGM/UA Communications Co. in late 1986. In 1988, a planned $400-million split between MGM and UA was announced by Kerkorian. He hoped to end up with at least 57% of the new MGM and retain its share of UA (at the time called United Artists Pictures, Inc.). 25% of MGM would go to a company controlled by Burt Sugarman called Giant Group Ltd. and producers Jon Peters and Peter Guber, and 18% would be offered for sale to public holders of MGM/UA stock, but the plan fell through. Around this time, Viacom, Gannett, Disney, Republic Pictures, General Electric, CBS, Time Inc., Hearst, News Corporation, TCI, Globo of Brazil, Aaron Spelling's Spelling Entertainment and Sony all tried to purchase MGM/UA. Nevertheless, the studio was able to manage box-office hits such as Rain Man (winner of the 1988 Oscar for Best Picture), Baby Boomja The Living Daylights. However, during this period, the company's fortunes languished greatly, losing money while its market share declined to 8% by the end of the 1980s. The sale of MGM/UA to an Australian company Qintex/Australian Television Network (owners of the Hal Roach library both MGM and UA distributed in the 1930s) in 1989 also fell through, due to the company's bankruptcy later that year. Eventually, in 1990, came the sale to Italian promoter Giancarlo Parretti, who attempted to purchase Pathé the previous year. Parretti had bought a smaller company and renamed it Pathé Communications anticipating a successful buy of the original French company, but failed in that attempt, so instead merged MGM/UA with his former company, resulting into MGM-Pathé Communications Co. Having bought MGM/UA by overstating his own financial condition, within a year Parretti had defaulted to his primary bank, Crédit Lyonnais, which foreclosed on the studio in 1992, also resulting in the sale or closure of MGM/UA's string of US theaters. On Julyق, 1992, MGM-Pathé Communications Co. was renamed back to Metro-Goldwyn Mayer, Inc. In an effort to make MGM/UA saleable, Credit Lyonnais ramped up production, and convinced John Calley, the well-respected and long-retired president of WB from the '70's, to run UA. Under his supervision, Calley revived two long-running franchises, the Pink Panther ja James Bond films, and touched on an aspect of UA's past by giving the widest release ever to a film with an NC-17 rating, Paul Verhoeven and Joe Eszterhas's controversial Showgirls. MGM was sold by Credit Lyonnais in 1996, again to Kirk Kerkorian's Tracinda, resulting in the departure of Calley as UA president.

In 1999, filmmaker Francis Ford Coppola attempted to buy UA from Kerkorian. The deal was rejected, but Coppola signed a production deal with the studio instead. ⎖]

The 2000s [ edit | allika muutmine]

During the 2000s, UA was repositioned as a specialty studio. MGM had just acquired The Samuel Goldwyn Company, which had been a leading distributor of arthouse films, and after that name was retired, UA assumed SGC's purpose. The distributorship, branding, and copyrights for UA's main franchises (James Bond, Pink Pantherja Rocky) were moved to MGM, although select MGM releases (notably the James Bond franchise co-held with Danjaq, LLC and the Amityville Horror remake) carry a United Artists copyright.

UA (re-christened United Artists Films) hired Bingham Ray, who previously founded October Films, to run the company in September 2001, and under his supervision produced and distributed many "art-house" films, among them Michael Moore's Bowling for Columbine 2002's Nicholas Nickleby and the winner of that year's Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, No Man's Land and 2004's Undertow, directed by David Gordon Green, and Terry George's Hotel Rwanda, a co-production of UA and Lions Gate Entertainment.

On April 8, 2005, a partnership of Comcast, Sony and several merchant banks bought United Artists and its parent, MGM, for a total of $4.8 billion. Though only a minority investor, Sony closed MGM's distribution system and folded most of their staff into their own studio, and the movies UA had completed and planned for release (Capote, Art School Confidential, The Woodsja Romance and Cigarettes) were reassigned to Sony Pictures Classics.

In March 2006, MGM announced that it would return once again as a distribution company domestically. Striking distribution deals with The Weinstein Company, Lakeshore Entertainment, Bauer Martinez Entertainment and other independent studios, MGM distributed films from these companies. MGM continues funding and co-producing projects that are released in conjunction with Sony's Columbia TriStar Motion Picture Group on a limited basis and is producing "tentpoles" for their own distribution company MGM Distribution.

Sony had a minority stake in MGM but otherwise MGM and UA operated under the direction of Stephen Cooper (CEO of MGM and a minority owner himself).

The Tom Cruise era [ edit | allika muutmine]

On November 2, 2006, MGM announced that actor Tom Cruise and his long-time production partner Paula Wagner were resurrecting UA ⎗] ⎘] (this announcement came after the duo were released from a fourteen-year production relationship at Viacom-owned Paramount Pictures earlier that year). Cruise, Wagner and MGM Studios created United Artists Entertainment LLC and the producer/actor and his partner owned a 30% stake in the studio, ⎙] with the approval by MGM's consortium of owners.

The deal gave them control over production and development of films. Wagner was named CEO of United Artists, which was allotted an annual slate of four films with different budget ranges, while Cruise served as a producer for the revamped studio as well as serving as the occasional star.

UA became the first motion picture studio granted a WGA waiver in January 2008 during the Writers' Strike. ⎚]

On August 14, 2008, MGM announced Paula Wagner will leave United Artists to produce films independently. ⎛] Her output as head of UA was two films, both starring Cruise, Lions for Lambs ⎜] and Valkyrie, the latter of which, despite mixed reviews, was successful at the box office thanks to $117 million in foreign revenue. ⎝] Wagner's departure led to speculation that an overhaul at United Artists was imminent. ⎛]

Since then, United Artists has merely served as a co-producer with MGM for two releases: the 2009 remake of Fame ja Hot Tub Time Machine. Throughout 2010, continued debt and credit issues for MGM Holdings, Inc., United Artists' parent company had left the future of MGM and UA in doubt until it was resolved near the end of the year.

A 2011 financial report revealed that MGM reacquired its 100% stake in United Artists. ⎙] MGM might continue to make new films under the UA brand. ⎙]


History of Expressionism

As a movement, the term expressionism usually denotes the late-19th century, early-20th century schools of emotive or interpretive art, which emerged in Germany as a reaction to the more passive style of Impressionism. The word expressionism was first used in 1850, mostly to describe the paintings where an artist’s strong emotions were clearly depicted. The popularity of Expressionism increased when Antonin Matějček in 1910 coined the term. With this word the Czech art historian intended to denote the opposite of Impressionism and indicate one of the main currents of art that expresses highly subjective, personal, spontaneous self-expression typical of a wide range of modern artists. Whereas the Impressionists sought to express the majesty of nature and the human form through paint, the Expressionists, according to Matějček, sought to express their feelings about what they saw.

Expressionism first emerged in 1905, when a group of four German students guided by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner founded the Die Brücke (the Bridge) group in the city of Dresden. A few years later, in 1911, a like-minded group of young artists formed Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) in Munich. Kandinsky and Franz Marc where its founders, whilst Paul Klee and August Macke were amongst its members. These two groups became the foundation of the German Expressionism movement. Since then, Expressionism became a widely recognized form of modern art.

Expressionism had its most direct impact in Germany and continued to shape the country's art for decades after the First World War. While certain artists rejected Expressionism, others continued to expand its innovative art and style. Other forms of the movement developed in France, Paris, and Austria. The Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) movement was influenced by the highly emotional tenets of Expressionism, while the Neo-Expressionists emerged in Germany and then in the United States reprising the earlier Expressionist style.


9th Logo (1982-1987) [ edit | allika muutmine]

Nicknames: "The Paperclip", "'80s Paperclip", "CGI Paperclip"

Logo: On a black background, we see a paperclip that reads "UA" in blue with "United Artists" below, in white.

FX/SFX: Incredibly breathtaking CGI.

Music/Sounds: A low sonic tone plays in the background, and as the logo turns around, a slow, somewhat somber five-note piano tune plays. When the "UA" is revealed and the words "United Artists" appear, they are accompanied by a short, swelling progression of violins immediately leading to an uplifting, dramatic 5-note orchestral conclusion. This theme was composed by Joe Harnell.

  • On some films, it has the opening theme.
  • On some films, it is silent.
  • The closing variant is usually silent or the closing theme.

Scare Factor: Low to medium. This logo's nature and the surprising orchestra at the end may get to some, but it's mainly harmless. Same goes for the rearranged music.


There was tension between some cast members

It was revealed in the Jan. 23, 1965 edition of TV Guide that there were some tensions on set between Tina Louise and the rest of the cast. The article read, &ldquoDenver will not say why he and the glamorous Tina [Louise] do not get along, nor will any of the castaways, they just ignore her, and she ignores them.&rdquo

Image by Gladysya Productions, United Artists Television, CBS Television Network

It continued, &ldquoBetween scenes, while the other six principals chat and tell jokes together, she sits off by herself. And recently when Denver was asked to pose for pictures with her, he adamantly refused. Part of Louise&rsquos dissatisfaction with the series was that she had expected to be the star of the show.&rdquo (Apparently, that&rsquos what her agent had pitched to her.)


Nothing But Vinyl Since 1949

United Record Pressing has seen a lot over the last 70 years. From pressing the first Beatles 7” to outgrowing three facilities, United hasn’t lost what has kept it alive and thriving: our passion for also keeping music alive on vinyl records.

Founded in 1949 in Nashville, TN, the company was known for pressing one million records per month and for its astounding and unique history. United also boasts a storied collection of pressing a variety of influential musical titles, including many of the Motown hits and album covers such as Bob Dylan's “Highway 61 Revisited,” Miles Davis' "Kind of Blue," and Jay-Z's " The Black Album."

Yes, it’s an exciting time for vinyl due to its recent revival, but we’re proud to say we haven’t gone anywhere. It is our steadfast belief in the vinyl format that has now made us the largest manufacturer of vinyl records in North America, and we are grateful to be a trusted partner to both major and independent labels and artists around the world.

First Record Pressing Plant in the South

453 Chestnut Street & The Motown Suite

Southern Plastics was doing well in the early '60s, turning out one million disks a month while also securing a contract with Motown Records to press all of the company's singles. They outgrew their old facility and decided to build a new plant just south of downtown of Nashville. In the design for the plant, the aim was to have space for production, administration and hospitality. There were few accommodations available to African Americans during this time in the South, and with top clients like Vee Jay Records and Motown, United created what we now call the "Motown Suite," an apartment located above the factory to host black artists and music executives. The set of rooms - previously known as the “United Hilton” - included a living room, a bedroom with two twin beds, a full bathroom, and a fully equipped kitchen complete with a push button stove.

The interior design of the suite still remains intact today and continues to be a space for album release parties, shoots and meetings.


Vaata videot: United Artists 1982 - 35mm - HD - 1080p (Jaanuar 2022).